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密集恐惧是怎么回事? – 译学馆
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密集恐惧是怎么回事?

Are You Afraid of Holes?

本集视频由LastPass赞助
This episode is sponsored by LastPass
大家好
Hey smart people
我是Joe
Joe here.
在视频开始前需要警告大家
I need to warn you:
这个视频可能会带来些许不适
This video is gon na be a little gross.
尤其是……如果你害怕一些小小的……
Especially if you’re afraid of tiny…little
洞孔
…HOLES. Or,
或者你像我这样
maybe you’re like me.
你可能会想 这个东西到底哪里恶心呢?
In which case you’re probably wondering:Why exactly is this disgusting?
毕竟只是一堆洞而已 对吧?
It’s just a bunch of holes… right?
聪明刷
It’s okay to be smart.
密集恐惧症
Trypophobia.
在希腊语中的意思是 对洞孔的恐惧
In Greek it translates to a fear… of holes.
但这里也包括其他东西
But it can also include an aversion to bumps, clusters,
密密麻麻的凸起物 斑点 泡泡之类的
blobs and bubbles.
实际上这个词还比较新
It’s actually pretty new as phobias go.
2005年一个爱尔兰的博主造出了密集恐惧症这个词
The word was invented by an Irish blogger in 2005.
所以目前并没有太多研究数据
So there’s not a lot of great data out there
但是六个人里面可能就有一个有密集恐惧症
but as many as 1 in 6 people may have trypophobia.
就是说密集恐惧症比恐高症更常见
It’s even more common than acrophobia, thefear of heights. Yes,
没错 连PewDiePie都承认他害怕有一堆洞的东西
even ol’ PewDiePie himself fears allthings holey.
但是 研究恐惧症的专家们认为
But…according to the people in charge of these things
密集恐惧症并不是严格意义上的恐惧症
trypophobia isn’t even officially recognized as an actual phobia.
等等 那恐惧症到底是指什么呢?
Wait then what exactly is a phobia in the first place?
恐惧症的定义是对某物极度或者不合情理的恐惧
The definition of a phobia is an extreme or irrational fear of something.
一般来说 害怕这种生理反应是有目的性的
Fear–in general–serves a good biological purpose-
它可以让我们避开致命的危险
it helps us avoid deadly things,
好比远离毒蛇 或者不靠近危险的悬崖边
like venomous snakes or the edge of a cliff.
但是当我们想得太多的时候
But when our brains take it too far,
明知不会产生实质伤害 却依然感到害怕
we aim our fear at things that can’t actually hurt us in that moment,
这才是恐惧症
that’s a phobia.
好比说害怕蜘蛛
Like a fear of spiders.
当然 如果你住在澳大利亚 有蜘蛛恐惧症也是合理的
Sure, if you live in Australia then arachnophobia is not irrational,
毕竟澳大利亚到处都是能够杀人的可怕生物
because Australia is full of scary things that can kill you.
但如果你睡前正在读《哈利波特》
But if you’re just reading Harry Potterat bedtime,
有只从天花板吊下来的蜘蛛想要一起看的时候
and a little cellar spider joins the party.
也没必要因此烧掉自己的房子
There’s no reason to burn down yourhouse.
你并没有任何实质性的危险
You’re not in any real danger.
除非你在逃跑时把自己撞晕了
Unless you knock yourself out running away from it or something.
害怕那只无害的小蜘蛛是不合常理的
It’s irrational to be afraid of that littleharmless spider friend.
害怕一堆的小洞孔?
A fear of a bunch of small holes?
就更加不合常理了
Is definitely irrational.
但是如果密集恐惧症患者并非害怕洞孔呢?
But what if people with trypophobia aren’t actually even… afraid of holes?
如果没有害怕 就不会是一种恐惧症
If it’s not a fear, can it be a phobia?
特定的情绪对应特定的表情 全世界的人都是如此
Certain emotions do certain things to people’s faces, almost universally.
“几乎”全世界都是如此
almost universally.
感到害怕的人典型的面部特征是
People experiencing fear typically have
眉毛高挑 嘴巴张开 眼睛瞪大
high eyebrows, their mouth is open, their eyes are wide.
但是感到恶心的人通常会皱眉
But people feeling disgust typically have wrinkled brows,
嘴巴紧抿 鼻子皱起
pursed lips and crinkled up noses.
并没有很多科学家研究密集恐惧症
Now there aren’t a lot of scientists studying trypophobia,
因为……谁想做呢?
because who would want to?
但我们可以通过观察典型的面部特征
But we can study people’s reactions,
来研究人们的反应
looking for these telltale signs.
科学家已经有些研究进展了
Scientists have done this,
有研究结果表明
and research is starting to suggest:
与其说是害怕 密集恐惧症更多的是恶心
trypophobia is more about disgust than fear.
为什么我们会有这样的表现呢?
Why did we develop a reaction like this?
回顾人类的进化过程
Back in evolution,
害怕和恶心来源于不同的原因
fear and disgust evolved for different reasons,
但它们都是为了让我们避开不好的事情
but they both tell us to avoid a bad thing.
害怕让我们利用战斗或逃跑反应
Fear helps us avoid immediate danger,
避开随时出现的危险
usually by triggering the fight or flight response.
但是恶心让人避开不同的东西
But disgust helps us avoid something different.
尽管许多理论在研究恶心从何演变而来
There have been plenty of theories on why disgust evolved,
但是这些研究的解释很片面
but they each only explain part of the picture.
就像我们会避开腐烂的食物和生病的人
Like helping us avoid rotten food or sickpeople.
直到几十年前
It wasn’t until a couple of decades ago
我们才出现一个统一的关于恶心的观点
that we came up with a unified theory of disgust.
一位叫做Val Curtis的科学家发现
A scientist named Val Curtis
伙计们 那是Val Kilmer
–that’s Val Kilmer, guys–.
这回对了
Ok
Val Curtis认为感到恶心这种能力是先天具有的
So Val Curtis developed the idea that our innate disgust reaction
为了让我们避开可能导致感染和传播疾病的恶心东西
evolved as a way to avoid crawly, wormy, oozy things that could cause infection and disease.
这被称为“避免恶心寄生虫理论”
It’s called the ParasiteAvoidance Theory of disgust,
这是解释我们为何会感到恶心的主要理论
and it’s the top theory of why we find some things gross.
它被分为六种分类
It falls into these six categories.
简单来说 让我们感到恶心的东西都隐藏着危险
Basically, the things that disgust us risk having some microscopic danger hiding inside of them.
比如便便有细菌
Like poop has bacteria.
腐烂的食物可能会有霉菌
Rotting food may have more flesh mold.
伤口可能会携带寄生虫
Wounds could carry parasites.
感觉到生理上的恶心 就会让我们不去靠近这些东西
Feeling disgust ensures that we literally physically close ourselves off and avoid those things.
甚至只是看起来不太对劲的东西 也会让我们感到恶心
We’re even disgusted by things if they just don’t seem quite right,
我们的身体好像在说
our bodies way of saying,
“对于寄生虫 再小心也不为过”
“You can’t be too careful whenit comes to parasites.”
如果我们觉得恶心 我们就不会去碰它或者吃它
If we find it gross, we won ’ t touch it or eat it,
这使我们更容易生存和繁衍后代
which makes it more likely that we’ll survive and reproduce,
这些就是进化论的真实体现
and that’s all natural selection cares about.
因为我们的大脑有这种了不起的能力
And because our brains have this awesome ability
可以去总结 分类以及记忆
to generalize and categorize and remember,
即使看上去有点危险的东西都会让我们恶心
even things that look like dangerous things disgust us.
密集的洞孔?
Clusters of holes?
这很容易让人联想到那六种令人恶心的东西
They most likely remind people of something in one of those six categories of disgusting stuff.
想想看 莲蓬有点像很糟糕的皮肤感染
I mean think about it, a lotus seed pod does sort of look like the worst skin infection imaginable.
这也许能解释这些图像让人尤其反胃的原因
That may be why these images are particularly nausea-inducing.
当然每个人的文化和习俗各异
Of course people and cultures and customs are very different,
我们觉得恶心的东西也各不相同
what we find disgusting varies too.
恶心这种反应是生物普遍具有的能力
The disgust response may be biologically programmed and universal,
但也有很多令人觉得恶心的东西是学习而来的
but maybe a lot of what we find disgusting is taught and learned.
这方面还需要更多的研究
More research is needed.
我敢肯定会有很多的志愿者
I’m sure there will be a lot of volunteers.
如果你有密集恐惧症 你也许会害怕洞孔
So if you have trypophobia, you may feel afraid of holes,
但其实你可能只是感到恶心而已
but you’re probably just disgusted.
这就意味着……那很可能不是恐惧症
And… that means it’s likely not a phobia at all.
不幸地是 我们不确定密集恐惧症是否可以治愈
Unfortunately, we don’t really know if trypophobia can be cured,
但是避开像这样子的视频
but avoiding videos like this
似乎是目前最好的解决方法
seems like the best way to deal with it for now.
如果你的朋友有密集恐惧症 千万别给他们看这个视频
So if your friend has trypophobia, definitely don’t show them this video!
如果你有密集恐惧症
And if you have it,
很抱歉你要看到这个
well I’m sorry you had to watch this!
不管怎样 还是谢谢大家的好奇心
But thanks and stay curious.

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视频概述

当你看到密密麻麻的蜂巢,蚁巢时,你会不会鸡皮疙瘩起一身?密集恐惧症到底是什么呢?我们看看这个视频探讨下吧

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Gillian

审核员

审核员_BY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TPTqqi-kfVM

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