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有通用的感情表达方式吗? – 译学馆
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有通用的感情表达方式吗?

Are there universal expressions of emotion? - Sophie Zadeh

你知道吗?TED教育俱乐部 “学生之声”项目将130多个国家的孩子们联系在一起
人类的脸部约有40块肌肉
The 40 or so muscles in the human face
被用在不同的组合中
can be activated in different combinations
做出成千上万的表情
to create thousands of expressions.
但无论在全世界的任何文化中
But do these expressions look the same
这些表情都看起来都一样
and communicate the same meaning
并传达着相同的意思吗?
around the world regardless of culture?
一个人的笑脸会被看作是另一人的鬼脸吗?
Is one person’s smile another’s grimace?
查理斯·达尔文认为情绪表达是人类共同的特征
Charles Darwin theorized that emotionalexpression was a common human feature.
但同意他的人只占少数
But he was in the minority.
直到20世纪中期
Until the mid-20th century,
很多研究者认为我们表达情感的具体方式
many researchers believed that the specific ways we show emotion
是因文化而异的学习行为
were learned behaviorsthat varied across cultures.
性格理论家西尔万·汤姆金斯是少数反对者
Personality theorist Silvan Tomkins was one of the few to insist otherwise.
他声称某些特定的情绪反应
Tomkins claimed that certain affects,
情绪状态以及对应的面部表情
emotional states and their associatedfacial expressions
是通用的
were universal.
20世纪60年代 心理学家保罗·艾克曼
In the 1960s, psychologist Paul Ekmanset about testing this theory
开始着手检验这一理论
set about testing this theory
通过审查有关与当今世界脱节的
by examining hundredsof hours of film footage
偏僻部落上百个小时的电影镜头
of remote tribes isolatedfrom the modern world.
艾克曼发现当地人的表情不仅相似
Ekman found the native peoples’expressions to be not only familiar,
而且恰恰出现在他期望的情景中
but occurring in preciselythe situations he would expect.
相反地 他在之前从未
Conversely, he ran tests with tribes
接触西方文化的部落进行实验
who had no prior exposure to Western culture.
他们做出的表情也能与
They were able to correctly match photosof different facial expressions
情境设计所要触发的表情完美切合
with stories designedto trigger particular feelings.
接下来的几十年里
Over the next few decades,
进一步的调查证实了达尔文的猜想
further research has corroborated Darwin’s idea
即我们的几个重要的表情确实是通用的
that some of our most important emotional expressions are in fact universal.
适合特定情境的表情在不同文化中
The degrees of expression appropriateto a given situation can,
会有很大不同
however, vary greatly across cultures.
例如 研究人员曾研究过天生失明者
For instance, researchers have studied facial expression
的面部表情
in people who are born blind,
假定表情是通用的 那么
hypothesizing that if expressions are universal,
他们会和未盲人一样以相同方式表达情感
they would be displayedin the same way as sighted people.
在一个研究中 失明及未失明的运动员
In one study, both blind and sighted athletes
在赢或输掉比赛时有着同样的表情
displayed the same expressions of emotion when winning or losing their matches.
进一步的证据可以在我们进化的近亲中找到
Further evidence can be found in our evolutionary relatives.
对比人与非人类哺乳动物的面部表情
Comparisons of facial expressionbetween humans and non-human mammals
已发现两者面部肌肉的构造及活动上的相似之处
have found similarities in the structureand movement of facial muscles.
虽然大猩猩笑起来看上去不同于我们
Chimpanzee laughter looks different from ours,
但使用了相同的肌肉运动
but uses some of the same muscle movements.
早在60年代 艾克曼就已鉴定出六种核心表情
Back in the 60s, Ekman identifiedsix core expressions.
生气:伴随着低眉紧蹙
Anger is accompanied by loweredeyebrows drawn together,
紧张 眯眼 及双唇紧闭
tense and narrowed eyes, and tight lips;
厌恶:噘嘴 微微皱鼻
disgust, by the lips pulled up and the nose crinkling.
恐惧:挑眉张嘴的同时
In fear, the upper white of the eyes
会露出眼睛上方的眼白
are revealed as the eyebrows raise and the mouth stretches open,
惊喜虽看上去相似 但眉毛弯曲 嘴唇放松
while surprise looks similar, but with rounded eyebrows and relaxed lips.
悲伤:双眉内端 被拉向
Sadness is indicated by the inner corners of the eyebrows
眉心 并向上扬
being drawn inwards and upwards,
耷拉着眼睛 瘪着嘴
drooping eyes, and a downturned mouth.
当然还有幸福:嘴唇向上方及后方被拉起
And of course there’s happiness: lips drawn up and back,
抬起的两颊导致眼周围出现皱纹
and raised cheeks causing wrinklingaround the eyes.
最近 研究者提出额外的表情
More recently, researchershave proposed additional entries
比如 蔑视 羞愧和反对
such as contempt, shame, and disapproval,
但关于这些表情类型应如何划分
but opinions vary on how distinct boundaries
的意见 各不相同
between these categories can be drawn.
那么如果艾克曼和其他研究者是对的
So if Ekman and other researchersare correct,
究竟是什么使某些表情通用呢?
what makes certain expressions universal?
为什么他们以这些特别的方式表现出来呢?
And why are they expressedin these particular ways?
科学家有很多基于进化史的理论
Scientists have a lot of theories rootedin our evolutionary history.
有一个就是某些表情对生存至关重要
One is that certain expressionsare important for survival.
恐惧和惊讶可向他人示意有紧急危险
Fear and surprise could signalto others an immediate danger.
有关人类和其他灵长类的研究发现
Studies of humans and some other primates have found that
相较不露声色 我们更关注示意威胁的脸
we pay more attention to faces that signal threats over neutral faces,
尤其当我们处于高度警戒状态时
particularly when we’re already on high alert.
表情也可通过和周围人的内心交流
Expressions also couldhelp improve group fitness
帮助改善团队适应性
by communicating our internal statesto those around us.
例如 悲伤这个表情向团体示意
Sadness, for example, signals to the group
有事情出了差错
that something’s wrong.
有证据表明 表情可能
There ’ s some evidence that expressions might be
和我们的生理反应有着更直接的联系
even more directly linked to our physiology.
比如 恐惧这个表情
The fear expression, for instance,
可直接帮助你在潜在危险下的生存
could directly improve survival in potentially dangerous situations
通过让我们的眼接收更多光
by letting our eyes absorb more light
肺摄入更多空气
and our lungs take in more air,
做好战斗或逃离的准备
preparing us to fight or flee.
在理解情感表达方面 还有很多研究要做
There’s still much research to be donein understanding emotional expression,
尤其是当我们更多地了解大脑的内部运作时
particularly as we learn more about the inner workings of the brain.
但如果你发现自己身处
But if you ever find yourself
只有陌生人的陌生岛屿
among strangers in a strange land,
一个友好的微笑会非常实用
a friendly smile could go a long way.
我们TED教育俱乐部的“学生之声”项目的成员
Members of our Student Voice Program TedEd clubs
跨越六大洲 遍及无数文化
connect with each other across six continents
全年都在相互沟通建立良好关系
in countless cultures through out the year.
快加入我们 来看看有多少共同之处吧
Join us to see just how much we have in common.
请访问ed.ted.com/clubs联系我们
Visit ed.ted.com/clubs to connect.

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视频概述

查理斯·达尔文的观点:世界上表情有通性;19世纪中期有学者认为人们之间的表情各不相同。作者认可前者,并列举研究证明。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-hr58Yu0yDs

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