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我们都是联系在一起的吗? – 译学馆
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我们都是联系在一起的吗?

Are We All Related?

这是你
This is you.
这些是你的祖先 向过去延伸的巨大的倒金字塔型
And these are your ancestors,a huge pyramid stretching into the past
刚好在你这一点上保持平衡
and balancing right on your head.
你有多少祖先呢?
How many ancestors do you have?
我们都有一对父母
we have two parents.
四个(外)祖父母
Four grandparents.
八个(外)曾祖父母
And eight great-grandparents.
回溯四代 你的直系祖先共有三十个人
Four generations back, your direct ancestors total 30.
如果我们继续回溯每一步的人数都是上一步的两倍
If we continue down this linedoubling every step
回溯到四十代之前你有一万亿个祖先同时存在
just 40 generations ago we’d find a trillion ancestorsall living at the same time
这似乎很荒谬
Which is… ridiculous.
这不仅比从古至今所有的人类加起来都多
That’s not only more people than have ever been alive
甚至比银河系的星星都多
it’s more stars there in the Milky Way
因为我们这个物种诞生二十万年了
Since our species came on the scene 200,000 years ago
在你之前大概有七八千代人
and there have been maybe 7 or 8 thousandgenerations of humans leading up to you
那么 你失踪的祖先去哪了?
So where are all your missing ancestors?
很明显,有一些近亲交配
Clearly, there’s been some inbreeding.
我们指的并不是像西班牙国王班卓及瑟曦詹姆那样的乱伦
We’re not talking banjo-playing, King-of-Spain, Cersei-Jamie inbreeding
每一个家族树必然有交叉
but every family tree inevitably grows forks
在婚恋网站推出前配偶的选择受其活动范围的限制
Before Tinder, choices for mates were often limited to as far as you could walk.
甚至像达尔文和爱因斯坦这样的人都娶了自己的表妹
Even people like Charles Darwin and Albert Einstein married their first cousins.
因为许多共同祖先的人通婚
Because so many people with shared ancestors reproduced
所以我们祖先的数量比通过数学简单计算得到的数目少
the number of actual ancestors is much smaller than what simple math tells us.
如果我们的数学模型考虑到人们如何迁徙和居住
If we replace that with fancy math, factoring in how people moved and lived and paired up…
以及对生活的期待贸易、地理和成吉思汗我们会发现一些有趣的事情
life expectancy, trade, geography, Genghis Khan… we find something interesting
如今所有的人家谱当中都有一个共同的祖先
every human alive today shares a common ancestor in their family tree
这位祖先大约生活在3000年前
only around 3,000 years ago.
对 下次你在网上跟陌生人起冲突的时候
That’s right, next time you get in a fight with a stranger on the internet
请记得你和他有共同的曾曾曾曾曾…祖父或祖母
remember that you share the same great great great great great… great grandfather or grandmother
尽管我们不知道那人是谁
But we don’t know who that person was.
数学告诉我们一定是存在的但他们没有留下蛛丝马迹
The math tells us they must have existed, but they didn’t leave fossils or artifacts.
或者是一些记载或者其他的东西
Or like, a note or something.
尽管为他们74亿的曾曾曾…曾子孙写生日卡片
Though, writing birthday cards for each of their 7.4 Billion great great great great…grandchildren
是一件很酷的事情
would be a nice gesture.
但是我们都通过基因携带了我们祖先的信息
But we all carry a record of our ancestors in our genes.
因为DNA一遍一遍地复制所以基因突变也被记录了下来
Because DNA is copied over and over, every so often a mistake is written in.
你知道一遍遍复印的时候该怎么做但是基因不可能一点不出错
You know how when you make a copy of a copy, it’s doesn’t come out as sharp like that
好在大部分基因改变之后并不影响它们的功能
but since most of our DNA can be changed without affecting how things work
许多突变遗传给了下一代
many of these mutations slip through to the next generation.
这种突变以一个稳定的速率累积
These genetic changes accumulate at a steady rate through time
所以科学家们可以像看钟表一样来估计这个基因经历了多长时间
so scientists can read them like a molecular clockand estimate how much time has passed
并且人们共有的一些突变可以推算出他们的关系是近还是远
and which changes a individual share tell us how closely or distantly related they are
人类的肤色迥异但是从基因上看相差甚微
Humans’ skin is really differentbut on a DNA level we’re remarkably similar.
在非洲中部有几群大猩猩比邻而居
Groups of chimps in Central Africa living right next to each other
它们的基因比整个人类的还要多变
show more genetic variation than we findin the entire human population
这些基因上的相似点显示在大自然界中我们其实是一种很新的物种
This genetic similarity tells us that our species is new, in the big scheme of things,
另一方面我们的样本非常小大概只有一万个
and that at one point our population was small, maybe as few as 10,000 of us.
换一种说法
To put that in perspective
也只有相当于布鲁斯斯普林斯汀粉丝的三分之一
that’s only a third of your average Bruce Springsteen crowd
抱歉 各位大佬
Sorry Boss.
如今两个人之间只有千分之一的DNA碱基对有所差别
Today, any two humans only differ by about 1 out of 1000 DNA base pairs.
但是我们的基因组非常的庞大仍然会有数百万的碱基对不同
But our genome is so big, that’s still millions of single letter differences, or SNPs
即“单核苷酸多态性”
for “single nucleotide polymorphism”.
我们尝试去探索这些突变的组合
We tend to see combinations of these changes
可不同地域之间的关系
chunks of SNPs associatedwith different geographic locations
基因测序公司读取上千个你基因组当中的这些字母
Companies that test your DNA ancestry read thousands of these single letter changes in your genome
用来为你独一无二的基因做一个分类
to make a sort of signature of your unique genetic variation
然后将你的特征与来自世界各地的相关个体作对比
Then they compare your signature to thousands of reference individuals from various parts of the world
并且通过一系列精密的数学计算得出
and do a bunch of fancy math to see
某一段基因组最可能来自于哪里
which parts of your genome most likelycame from certain geographic areas
我的基因测序结果看起来就像这个样子
My genetic results: Pretty much look like this.
我父母双方的祖先都来自于北欧和斯堪迪纳维亚
My ancestors, on both sides of my family, are from Northern Europe and Scandinavia,
这也就解释了我姓氏的来源为什么我这么高,为什么我晒不黑
which explains my last namewhy I’m tall, why I don’t tan
以及为什么我比2/3的人携带有更多的尼安德特人的基因
and also why I carry more Neanderthal DNAthan 2/3 of people.
你很奇怪为什么我会有尼安德特人的基因?
Confused why I have Neanderthal DNA?
你应该去看我们上一个视频我不觉得有什么奇怪
You should watch our last video. I didn’t find any surprises
很多人发现了他们不曾知道的祖先
but many people learned about ancestrythey didn’t know they had.
从外表很难看出我们从哪儿来但是DNA不会撒谎
Where we come from isn’t always obvious on the outside, but DNA doesn’t lie.
之前通过数学计算
Before, using math
我们知道几千年前有一个共同的祖先
we identified an ancestor, not too long ago, that’s related to all of us.
但是那位祖先的基因对我们的影响经过了太多重组
But that person’s genetic influence has been shuffled so much
以至于在我们如今的DNA当中已经不可见了
that is invisible in our DNA today
有哪个人类的基因一直完整的传递到今天吗?
Is there someone whose geneshave been passed on, unbroken, to today?
一些我们每一个活着的人从母亲那里遗传来的特征?
Some leftover fingerprint fromthe mother of everyone alive?
是有的
There is.
你有47号染色体
You have a 47th chromosome.
它就在我们的线粒体里细胞的发动机!
It lives in mitochondriaThe POWERHOUSE OF
THE CELL!
哈哈 我们看一下线粒体
ok, so we do that agian
线粒体在细胞中通常处于游离状态
mitochondria used to be free-swimming.
他们有他自己的基因原料
They have their own genetic material.
和你其他的46条染色体不同的是每代之间的遗传不会有任何的变化
Unlike your other 46 chromosomes, there’s no shuffling when it’s passed between generations.
此外 你所有的线粒体都来自于你母亲的卵子
What’s more, all your mitochondria came from your mother’s egg
而不是你父亲的精子
not your father’s sperm.
他们有你的祖先通过家谱中的女性一代一代原封不动的传承下来
They trace an unbroken line of ancestors stretching back through every female in your family tree.
通过比较数千年来基因所累积的变化
By comparing the changes that have accumulated over the millennia
我们发现最原始的线粒体基因来自于非洲
we find the most ancient human mitochondrial DNA comes from Africa
也就是我们人类起源的地方
where our species originated
我们甚至可以追溯到一个15万年前的女性
We can even trace it back to one woman, about 150,000 years ago.
其他的女性智人和她一样生活但只有她的血统流传到了今天
Other Homo sapiens females lived alongside her, but only her lineage lives on today,
而其余所有智人的血统都绝迹了
all other Homo sapiens lineages are extinct.
这是线粒体生死攸关的一刻
This is mitochondrial Eve.
我们的每个人都继承自她
And every single one of us, descend from her.
说实在的我们所有人其实都是一家人
In the truest sense, we really are family.
虽然我们不过是几百代的表兄弟姐妹或者其他什么关系
Even if we’re just hundredth cousins or something.
但是我们的血统不仅仅代表着从过去衍生过来的分支
But our ancestry isn’t just branches stretching into the past
也是一种向未来的延伸
it’s also a tree that extends into the future.
如今我们从基因的层面去塑造未来的能力
Today we have more power to mold that future, down to the genetic level
远远超过过去的任何时刻
than we’ve ever had before.
那么我们人类未来会是什么样子呢?
So what might our species’ future look like?
下一期
Next time.
保持好奇
Stay curious.
这个视频是关于人类的故事特别系列的一部分
This video is part of a special series we’re doing about the story of our species
我们从哪里来,我们如何相识相知以及我们将何去何从
where we came from, how we’re all connected,and where we’re going.
如果你还没有准备好请先观看第一和第二部分
If you haven’t already, check out part 1 and 2
去追溯我们家谱当中不为人知的往事
to trace the fossils in our family tree
并且了解为什么我们是唯一幸存的一支人类
and learn why we’re the only humans left.
请关注我们的频道以免错过我们精彩的视频
And be sure to subscribe so you don’t miss any of our videos.

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视频概述

科学家已经从基因层面证实了人类个体之间的渊源,我们来自五湖四海,但我们都是一家人,有一个共同的祖先。观看视频,来了解你的家谱中尘封已久的故事。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mnYSMhR3jCI

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