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时间晶体真的存在吗?

Are time crystals real?

I can’t believe I didn’t get promoted again.
真不敢相信我还是没进展
I can do this.
我能行的
[Music] [Music]
[电流声] [按键音]
Ha!
哈!
See, I can be a time lord.
看 我能主宰时间
You’ll see, master Lincoln, you’ll see!
你会看见 林肯大师 你会看见的
Dolen.
Dolen
Who knows what he told people.
谁知道他对人们说了什么
I’m gonna have to fix this, I’ll need master Wilczek’s help.
我得确认下这件事 我需要Wilczek大师的帮助
Kids.
这些孩子啊
ARE TIME CRYSTALS REAL?
时间晶体真的存在吗
if you’re a science buff
如果你是科技迷
then you must have heard the buzz on the internet and in the media
那你一定听说过网络和媒体上
about an exciting sounding topic called time crystals.
关于时间晶体的激烈讨论
it’s completely reasonable that you might have immediately thought about such things
理所当然地 你可能立刻就会想到诸如
as the British television show Doctor Who,
《神秘博士》这样的英剧
the movie Twelve Monkeys,
或是《十二只猴子》这样的电影
or maybe even Thanos’s infinity stones.
甚至是灭霸的无限宝石
Sadly, the reality is far less thrilling.
不幸的是 现实远没有这么让人兴奋
it turns out that there’s a bit of a disconnect
事实上 时间晶体与它的名字和现实
between the name and the reality.
有一点脱节
that’s not to say
但这并不是说
that real time crystals aren’t interesting scientific discovery
真正的时间晶体不是一个有趣的科学发现
they’re just not a way to zoom through time,
它们只是不像《比尔和泰德的冒险旅记》中写的那样
like Bill and Ted’s most Excellent Adventure.
是一种穿越时空的方式
Time crystals are actually a new kind of matter,
时间晶体实际上是一种新物质
one that repeats itself in time
它能及时地进行自我复制
You probably know about ordinary crystals, like the ones you see here.
对这样的普通水晶你可能有一些了解
They’re beautiful.
它们很漂亮
And they’re not just beautiful to see,
而且不仅仅是看起来漂亮
their beauty goes all the way down to the molecular level
它们的美无处不在 甚至到了分子层面
where the individual atoms in a vast lattice repeat in space.
单个原子在无限的晶格中不断重复着
Time crystals are just when configurations of matter repeat themselves periodically.
而时间晶体就是物质的结构做周期性重复
Now you have to be careful,
现在你要注意了
as a planet orbiting the Sun finds itself in the same place over and over again.
像行星绕太阳公转会不断地出现在同一个地方这种情况
That’s not a time crystal.
并不是时间晶体
Time crystals occur when a bunch of adjacent atoms
只有在一堆相邻原子不断重复它们的结构时
repeat their configuration over and over again.
时间晶体才会出现
Time crystals were first proposed in 2012
时间晶体在2012年被首次提出
when master- I mean professor- Frank Wilczek of MIT
麻省理工学院的大师 我是说教授Frank Wilczek
described them in an article called Quantum Time Crystals.
曾在一篇名为《量子时间晶体》的论文中描述过它们
At the atomic level,
在原子水平
ordinary matter looks pretty much the same, no matter when you look at it
无论什么时候 普通物质看上去都极其相似
This is called having translational time symmetry.
这被称为可平移的时间对称
Wilczek proposed a type of matter that changed what it looked like over time.
Wilczek提出了一种形态会随时间变化的物质
Look at it at one moment and you see one thing,
在某个时刻时看它是一种样子
look at it at a different time, and it looks different
再次看它时又会是另一种
And here’s the key point,
接下来是关键
if you looked at it at a fixed time interval,
如果你在一个固定的时间段内盯着它
it would always look the same.
它看起来会一直不变
Now Wilczek imagined that these crystals would be perpetual motion machines,
Wilczek猜想这些晶体就像是永动机
cyclically repeating their structure forever.
不断周期性地重复它们的结构
However, shortly after that,
然而 之后不久
two theoretical physicists
两个理论物理学家
by the name of Patrick Bruno from France
法国的Patrick Bruno
and Masaki Oshikawa from Tokyo
和东京的Masaki Oshikawa
independently published papers that said that time crystals
分别发表文章
could only happen if the system was not in thermal equilibrium,
称时间晶体只有在系统热量不守恒时才会出现
which is just a fancy way of saying
这是对时间晶体
that time crystals can exist
只有在系统能量发生改变时才会存在
only if the energy of the system changes.
的一种别出心裁的说法
In 2017, physicist Norman Yao and his collaborators published a paper
2017年 物理学家Norman Yao和他的合作者们发表了一篇
called “Discrete Time Crystals: Rigidity, Criticality, and Realizations”,
名为《离散时间晶体:硬度临界实现》的论文
which described how to make a time crystal.
这篇论文描述了如何制造一个时间晶体
And then the challenge was on.
然后挑战开始了
Since then, two groups
从那以后
one at Harvard and one at the University of Maryland
哈佛大学和马里兰大学的两个团队
have made time crystals.
已分别制造出了时间晶体
So, what does a time crystal look like?
那么 时间晶体究竟是什么样子?
Well, different groups have made different versions.
不同的团队有不同的样式
I’ll show you one to give you the idea.
我给你们看其中一个例子
Suppose you had a string of atoms arranged like on a pearl necklace.
假设你有一串像珍珠项链一样排列的原子
Each atom has a spin associated with it
每个原子都有一个与之相对应的自旋
and these arrows represent the spin axis.
这些箭头代表了自旋轴
In matter at a low enough temperature
在温度足够低的情况下
that the atoms aren’t jiggling too much,
原子不会剧烈振动
the spin of the atoms tends to line up with one another,
此时 各个原子的自旋会趋于一致
either pointing in the same direction or the opposite one another
方向或者相同或者相反
They do this because
这是因为
it’s the lowest energy way they can arrange themselves.
这是原子自由排列方式中所需能量最低的一种
If the arrows- or spins- are pointing in different directions,
如果箭头(或者说是自旋)指向不同的方向
this is a higher energy configuration
则是更高能的结构
and, well, the universe doesn’t like that.
当然 这并不符合宇宙规律
Now you can hit the string of atoms with a laser.
现在 你可以用激光照射这串原子
A laser is nothing more than an oscillating electromagnetic field
激光只是一种振荡的电磁场
and that field forces the spins of the atoms to flip rhythmically with the laser.
这个磁场迫使原子的自旋随着激光有节奏的翻转
So far, nothing here is particularly interesting.
目前为止 并没有什么有趣的地方
That’s pretty ordinary physics.
这都是基础物理
It’s kind of what you’d expect
就像你所期望的
The spin patterns of the atoms repeat themselves over and over again.
原子的自旋模式一遍又一遍的重复着
Now comes the good stuff.
现在好戏开始了
What happens if you turn off the laser?
如果你关掉激光会发生什么呢?
The spins continue to flip,
旋转仍在持续
even though they aren’t being forced to by the laser.
即使并没有激光作用也一样
And here’s something that’s even weirder still.
还有更怪诞的事
you can use a more complicated laser
你可以用更复杂的激光
to irradiated of atoms with a random electromagnetic field
照射具有随机电场的原子
and the atoms continue to oscillate the way
此时这些原子持续振动的方式
they did when the regular laser hit them
与用普通激光照射一样
So, are time crystals useful?
那么 时间晶体有用吗?
Well, possibly.
或许吧
There’s a big hubbub in the physics and computation world
在物理和计算领域
about something called quantum computing.
关于量子计算存在着很大的争议
The problem with quantum computing is that,
量子计算的问题在于
like all things quantum,
像所有量子的东西一样
it’s easy to disrupt the quantum state
量子态很容易被破坏
to peek in the box to see
打比方说 往盒子里偷看
if the Schroedinger’s cat is alive or dead, so to speak.
看看薛定谔的猫是死是活
However, time crystals have the ability
然而 时间晶体有能力
to persist in their configuration
保留他们的结构
even when they aren’t explicitly held there.
即时它们没有明确的维持在那里
Thus, it may be that
因此 有可能
they could form the basis of a memory for quantum computing.
时间晶体能成为构成量子计算机存储器的基础
Or not.
当然也可能不行
Nobody’s really sure.
没有人真的知道
The technology of time crystals and quantum computing
时间晶体的科技和量子计算机
are both still in their infancy
都在初始阶段
and it will be some time before we get this all figured out.
我们还需要一段时间才能把这一切弄清楚
So that’s it.
就是这样
That’s basically all time crystals are.
以上基本上就是时间晶体了
I wish I could say that they were as sexy as their name,
我希望我能说时间晶体和它们的名字一样迷人
but I can’t.
但我不能
Scientists will continue to study them and be fascinated,
科学家们将继续研究它们并为之着迷
but the internet rumors of a time machine
但网上关于时光机的谣传
are, well, completely overblown.
是完全夸大了的
[Music]
[音乐]
okay, so time crystals – great name
时间晶体 很棒的名字
but they don’t live up to the hyperbole.
但他们没有达到夸张的程度
Remember- time crystals are a new type of matter
请记住 时间晶体是一种新物质
and not a power source for time travel.
并不是时间旅行的能源
Time lords aren’t real
时间之王不是真的
and there is no basis for the rumor
而且也没证据表明
Fermilab and CERN how’s time holds no
费米实验室和欧洲核子研究中心的时间是怎么回事
No basis at all.
完全没有依据
I hope you enjoyed the video.
希望你们喜欢这个视频
If you did, please like, subscribe, and share.
如果你喜欢 记得点赞 关注并分享
We want everyone to not fall for this ridiculous hype.
我们希望大家不要被这种荒谬的炒作所迷惑
I mean, it is all physics
我的意思是 这都是物理学
because, of course, physics is everything.
因为 当然 物理就是一切
Alright.
好了
You think they bought it?
你认为他们会买账吗?
You worry too much, master Lincoln.
你担心的太多了 林肯大师
The council is satisfied.
议会很满意
[Music]
[音乐]

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hV2Vxfxu47k

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