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这个世界是真实的还是模拟的? – 译学馆
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这个世界是真实的还是模拟的?

Are We Living in a Massive Computer Program? Or a Simulation? | Joscha Bach

我们是生活在一个模拟程序中吗?
Could we be living in a simulation?
我认为这首先关系到一个问题 即我们认为的模拟是什么
I think that is related first of all to the question of what we mean by a simulation.
如果问题是 “我们是生活在一个计算机程序里吗?” 那我的答案是
If the question is, “Could we be living inside of a computer program?” then my answer
当然 是的
would be: of course, yes.
因为 我们唯一确定可以从外部世界得到的东西就是信息
Because the only thing that we get with some certainty from the outside world is information.
而我们唯一可以从信息中确定的就是规律
And the only thing that we find with certainty in this information is regularity.
对于一个会产生信息规律的系统(那就是 可辨别的差异
And for a system to produce regularity in information (that is, discernible differences
它们以非随机 可预测的方式变化)
that change in a way that is somewhat not random and somewhat predictable), for this
为此 它是需要进行计算的
it needs to compute.
所以 它对于宇宙而言是充分和必要的 无论其它方面它怎样做 它都需要计算
So it’s necessary and sufficient for the universe—whatever else it does—that it computes.
而且我们无法真的知道它在其它方面做了什么
And we cannot really know what else it does.
所以我认为 从充分和必要的角度 根据我们定义计算机和计算机科学的方式
So in my view it’s necessary and sufficient that the universe is some kind of computer
宇宙都非常像是某种计算机
in a pretty literal sense by the way we define computers and computer science.
这并不意味着我们知道它是一个什么类型的计算系统
It doesn’t mean that we know what kind of computational class this system is in, and
我想 对于宇宙属于什么计算类型和它有什么能力
there is I think a lot of contest and ideas in physics what kind of computational class
物理学中有很多争议和不同的观点
the universe really is and what capabilities it has.
什么是可计算的 什么是不可计算的
What can compute and what cannot compute.
但某种意义上 它还是可计算的
But still it’s computational in some sense.
对于我们是否生活在模拟世界 它更多是关于某些
The question of whether we are living in a simulation is more related to something more
更为狭义的东西:这个你生活在其中的计算机程序
narrow, that is: this computer program that you’re living in intentionally created,
是人为的造物 还是自然的奇迹?
or is it just a natural occurrence?
当然 我们无法得出真正的答案 从这方面来说 没有一个特征
And of course we cannot really know this because no feature in the world points at this thing
能指出这个世界是模拟的
being a simulation in this sense.
我没有看到任何东西 可以说服我你是活在一个模拟世界里
I don’t see anything that would convince me that you are in a simulation.
但如果它是 我不认为那是好事
But if it is one, I don’t think it’s for our benefit.
我不认为我们可以观察到的全部这些星球 行星以及所有
I don’t think that all these galaxies and stars and all the intricate elementary particle
复杂的基本粒子结构——它们对于作为地球上的灵长类的我们而言
structures that we can observe in some sense—they are not necessary for our experience as primates
是非必要的
on the planetary surface.
模拟器只需要把它在望远镜和显微镜上描绘出来
It would be needed to be painted on the telescopes and microscopes by the simulator.
所以我不认为我们仰望天空 看到无数星系时
So I don’t think that these are smokes and mirrors when we look into the sky and we see
看到的只是烟幕和镜子
these bazillions of galaxies.
我认为如果这是一个模拟程序 那么它就会有一个
I do think that if this is a simulation then there would be an important feature of the
重要特征 这个特征意味着它并不是在创造我们
simulation, which means the simulation is not there to create us.
这个模拟程序可能是在模拟其假设的物理的某些方面
The simulation is probably there to explore some aspects of hypothetical physics, and
而我们只是这个具备演化可能的宇宙的一个随机副作用或产品
we are just a random side effect or an artifact of the fact that evolution is possible in
因此我们才会在它里面出现
this universe, so we could emerge in it.
我认为 我们不大可能生活在一个模拟程序里 因为如果我构造一个宇宙的
I think it’s very unlikely that we are in a simulation, because if I would build a simulation
模拟程序 我会让计算机以“不可逆”的原则运行
of the universe I would make the computer that it runs on “irreversible”.
这意味着发生在宇宙里面的操作都可以删除位元
What that means is that the operations that happen in that universe can delete bits.
这意味着你在宇宙里观察到的某一个状态可以是来自
It means that a state that you observe in the universe can have multiple possible states
很多可能的状态
that it comes from.
如果你看看我们在物理学中的经验性认知 就知道情况并非如此
And if you look at what we know empirically in physics, that doesn’t seem to be the case.
我们的宇宙似乎是可逆的
Our universe seems to be reversible.
这意味着我们不能真的删除位元
And this means we cannot really delete bits.
如果你不能删除位元 那就意味着我们看到的所有东西都是可逆的
If you cannot delete bits it means that everything that we like is reversible.
你稳定了你的体温 不记得昨天身体里的温度
You stabilize your body temperature, you forget yesterday’s body temperature in your body.
某种意义上 这表示你不得不删除位元
It means that you have to delete bits in some sense.
生活中所有我们感兴趣的事情——行星 恒星 电脑 生物体
All those things that we are interested in life—planets, stars, computers, organisms,
思想 某种程度上它们都是不可逆的
minds—are irreversible in some sense.
它们都需要删除多余位元来保持它们的结构稳定 以对抗
They all need to delete bits to keep their structures stable against the onslaught of
来自底层的侵袭 这些侵袭具有不同的逻辑以及不同的进入方向
the substrate, which has its different logic and its different direction that it wants to go into.
所以在某种意义上 你有一些没用的位元
So in some sense you get waste bits.
你需要将这些位元剔除出系统 这是从观察者角度看就是熵的增加
You need to throw these bits out of your system, and this is what observers perceive as increasing
即多余的位元会导致熵的增加
entropy, these waste bits.
如果你生活在一个模拟程序里 就像《我的世界》 在里面你可以建造
And if you would be living in a simulation like Minecraft, in Minecraft you can build
永动机
perpetual motion machines.
那是因为《我的世界》里没有熵
That’s because you don’t have entropies in Minecraft.
《我的世界》可以删除位元
Minecraft can delete bits.
它可以遗忘它以前的状态
It can forget its previous state.
这个宇宙显然不行
This universe apparently cannot.
所以这个宇宙里我们不能凡事如愿 以及为什么我们不能有
So the reason why we cannot have nice things in this universe, why we cannot have perpetual
永动机 就是因为熵一直不断累积 一直把我们推向尽头
mobiles, the entropy is always accumulating and is always going to get us in the end.
或许作为生命 我们都不得不死亡
Maybe we’ll always have to die as living beings.
但这就是生命为什么短暂
But that’s why life is always temporary.
这个宇宙里每个自我稳定的系统都只有有限的寿命
Every self-stabilizing system will only have finite lifespan in this universe.
我不会这样设定模拟程序里
That would not be a feature I would put into a simulation.
所以有这样的争论 例如 Elon Musk提出的 我们可以建立游戏世界
So there is this argument that, for instance, Elon Musk made, that we can build game consoles
创造和我们这个宇宙非常像的模拟世界
that create virtual worlds that look a lot like simulations to us of this universe.
它们可以是这样真实 我们不能真正把它们和真实世界区分开来
They can be so realistic that we cannot really distinguish them.
这个争论提出 每一个具有足够技术能力的文明
And this argument is made that every civilization that has sufficient technical capabilities
都会建造许多这样的游戏世界 所以有可能当你四处张望时
is going to build many of these game consoles, so the probability that when you look around
你会发现自己处于一个看似相当真实的世界 而实际上你处在一个
and you find yourself in a pretty realistic looking world that you’re actually in a
虚拟程序里的可能性比在基本现实里的可能性高得多
simulation is much higher than the probability that you are in based reality.
但是我认为它没有考虑到的是你在这样一个
But I think what this doesn’t take into account is the level of detail that you’re
虚拟程序里所能达到的细节程度
going to achieve in such a simulation.
看起来我们的宇宙有着惊人数量的细节 要在一台电脑里
It seems that our universe has an amazing amount of detail and to get this amount of
达到这种数量的细节是非常困难的 因为如果你在这个星球上建造了一台电脑
detail in a subset of this computer, it’s very hard because if you build a computer
那就意味着你很难在电脑里模拟一个大宇宙
here on this planet it means you cannot simulate a big universe in it.
你只能在它里面模拟一个非常非常小又慢的宇宙
You can only simulate very, very, very small slow universe in it.
所以你进入的每一个宇宙 另一个宇宙
So every universe that you step into, another universe
都将会有不同阶数的细节缺失
is going to have many orders of less detail.
所以我想如果你发现自己在一个细节非常丰富的宇宙 有着许许多多星系
So I think if you find yourself in a very detailed universe that has many, many galaxies
有比智能生活和文明等所需的还要多的细节
and much more detail than you need to have intelligent life and civilizations in it and
它就不可能是一个由文明创造的虚拟宇宙
so on, it’s unlikely going to be a simulated universe created by a civilization.
它更有可能就是现实
It’s more likely that it’s base reality.

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我们是生活在一个模拟世界中吗?我们生活的世界,究竟是基本现实,还是虚拟程序?

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