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你真的能对手机上瘾吗?

Are You Really Addicted to Your Phone?

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[♪ INTRO ]
你每天都能发现更多的新闻报道声称
Every day you find more news stories claiming
千禧一代的做法显然大错特错
how millennials are apparently doing it all wrong.
他们在扼杀工业 他们自恋
They’re killing industries, they’re narcissistic,
他们沉迷于手机!
and they’re addicted to their phones!
大多数报道都言过其实
But most of these claims aren’t all they’re cracked up to be.
举例来说 你是否沉迷于手机?
Like, for one, is a phone even something you can be addicted to?
这并不是说你真的把它射进了血管里
It’s not like you’re literally shootingit into your veins.
你只是想看看……多看了几眼
You just like to check it… like a lot.
你只是想……等等 等等
You just kinda… wait, wait.
你在做什么? 把它拿开!
What are you doing? Put that away!
事实证明 心理学家认为你可能
Turns out that psychologists think you can be
对那些非化学物质上瘾
addicted to things that aren’t chemical substances.
这被称为行为上瘾
This is called a behavioral addiction,
而且它能对人脑做出相似的事情
and it can do similar things to your brain,
产生类似的习惯和行为类型
leading to similar types of habits and behaviors.
尽管如此 仍然存在一些
Still, there’s some disagreement over
对于手机或网络是否
whether your phone or the internet
成瘾的争论
can actually become one of those addictions.
一个白纸黑字的标签或许不能遏止它
A black-and-white label probably won’t cut it.
当大多数人谈到“上瘾”时
When most people talk about”addiction”,
首先想到的是身体上瘾
the first thing they think of is a physical addiction.
这通常是当我们确切知道一种化学物质如何
That’s usually the term for when we know exactly
与你的神经细胞相互作用时的术语 比如香烟中的尼古丁
how a chemical interacts with your neurons, like nicotine in cigarettes.
这种上瘾不仅能让人感到满足
These addictions aren’t just about the goodfeelings someone gets.
还和忍耐力与克制力有关
They’re also about things like tolerance and withdrawal,
人们经常想到某物 感觉失去控制
thinking about the substance a lot, feeling out of control,
还和别人争吵它们的使用
and getting in conflicts with others about their use.
但那些影响和行为不是身体上瘾独有的
But those effects and behaviors aren’t exclusiveto physical addictions.
在没有化学物质的情况下也可能发生
They can happen even without a chemical substance, too.
那就是“行为上瘾”
And that’s a “behavioral addiction.”
临床医生指导诊断用的设计标准手册
The DSM, which clinicians use to guide their diagnoses,
甚至正式列出其中之一:赌博成瘾
even officially lists one of these: gambling addiction.
这些上瘾源于你对事物认知与理解的方式
These addictions happen because how you perceive and interpret things
比如 从自动售货机里赢钱
— like winning some cash from a slot machine —
能改变你大脑中所流动的神经传导物质
can change what neurotransmitters are flowing in your brain.
它们能刺激与良好的感觉有关的多巴胺通路
They can activate dopamine pathways that are associated with good feelings
并寻求更多奖励
and seeking out more of those rewards.
可以想象 这些东西最终能变成一种癖嗜
And conceivably, those things could eventually
就像尼古丁一样
become an addiction just like nicotine.
但手机与上瘾有什么关联吗?
But where do phones fall in all of this?
嗯 现在 设计标准手册确实意识到了行为上瘾
Well, right now, the DSM does recognize behavioral addictions,
但他们还没有明确地命名手机或网络的使用
but they don’t name phones or internet use specifically.
最接近的是提到“网络赌博”需要更多研究
The closest they get is mentioning that “internetgaming” needs more research.
所以 从官方角度来说 你不能说手机上瘾
So, officially-speaking, you can’t be addicted to your phone.
至少现在不能
At least not right now.
但这并不意味着结案
Still, that doesn’t mean it’s case-closed.
从官方角度来说 手机上瘾也许不可诊断
Phone addiction might not be officially diagnosable,
但手机确实吻合一些行为上瘾清单上的例子
but phones do check off some of the boxes on the list for behavioral addictions.
例如 他们和其所提供的社会关系
For instance, they and the social connections they provide
明确地改变了人们的心情
definitely alter people’s moods,
而且许多人花大把的时间惦记着它们
and many people spend a lot of the day thinking about them.
它们在触发多巴胺的释放上效果也不错
They’re also great at triggering the release of dopamine.
事实上 你手机上的通知就是最佳的多巴胺触发器
In fact, notifications from your phone are kind of the optimal dopamine trigger.
从其他研究中我们知道
We know from other research
如果你想让某人做多些事
that if you want to get someone to do something a lot,
就不应该每次都奖励他们
you shouldn’t reward them every time they do it.
奖励应该是随机性的
The rewards should also be kind of random.
这叫做间断强化
This is called intermittent reinforcement.
多亏了研究中的小白鼠 其大脑的运行和我们差不多
Thanks to studies done in mice and rats, whose brains work kinda like ours.
我们知道它导致多数多巴胺在你大脑的奖励中心释放
We know it results in the most dopamine released in the reward centers of your brain.
这和你从社会媒体的通知那里得到的强化物是一样的
And it’s the same kind of reinforcement you get from your social media notifications, too.
但你见过偶尔来自你迷恋的或搞笑视频的
Only every once in a while, do you see the red icon that signals a declaration of love
红色示爱图标吗?
from your crush — or a funny video?
虽然你只是以防万一有人点赞 但那足以让你整天
But that’s enough to keep you frequently checking your phone throughout the day,
频繁地看手机
just in case.
科学家们也能通过其他方式追踪你手机对你大脑的影响
Scientists can track your phone’s influence on your brain in other ways, too.
例如 人脑的奖励中心之一――伏核
For example, one of your brain’s reward centers, called the nucleus accumbens,
它响应食物和性的刺激
activates in response to things like food and sex.
但也响应社会奖励的刺激
But it also activates in response to social rewards,
比如 身份地位的提高或朋友的赞赏
like an increase in status or positive feedback from your friends.
在一项31名年轻人的功能磁共振图像研究中
In one fMRI study of 31 young adults,
他们使用社交媒体的时长实际上与社会奖励
how much they used social media was actually correlated with
以及他们所反映出的伏核大小一一对应
how big of a response their nucleus accumbens showed to social rewards.
总而言之
So all that to say,
喜爱你的手机看起来有点像一种上瘾
being attached to your phone can kind of seem like an addiction.
但对于一些其他行为上瘾的复选框
But for some of those other checkboxes of a behavioral addiction —
比如 忍耐力 克制和失控――
like tolerance, withdrawal, and loss of control —
相比于要满足要求 证据就显得微不足道了
the evidence is weaker than phones fit the bill.
例如 在某些研究中
For example, in some studies,
人们说 当他们没有手机时 会觉得很不舒服
people say that they’re uncomfortable when they don’t have their phones —
这听起来有点像戒毒
which sounds kind of likewithdrawal.
但很难制造一个也能提供文字安全的设备
But that’s a hard case to make about a device that can also provide literal security safety.
比如手机总能保证如果出现紧急情况
Like phones make sure you always have a way to reach someone
你能联系上某人
if there’s an emergency.
所以当提到手机使用 “上瘾”必然不是最好的词
So when it comes to phone use, “addiction” isn’t necessarily the best word.
对它而言 还能做更多 而且我们不能将其打包
There’s a little more to it than that, and we can’t wrap it up
再放进带有整齐标签的盒子里
and put it in a box with a neat label.
我们只能说 有时候
All we can say is that, in some cases,
它看起来的确很像一种行为上瘾
it does look a lot like a behavioral addiction.
但无论你叫它什么 总有一些证据证明
But no matter what you call it, there’s still some evidence that
时常检查你的手机对你是有害的
constantly checking your phone isn’t great for you.
有关“自述”手机上瘾的几项研究已经完成
Several studies have been done on”self-reported” phone addiction,
主要询问人们使用手机的时长
asking people how much they use their phone
以及它是如何影响他们的心情和工作的
and how it affects their moodand work.
类似这样的一项研究 调查了293名大学生
One study like this surveyed 293 college students
而且发现“自述”上瘾与较大的压力以及
and found that self-reported addiction was associated with higher levels of stress,
更低的生活满意度有关
and lower life satisfaction.
其他类似的研究也发现
Other studies like this also found
自述上瘾和较低的GPAs
self-reported addiction was associated with lower GPAs,
高度焦虑以及更多神经病患者有关
higher anxiety, and more reported neurotictraits.
不可否认的是 这种研究只是相关的
Admittedly, this kind of research is just correlational,
还有很多混淆的可变因素
and there are a lot of confounding variables.
比如 这些结果发生的原因可能是
Like, these results could happen because, say,
压力更大的人会转向手机以寻求安慰
more stressed people turn to their phones for relief.
这些回答可能不仅取决于你使用手机的时长
These responses also might depend not just on how much you use your phone,
还取决于你正在用它做什么
but also on what you’re doing with it.
例如 其他研究表明
For example, other studies show that
多使用社交网络能提升你的幸福感
using social networks a lot can improve your well-being.
但只有当你用它增进真实生活中
But only if you use them to increase connections
彼此了解的人的关系时 才能体会到幸福感
with people you know in real life.
被动浏览帖子是不太可能有相同效果的
Passively scrolling through posts probablywon’t create the same effect.
最后 行为上瘾完全是真实的
At the end of the day, behavioral addictions are totally real,
但我们和手机的关系可能比那个更复杂
but our relationships with our phones are probably more complex than that.
说实在的 我们手机中的软件和科技
And, honestly, the software and technology in our devices
改变得十分迅速
changes so rapidly that its effects on our behaviors
它对我们行为和大脑的影响也会改变
and brains are going to change, too.
让我们期待科学能跟上节奏吧!
Let’s hope the science can keep up!
与此同时
And in the meantime,
偶尔放下你的手机 休息一下也未尝不可
it’s probably okay to take a break from your phone every now and again.
感谢观看本集心理科学秀!
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych!
不出所料 在过去的几年中 还是有大量有关手机
Unsurprisingly, there’s been a ton of research on phones
和数码显示屏的研究――而且不只是对成人
and digital screens in the past few years — and not just on young adults.
仍存在有关数码显示屏
There have also been studies about whether or not
能否影响孩子发展的研究
digital screens can affect child development.
如果你想学到更多东西
If you’d like to learn more,
可以观看我们的视频 我在那里解释了有关这项研究的所有内容
you can watch our video where I explain the research all about it.
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[♪ OUTRO ]

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视频概述

手机是现代人类不可缺少的东西,你真的是对手机上瘾吗?在这里有科学的解释,让你不再迷惑,还不快来呀!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Amy

审核员

审核员 HZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t_UEGQ_z_DE

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