ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

你是有思想的身体还是有身体的思想 – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

你是有思想的身体还是有身体的思想

Are you a body with a mind or a mind with a body? - Maryam Alimardani

看着你的手
Look at your hand.
你怎么知道这真的是你的呢
How do you know it’s really yours?
答案看起来很显而易见 除非你经历过你的手是橡胶手的幻觉
It seems obvious, unless you’veexperienced the rubber hand illusion.
在这个实验中
In this experiment,
你面前将会放置一只假手
a dummy hand is placed in front of you
你的真手被藏在了木板后面
and your real hand is hiddenbehind a screen.
两只手将同时被画笔轻抚
Both are simultaneously strokedwith a paint brush.
无论你怎样提醒自己
No matter how much you remind
你面前的那只是假手
yourself the dummy hand isn’t yours,
你最终仍会觉得这是自己的手
you eventually start to feel like it is,
然后当刀出现的时候不可避免的退缩
and inevitably flinchwhen it’s threatened with a knife.
这也许只是一个小把戏
That may just be a temporary trick,
但告诉我们了一个更大的真相
but it speaks to a larger truth:
我们的身体 思想 生理活动
our bodies, the physical,biological parts of us,
和我们的思想 见解 意识方面
and our minds, the thinking,conscious aspects,
有着错综复杂的关系
have a complicated, tangled relationship.
哪一个才是从根本上真正区分你和你自己的因素呢
Which one primarily defines youor your self?
你是一具只有思想 情绪的肉体吗
Are you a physical body that onlyexperiences thoughts and emotions
作为大脑生化反应的结果
as a result of biochemical interactionsin the brain?
那就应该是有思想的肉体
That would be a body with a mind.
或者你身体里某些非实体的部分
Or is there some non-physical part
可以生活在你的生物体之外的
of you that’s pulling the strings
在操纵着一切?
but could live outsideof your biological body?
那将会是一个有身体的头脑
That would be a mind with a body.
这又带给我们一个老问题
That takes us to an old question of
身体和思想到底是不是两样分开的事物
whether the body and mind are two separate things.
在一个著名的思想实验中
In a famous thought experiment,
16世纪的哲学家 任·笛卡尔指出
16th-century philosopherRené Descartes pointed out
即使我们所有的身体感觉
that even if all our physical
都只是一个幻觉
sensations were just a hallucinatory dream,
我们的思想和思想仍然存在
our mind and thoughtswould still be there. That,
那么对他来说 就是我们存在的最根本证据了
for him, was the ultimate proofof our existence.
并且引导他推断出
And it led him to conclude
有意识的头脑是与构成我们身份核心的物质身体
that the conscious mind is something separate from the material body
分离的东西
that forms the core of our identity.
这个无实体意识的概念
The notion of a non-physical consciousness
与许多宗教里无实体的灵魂的概念相呼应
echoes the belief of many religionsin an immaterial soul
灵魂只是暂时雇佣身体作为一个壳罢了
for which the body is onlya temporary shell.
如果我们接受这个观点 另一个问题出现了
If we accept this,another problem emerges.
无实体的思想怎样与身体互动呢
How can a non-physical mind have any interaction with the physical body?
如果思想没有形状 重量或者动作
If the mind has no shape,weight, or motion,
它怎么移动你的肌肉呢
how can it move your muscles?
或者我们假设它可以
Or if we assume it can,
为什么你的思想移动的只是你的身体而不是别人的呢
why can your mind only move your body and not others?
有一些思想家找到了新的途径来摆脱这困境
Some thinkers have found creative waysto get around this dilemma.
举个例子 一位法国的牧师和哲学家尼古拉斯宣称
For example, the French priestand philosopher Nicolas Malebranche
当我们想触碰刀叉时
claimed that when we think aboutreaching for a fork,
事实上是上帝在移动我们的手
it’s actually god who moves our hand.
另一位叫乔治的牧师兼哲学家
Another priest philosophernamed George Berkeley
得出了物质世界是幻觉的结论
concluded that the material worldis an illusion,
只以精神的形式存在
existing only as mental perceptions.
这个思想与身体的争论不仅仅属于哲学领域
This question of mind versus body isn’t just the domain of philosophers.
随着心理学与神经学的发展
With the development of psychologyand neuroscience,
这些领域的科学家也同样思考这个问题
scientists have weighed in, as well.
现代许多科学家不接受
Many modern scientists reject the idea
思想与身体有许多区别的观点
that there’s any distinctionbetween the mind and body.
神经学领域的认为 我们的身体与生理感受
Neuroscience suggests that our bodies,along with their physical senses,
一起被我们的大脑共同作用
are deeply integratedwith the activity in our brains
形成我们所称的意识
to form what we call consciousness.
从我们生下来起
From the day we’re born,
我们的心智发育是在外部世界的作用下
our mental development is formed through our body’s interaction
通过身体的互动形成的
with the external world.
每幅景象 每道声音和触觉
Every sight, sound,
在大脑中创造了新的系统和表现形式
and touch create new maps and representations in the brain
最终负责调节我们的自我体验
that eventually become responsiblefor regulating our experience of self.
而且我们有其他感官 包括第五感
And we have other senses,besides the typical five,
就像平衡感
such as the sense of balance
和我们身体各部分相对位置的感觉
and a sense of the relative locationof our body parts.
橡胶手的幻觉和类似的虚拟现实实验
The rubber hand illusion,and similar virtual reality experiments,
证明了我们的感受很容易误导我们对自身的判断
show that our senses can easily mislead us in our judgment of self.
他们也启发了我们的身体和外部感受
They also suggest that our bodiesand external sensations
是和我们的主观意识无法分离的
are inseparable fromour subjective consciousness.
如果这是真的 那么也许笛卡尔的实验从一开始就是错的
If this is true, then perhaps Descartes’ experiment was mistaken from the start.
毕竟 如果我们的眼睛在一个完全黑暗的房间里
After all, if we close our eyesin a silent room,
拥有一个身体的感觉 不是我们可以想象的
the feeling of having a body isn’t something we can just imagine away.
在我们思考未来科技时
This question of mind and bodybecomes particularly interesting
这个关于思想和身体的问题每次都会变得非常有趣
at a time when we’re consideringfuture technologies,
就像神经的修复学
such as neural prostheticsand wearable robots
和可以成为我们身体一部分的可佩戴机器人
that could become extended partsof our bodies.
或者是稍微有些激进的思想进步的观点
Or the slightly more radical ideaof mind uploading,
悬挂着没有身体的永生的可能性
which dangles the possibilityof immortal life without a body
通过将人的意识转移进计算机
by transferring a human consciousnessinto a computer.
如果身体完全被大脑规划
If the body is deeply mappedin the brain,
那么我们的感官也可因可佩戴设备得到延伸
then by extending our sense of selfto new wearable devices,
我们的大脑最终可能会适应一个重组版本
our brains may eventually adaptto a restructured version
有着新的感官表现
with new sensory representations.
或者 也许上传我们的意识进入电脑
Or perhaps uploading our consciousness
也不是不可能的
into a computer might not even be possible
除非我们也可以模拟一个能够传递身体感觉的身体
unless we can also simulate a body capable of delivering physical sensations.
关于我们的身体是和意识相分离或是
The idea that our bodies are part
呈负相关的观点
of our consciousness and vice versa
也不新鲜了
also isn’t new.
在广大的佛教徒心中
It’s found extensivelyin Buddhist thought,
也有哲学家的文章 出自海格德尔
as well as the writings of philosophersfrom Heidegger to Aristotle.
至今我们仍留着这个开放性问题
But for now, we’re still leftwith the open question
关于什么才是我们自己
of what exactly our self is.
我们是否像笛卡尔所说的那样 拥有有形的身体
Are we a mind equipped with a physical body as Descartes suggested?
或者是一个复杂的有机体 它们获得了意识
Or a complex organismthat’s gained consciousness
经过几千年的进化
over millions of years of evolution
感谢因为比遥远的祖先有了更大的大脑和很多的神经元
thanks to a bigger brain and more neurons than our distant ancestors?
或者完全没人想到的东西
Or something else entirely thatno one’s yet dreamt up?

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

身体控制大脑还是大脑控制身体

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

27

审核员

审核员 NA

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ILDy6kYU-xQ

相关推荐