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我们是否打断了鱼类古怪的性生活?

Are we interrupting the kinky sex lives of fish? | Marah J. Hardt

Right now, beneath a shimmering blue sea,
此时此刻 波光粼粼的蓝色海水下
millions of fish are having sex.
数百万条鱼正在交尾
[Cheers]
[欢呼声]
And the way they’re doing it and strategies they’re using
它们交尾的方式和采取的策略
looks nothing like what we see on land.
跟我们在陆地上见到的完全不同
Take parrotfish.
以鹦鹉鱼为例
In this species, all fish are born female,
这个物种的所有鱼都天生是雌性
and they look like this.
这是它们的样子
Then later in life, she can transition into a male
她后来会转化为雄性
and she’ll look like this.
变成这个样子
But it’s not just a spectacular wardrobe change.
但不只外表上会有惊人的改变
Her body can reabsorb her ovaries
她的身体还可以重新吸收她的卵巢
and grow testes in their place.
并在原来的地方长出睾丸
In just a few weeks,
仅仅数周之后
she’ll go from making eggs to producing sperm.
她就会从排卵变成产出精子
It’s pretty impressive,
这种变化非常神奇
and in the ocean it’s also pretty common.
并且在海洋里十分常见
In fact, I bet nearly all of you have at some point
其实 我敢说你们几乎都曾在某些时刻
had a seafood dish
吃过这种海鲜料理
made up of an individual that started life as one sex
其原材料是生来为一种性别
and transitioned to another.
而后转化为另一性别的鱼类
Oysters, grouper, shrimp?
牡蛎 石斑鱼 虾?
Seeing some heads nodding, yeah.
我看到有些人点头
But not all fishes that change sex start as females.
但并非所有变性的鱼类都是由雌性转变的
Those clown fish we know from “Finding Nemo”?
我们从《海底总动员》知道的那些小丑鱼?
They’re all born male.
它们都生来就是雄性
So in the real world,
所以在现实世界中
when Nemo’s mother died,
当Nemo的妈妈死了
Nemo’s dad Marlin would have transitioned into Marlene —
Nemo的爸爸马林就会变成玛琳
and Nemo would have likely mated with his father turned mother.
Nemo可能还会和变成妈妈的爸爸交配
You can see —
你看
Yeah.

You can see why Pixar took a little creative license with the plotline, right?
明白为何皮克斯能在情节创作上做点突破了 对吧?
So sex change in the ocean can happen in either direction
海洋中的性别转变在两个方向上都可以发生
and sometimes even back and forth,
有时甚至会变来变去
and that’s just one of the many amazing strategies
而那只是动物用来在海洋中繁殖的
animals use to reproduce in the ocean.
许多惊人策略之一
And trust me when I say it’s one of the least surprising.
请相信我 这只是其中最不足为奇的策略之一
Sex in the sea is fascinating, and it’s also really important,
海洋中的性令人着迷 也确实十分重要
and not just to nerdy marine biologists like me
不仅仅是对像我这样痴迷于
who are obsessed with understanding these salty affairs.
了解这些有趣事件的海洋生物学家而言
It matters for all of us.
它对我们所有人都很重要
Today, we depend on wild caught fish
如今 我们靠无节制地捕捞鱼类
to help feed over two billion people on the planet.
帮助养活地球上超20亿的人口
We need millions of oysters and corals to build the giant reefs
我们需要数百万牡蛎和珊瑚来建造巨型珊瑚礁
that protect our shorelines from rising seas and storms.
以保护海岸线免受海平面上升和暴风雨的影响
We depend on medicines that are found in marine animals
我们依赖在海洋动物中发现的药物
to fight cancer and other diseases.
来对抗癌症和其它疾病
And for many of us, the diversity and beauty of the oceans
对我们许多人来说 丰富多彩的海洋
is where we turn for recreation and relaxation
是我们休闲娱乐的地方
and our cultural heritage.
也是我们的文化遗产
In order for us to continue to benefit from the abundance
为了我们可以继续从海洋生物
that ocean life provides,
提供的丰富资源中受益
the fish and coral and shrimp of today
当下的鱼虾和珊瑚
have to be able to make fish and shrimp and coral for tomorrow.
必须能够繁殖出将来的鱼虾和珊瑚
To do that, they have to have lots and lots of sex.
为此 它们得发生非常多的性行为
And until recently, we really didn’t know how sex happened in the sea.
直到最近 我们才真正了解海中的性行为如何发生
It’s pretty hard to study.
这的确难以研究
But thanks to new science and technology,
但是得益于新兴的科学技术
we now know so much more than even just a few years ago,
我们现在了解到的比几年前多得多
and these new discoveries are showing two things.
这些新发现表明了两件事
First, sex in the sea is really funky.
其一 海洋中的性交真的很有意思
Second, our actions are wreaking havoc on the sex lives of everything
其二 我们的行为对从虾到鲑鱼所有鱼类的性生活
from shrimp to salmon.
都造成了破坏
I know. It can be hard to believe.
我知道 这难以置信
So today, I’m going to share a few details
因此 今天我将分享一些
about how animals do it in the deep,
有关深海中动物如何繁殖的知识
how we may be interrupting these intimate affairs
和我们可能会怎样打断这些性行为
and what we can do to change that.
以及怎样做才能改变现状
So, remember those sex-changing fish?
还记得那些改变性别的鱼吗?
In many places in the world,
世界上许多地方
we have fishing rules that set a minimum catch size.
人们都规定了可捕鱼的最小尺寸
Fishers are not allowed to target tiny fish.
渔民不能捕捞小鱼
This allows baby fish to grow and reproduce before they’re caught.
幼鱼得以在被捕捞之前生长繁殖
That’s a good thing.
这是好事
So fishers go after the biggest fish.
于是渔民将捕捞目标锁定为最大的鱼
But in parrotfish, for example, or any sex changer,
但是以鹦嘴鱼或其它变性的鱼类为例
targeting the biggest fish
捕捞最大的鱼
means that they’re taking out all the males.
意味着渔民将所有雄性鱼都捕捞了
That makes it hard for a female fish to find a mate
这让雌鱼很难找到配偶
or it forces her to change sex sooner at a smaller size.
或迫使雌鱼以较小的体型更早地改变性别
Both of these things can result in fewer fish babies in the future.
这两种情况都可能导致今后幼鱼减少
In order for us to properly care for these species,
为了能够恰当地照顾这些物种
we have to know if they change sex,
我们必须知道它们是否会改变性别
how and when.
何时改变又如何改变
Only then can we create rules
只有这样 我们才能设立
that can support these sexual strategies,
支持这些交配策略的规则
such as setting a maximum size limit
比如设置最小体型限制的同时
in addition to a minimum one.
设置最大体型限制
The challenge isn’t that we can’t think of these sex-friendly solutions.
难点不在于我们想不出有利于性交活动的解决方案
The challenge is knowing which solutions to apply to which species,
而在于了解何种物种该匹配何种解决方案
because even animals we know really well
因为即使是我们十分了解的动物
surprise us when it comes to their sex lives.
在性生活方面也会令我们感到惊讶
Take Maine lobster.
以缅因州龙虾为例
They don’t look that romantic, or that kinky.
它们看上去不那么浪漫 也不那么古怪
They are both.
但事实上它们既浪漫又古怪
During mating season,
在交配季节
female lobsters want to mate with the biggest, baddest males,
雌龙虾想与最大最坏的雄性交配
but these guys are really aggressive,
但这些雄性真的十分好斗
and they’ll attack any lobster that approaches, male or female.
它们会攻击任何靠近的龙虾 不管雌雄
Meanwhile, the best time for her to mate with the male
同时 雌龙虾与雄性交配的最佳时间
is right after she’s molted,
正在蜕皮之后
when she’s lost her hard shell.
当她蜕去了坚硬的外壳
So she has to approach this aggressive guy
意味着她必须在最脆弱的状态下
in her most vulnerable state.
接近这个好斗的家伙
What’s a girl to do?
雌龙虾该如何做?
Her answer?
她的做法?
Spray him in the face repeatedly with her urine.
不停地将尿液喷在雄虾的脸上
Under the sea, pee is a very powerful love potion.
在海底 尿液是一种强有效的爱情药水
Conveniently, lobsters’ bladders sit just above their brains,
很便捷的是 龙虾的膀胱就长在头部上方
and they have two nozzles under their eye stalks
并且它们在眼柄下有两个喷嘴
with which they can shoot their urine forward.
可以向前喷射尿液
So the female approaches the male’s den
因此 雌性靠近雄性的洞穴
and as he charges out she lets loose a stream of urine
当他冲出来的时候 她释放尿液
and then gets the hell out of there.
然后离开那儿
Only a few days of this daily dosing is all it takes
只需重复几天像这样每日喷射尿液
for her scent to have a transformative effect.
她的气味就能起到转化作用
The male turns from an aggressive to a gentle lover.
雄虾从好斗的龙虾变成温柔的情人
By the week’s end, he invites her into his den.
一周后 他会邀请她进入他的洞穴
After that, the sex is easy.
接下来便水到渠成了
So how are we interrupting this kind of kinky courtship?
那么 我们是如何打断这种古怪的求偶呢?
Well, the female’s urine carries a critical chemical signal
雌性的尿液会传递关键的化学信号
that works because it can pass through seawater
它之所以起作用是因为它能透过海水
and lobsters have a smell receptor that can detect and receive the message.
而龙虾的气味受体可以检测接收该信息
Climate change is making our oceans more acidic.
气候变化让我们的海洋变得更加酸性
It’s the result of too much carbon dioxide entering seawater.
这是过多的二氧化碳渗入海水的结果
This changing chemistry could scramble that message,
这种变化着的化学性质可能会扰乱该信息
or it could damage the lobsters’ smell receptors.
或者可能会损害龙虾的气味受体
Pollution from land can have similar impacts.
来自陆地的污染也会产生类似的影响
Just imagine the consequence for that female
想像一下 如果雌虾的爱情药水失效了
if her love potion should fail.
她的结果将会如何
These are the kinds of subtle but significant impacts we’re having
这些是我们对海洋生物的爱情生活
on the love lives of these marine life.
产生的微妙但又重要的影响
And this is a species we know well:
而且这是我们熟知的物种:
lobsters live near shore in the shallows.
龙虾就生活在浅滩的岸边
Dive deeper, and sex gets even stranger.
潜得越深 有关性的事情就变得越奇怪
Fanfin anglerfish live at about 3,000 feet below the surface
大洋长鳍角鮟鱇生活在漆黑的水面之下
in the pitch-black waters,
约3000英尺的地方
and the males are born without the ability to feed themselves.
而雄性天生就无法觅食养活自己
To survive, he has to find a female fast.
为了生存 他必须快速找到一只雌性
Meanwhile, the female, who is 10 times bigger than the male, 10 times,
而且是比雄性大10倍的雌性 10倍哦
she lets out a very strong pheromone with which to attract mates to her.
她释放出一种非常强的信息素来吸引异性
So this tiny male is swimming through the black waters
于是 极小的雄性嗅着气味
smelling his way to a female,
在乌黑的海水中游向雌性
and when he finds her, he gives her a love bite.
当他找到雌性时 就会给她一个爱的叮咬
And this is when things get really weird.
这时事情就变得相当奇怪了
That love bite triggers a chemical reaction
爱的叮咬会引发化学反应
whereby his jawbone starts to disintegrate.
导致他的颌骨开始解体
His face melts into her flesh,
他的脸融化进她的肌肉中
and their two bodies start to fuse.
它们俩的身体开始融合
Their circulatory systems intwine,
它们的循环系统互相缠绕
and all his internal organs start to dissolve
并且他所有的内脏都开始溶解
except for his testes.
除了他的睾丸
His testes mature just fine and start producing sperm.
他的睾丸发育良好 并开始产生精子
In the end, he’s basically
最后 他基本上成了
a permanently attached on-demand sperm factory for the female.
永久依附在雌性身上的按需精子工厂
It’s a very efficient system,
这是一个非常高效的系统
but this is not the kind of mating strategy
可这不是我们在农场上看到的
that we see on a farm, right?
那种交配方式 对吧?
I mean, this is weird.
我是指 它很奇怪
It’s really strange.
真的非常奇怪
But if we don’t know that these kinds of strategies exist
但是如果我们不知道这些交配方式的存在
or how they work,
或它们如何进行
we can’t know what kind of impacts we may be having,
我们就无法知道我们甚至可能会对深海
even in the deep sea.
造成怎样的影响
Just three years ago, we discovered a new species of deep sea octopus
就在三年前 我们发现了一种新的深海章鱼
where the females lay their eggs on sponges attached to rocks
其雌性产卵产在海绵上
that are over two and a half miles deep.
那些海绵附着在超两英里半深的岩石上
These rocks contain rare earth minerals,
这些岩石含有稀土矿物
and right now there are companies that are building bulldozers
现在有一些公司正在建造推土机
that would be capable of mining the deep sea floor for those rocks.
这些推土机能够在深海海底开采这些矿岩
But the bulldozers would scrape up all the sponges and all the eggs with them.
但是推土机也会刮擦掉所有的海绵和章鱼卵
Knowingly, and in many cases unknowingly,
我们正有意无意地 更多时候无意地
we are preventing successful sex and reproduction in the deep.
妨碍深海中原本顺利的性交繁殖活动
And let’s be honest, dating and mating is hard enough
老实说 一直以来在没有人打扰的情况下
without somebody coming in and interrupting all the time, right?
约会配对就已经够艰难了 好吗?
I mean, we know this.
我是说 我们都知道这点
So today, while I hope you will leave here
所以今天 我希望大家在离开时
with some excellent bar trivia on fish sex.
有学到一些关鱼类性方面的绝妙的冷知识
I also ask that you remember this:
另外 请大家记住:
we are all far more intimately connected with the oceans than we realize,
无论我们生活在哪里 我们与海洋的联系
no matter where we live.
都远比我们以为的要密切得多
And this level of intimacy requires a new kind of relationship with the ocean,
密切到我们需要与海洋建立一种新的关系
one that recognizes and respects the enormous diversity of life
这种关系必须承认并尊重
and its limitations.
生命丰富的多样性及其极限
We can no longer think of the oceans as just something out there,
我们再也不能认为海洋是事不关己的
because every day we depend on them for our food security,
因为我们每天都依靠海洋提供食物保障
our own health and wellness,
维护身体健康
and every other breath we take.
方方面面都与海洋息息相关
But it is a two-way relationship,
但这种关系是双向的
and the oceans can only continue to provide for us
只有我们转而保护
if we in turn safeguard that fundamental force of life in the sea:
海洋生物的基本生命力:性与繁殖
sex and reproduction.
海洋才能可持续地为人类提供资源
So, like any relationship,
就像任何关系一样
we have to embrace some change for the partnership to work.
我们必须做出改变才能互利共赢
The next time you’re thinking about having seafood,
下次想要吃海鲜时
look for sustainably caught or farmed species
请找本地食物链低端的
that are local and low on the food chain.
可持续捕捞或养殖的物种
These are animals like oysters, clams, mussels,
像牡蛎 蛤 贻贝这样的动物
small fish like mackerel.
以及鲭鱼这样的小鱼
These all reproduce like crazy,
它们的繁殖都很疯狂
and with good management, they can handle a bit of fishing pressure.
如果管理良好 它们可以应对一些捕捞压力
We can also rethink what we use to wash our bodies,
我们还可以重新考虑
clean our homes and care for our lawns.
我们用什么洗澡 清洁房屋和保养草坪
All of those chemicals eventually wash out to sea
所有的那些化学物质最终都会冲入大海
and disrupt the natural chemistry of the ocean.
破坏海洋的自然化学特性
Industry also has to play its part and take a precautionary approach,
工业界也必须发挥作用 采取预防措施
protecting sexual activity where we know it exists
以保护我们已知的存在着的性活动
and preventing harm in the cases where we just don’t yet know enough,
并避免伤害我们还不怎么了解的性活动
like the deep sea.
比如在深海中的
And in the communities where we live,
我们生活的社区
the places we work and the country in which we vote,
我们工作的地方以及我们票选的国家
we must take bold action on climate change now.
面对气候变化我们现在必须采取重大措施
[Audience: Yeah!]
[观众:是的!]
Thank you.
谢谢大家

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视频概述

海洋鱼类的繁殖至关重要,关系到海洋生态的平衡与延续,保护鱼类的生存环境己是刻不容缓的问题。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Shirley

审核员

审核员YY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Va_8GmU9cmQ

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