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男女大脑有区别吗? – 译学馆
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男女大脑有区别吗?

Are There "Male" and "Female" Brains?

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我想我们都听过一句话
I think we’ve all heard this saying
“男人来自火星 女人来自金星”
“Men are from Mars, women are from Venus”.
这意味着男女从根本上就完全不同
The implication being that they are just completely totally fundamentally distinct.
假如你拿起一个男性大脑和女性大脑并比较它们
But say you picked up a male brain and a female brain, and compared them.
比如说把它们塞进你的精灵球或者包包里
Like you squeeze them in your pokemon, Prada man .
这个例子有点恶心
This is kind of a gross example.
我觉得我们不该拿“大脑”开玩笑
I don’t think we should be playing with brains.
还是放了大脑吧
Put the brains down.
问题是如果将男女的大脑并排放在一起
The question is if you looked at a male and female brain side by side,
你能看出它们的不同之处吗?
would you be able to see any differences?
好吧 答案有很大的争议
Well, the answer is super controversial.
用肉眼可能无法看出什么不同
And you probably wouldn’t be able to
只会觉得好像可能有……
tell with the naked eye, but like.
或许更好的问题是 就算你能看出来又如何
Maybe the better question is would it even matter if you could.
注意了 我们讨论的是性别的生物属性 而非社会属性
Now it’s important to note that we’re talking about biological sex here, not gender.
几乎所有大脑解剖学方面的研究都在那些
Almost all of the studies on brain anatomy have been done with people
性别的生物属性与社会属性相同的人身上完成
whose gender identity aligns with the sex.
性别在出生时就被分配好了
They were assigned with at birth,
这意味着这个结果不适用于具有其他性别社会属性的人
which means we can’t really apply their results to people with other gender identities.
也不适用于
The same for people who are intersex,
染色体和生殖系统结构
meaning their chromosomes or reproductive anatomy
不同于典型二倍体的双性人
don’t fit the typical binary.
考虑到这种情况
With that in mind though,
我们不妨想想生物性别上的男女大脑
we can ask whether there are fundamental differences in
在解剖学方面是否存在根本性差异
brain anatomy between biosex males and females.
并且我们有很多理由提出这样的疑问:
And there are a lot of good reasons to ask that
它是如何使人产生成见的
how did it stereotypes
比如“男性比女性更擅长数学”便是其中的一种想法
like the idea that males are better at math are one of them.
但男女有别已被普遍认可
But there are differences between males and females that are pretty well supported.
例如 女性更容易被诊断出心理疾病
For instance, females are more frequently diagnosed with disorders
比如抑郁症和焦虑症 患老年痴呆症的几率也更高
like depression and anxiety and have higher rates of Alzheimer’s.
如果存在的话 两性大脑的生理差异
Biological differences in the brain, if they exist,
能帮助我们解释并治疗这些疾病
could help explain and treat these diseases,
然而事实上大多数科学实验并不使用雌性动物模型
and then there’s the fact that most of science just doesn’t use female animal models.
2010年的一项关于性别偏见的研究发现
A 2010 study of sex bias in research found that
神经科学学科是最罪恶的领域之一
neuroscience was one of the guiltiest fields,
雄性动物被研究的次数是雌性动物的五倍
and that male animals were studied more than five times as often as female animals.
原因如下 事实上
There are reasons for this, including the fact that
实验小白鼠每4到6天进一次高温箱
lab mice go into heat every four to six days.
我是说 你想想 雌性小白鼠每月来一次经前综合征
I mean if you thought PMS once a month,
这种激素紊乱的症状不利于科学实验中的控制变量
was bad try factoring that kind of hormonal haywire into your nicely controlled scientific experiments.
如果男女大脑有差异
That if human male and female brains are different
那么不研究雌性动物模型就是一个相当严重的问题
then not studying female animal models is a pretty big problem.
所以 生理性别是否与大脑在解剖学上的差异有关?
So, are sex related anatomical differences a thing or not?
好吧 既有 也没有
Well, yes and no.
一致的发现是平均说来男性大脑比女性大脑大
The one consistent finding is that male brains are bigger on average than female ones
这是说得通的 因为通常情况下
which make sense because generally
男性大脑更大 体型更大 身体各部分也较大
male heads are bigger. Bigger bodies, bigger body parts.
其他研究表明两性的大脑特定区域存在差异
Other studies suggest that there are differences in specific brain regions.
或者说女性大脑有些区域的皮质层更厚
Or that for females some regions have thicker cortices.
那些大脑外缘褶皱的灰质(皮质层)
The folded grey matter on the outer edge of the brain
管理着我们的高级认知系统
that we use to do our higher-level cognition.
但是不同研究的结果不同 这取决于
But findings vary by study and all of them depend on
你是否将男性更大型的大脑也考虑在内
whether or not you correct for the larger size of the male brain overall.
当你这么做了 一些实验结论就不再成立
When you do some of the results disappear,
有些与之前相同 还有些甚至与之前截然相反
and some stay the same and some even flip which sex is larger.
无论是否进行那样的考虑 就算仅是重复多次
Though again, different studies have had different results.
不同研究也会有不同结果
And whether or not to do that kind of size correction,
这仍为科学家们所激烈争论
it’s still hotly debated by scientists.
一些研究人员指出
Some researchers point out that
大脑的大小与身体尺寸无关
larger brain structures are still larger brain structures
大的还是大的 小的还是小的
no matter what size your body is.
那些多出来的神经细胞一定有其作用
Those extra neurons got to be doing something right
我们对人类大脑尺寸大于其他灵长类动物
and we make all this fuss about our brains
这件事太过于大惊小怪
being bigger than those of other primates.
因为我们假定大小很重要
Because we assume that size matters.
但尽管抹香鲸大脑的尺寸是我们的六倍有余
But it’s not like we think sperm whales are vastly more intelligent than we are,
抹香鲸却并非我们想的那样比我们聪明很多
even though their brains are more than six times the size of ours.
所以大多数关于表征或疾病状况的研究
So most studies investigating behaviors or disease conditions
注重的是大脑的相对大小
look at the relative size instead.
实际上 一旦你参照大脑的相对大小
Indeed the very fact that a lot of sex differences disappear,
很多两性差异就消失了
once you correct for relative head size
这表明 也许这种方式值得再考虑一下
suggests that maybe it’s worth taking a second look at.
例如 2018年的一项
For example, a 2018 study
或许是目前为止取样最广的一项研究
which is perhaps the most comprehensive to date,
研究了2750个女性大脑和2466个男性大脑
looked at the brains of 2,750 females and 2466 males.
发现解剖学结构差异确实存在
And found that anatomical differences did exist
而且在统计上十分显著
and were statistically significant.
通常 女性大脑的68个脑区中有48个皮质层相对较厚
On average, females had thicker cortices in 48 of the 68 brain regions examined.
但男性大脑 脑区和脑结构更大
But males had larger brains and larger brain regions and structures.
当将脑尺寸也作为考虑因素
When the size of the brain was accounted for though,
两性差异和大部分脑区的尺寸差异消失了
the sex differences and the size of most of these regions disappeared.
所以 脑结构尺寸确实存在差异
So do the size differences in structures,
比如 海马体 尾状核和丘脑
like the hippocampus caudate nucleus and thalamus.
最终发现 女性的10个脑区
And females ended up having larger relative volumes for
与右伏核的容量相对较大
10 regions as well as the right nucleus accumbens.
所以这些脑结构尺寸的绝对或相对差异很小
So the differences in size of these structures absolute or relative were small
而且存在许多重叠之处
and there was a lot of overlap.
如果一个特定脑结构过大或者过小
So if a particular structure was really big, or really small,
或许与特定的性别有关
it might be associated with a particular sex.
但给定脑结构的尺寸有许多不同之处
But plenty of different sizes for a given structure
就可以认为是对男性和女性而言都很正常的事
could be considered totally normal for males or females.
而且先前的研究已经发现
And previous studies had found that
尽管两性大脑之间存在普遍差异
while there are average differences between the sexes,
个体大脑却并非一定要是男性或女性的
individuals don’t necessarily have male or female brains.
2015年一项对281个大脑样本的研究中 研究人员发现
Researchers in a 2015 study of 281 brains found that
个体常常同时含有
individuals often have like a quote and unquote mosaic
男女大脑的特征
of male-ish and female-ish brain characteristics,
而不是其所有大脑结构都趋向于一种性别
rather than all their structures tending toward one sex.
从中能得出什么结论呢?
What conclusion can be drawn from all of this?
好吧 虽然有些争议
Well, despite all the controversy,
但也许通常男女大脑间存在某些细微差异
there might be some small differences on average between male and female brains
并且某种程度上也说得通
and that does kind of make sense.
毕竟 男性和女性的染色体就不同
After all, males and females have different chromosomes
而且我们在出生前和整个生命历程中
and are exposed to a different set of hormones
分泌的荷尔蒙也是不同的
both prenatally and throughout our entire lives.
尽管如此 许多社会心理学家和社会学家指出
Despite that though, a lot of social psychologists and sociologists
想要了解两性大脑差异中
point out that it’s impossible to know
有多少来源于生物因素
how much of these sex differences come from biology
有多少来源于环境影响并不可能
and how much come from environmental influences.
毕竟 大脑因其可塑性闻名
The brain is famous for being plastic after all,
如果玩电子游戏能够改变你的大脑
and it makes sense that if playing video games alters your brain,
那么抚养和对待你的方式以及你的种种行为也会影响你的大脑
how you were raised and treated and act, alters your brain too.
但在所有的争论下还有一种潜在的
But there’s also an assumption underlying all this debate
很少遭到人们的质疑的假想
which is rarely questioned that
这些两性大脑间的差异会影响两性在认知和行为方面的特殊差异
these differences correlate to sex specific differences in cognition or behavior.
问题是 并没有充足的证据证明那是对的
The thing is there’s not much evidence that, that’s true.
那应该是有原因的
And there might be a reason for that.
一些心理学家提出一个有趣的理论:尺寸很重要
One interesting theory some psychologists have is that size does matter.
但是两性大脑结构差异弥补了
But that the anatomical differences between the sexes compensate
可能由于尺寸导致的认知差异
for any cognitive differences that might otherwise arise because of sizing.
所以 女性相对较大的右伏核和相对较厚的皮质层
So that relatively large right nucleus accumbens or the thicker cortices of females,
可以让她们像男性那样行动或思考
don’t make them act or think differently than males.
能够确保她们兼具男性较大脑部对应的相关特征
It ensures they don’t despite the male’s larger noggins.
即使大小很重要 但也并非越大越好
And even if size does matter bigger isn’t necessarily better.
简单说来 并没有那么多的证据
There simply isn’t a lot of evidence that actually connects
可以将解剖学差异和行为或认知真正地联系起来
anatomical differences in brains to behavior or cognition.
除非你正谈论的是
Unless you’re talking about things,
畸形 病变或者有严重脑损伤等类似情况的人
like malformations, lesions or serious brain damage.
还记得颅相学吗?
And remember phrenology.
十九世纪时 非常流行通过人头部的不同区域的凹凸程度
That’s super cool trend in the 1800’s of using the lumps and bumps
来判断他们的想法与个性
on a person’s head to make judgments about their thoughts and personality.
是的 这让每个人看起来像个傻子
Yeah, that one made everybody look silly.
所以照例 要搞清所有事情还有很多功课要做
So as usual, there’s a lot more work to be done to figure out what all this means.
但是现在 你可以对任何用大脑结构
But for now, you could be pretty skeptical of anyone trying to
去证明两性差异的人持怀疑态度
use brain anatomy to justify any argument about differences between the sexes.
感谢观看本期《心理科学秀》
Thanks for watching this episode of scishow psyche,
如果你还想继续探索大脑尺寸的神奇之处
if you want keep exploring the wonders of brains large and small.
请点击订阅按钮
Be sure to click that subscribe button.
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视频概述

男女的大脑到底有什么区别?这里有最正确的答案,最完美的解释,还不快来看看呐!

听录译者

Amy

翻译译者

Zeitgeist

审核员

审核员 DL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z5c7ubF0u-U

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