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植物有意识吗? – 译学馆
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植物有意识吗?

Are Plants Conscious?

(bright orchestral music)
(轻快的交响乐)
– Hey there and welcome to Brain Stuff.
大家好 欢迎来到Brain Stuff
I’m Josh Clark and this is the Brain Stuff
我是乔治·克拉克 这里是Brain Stuff
where I explain to you
在这我要给你介绍的是
whether or not plants are conscious, which is a pretty cool question.
一个很酷的问题 植物是否有意识
Have you ever seen that old classic Star Trek episode
你有没有看过经典的《星球迷航记》
A Wink of an Eye, where the Enterprise crew
《眨眼的一瞬间》那一集 企业号船员们就
encounters this race of aliens that moves so fast
碰见了移动十分快速的外星生物
that by comparison, the Enterprise crew
相比之下 宇航员
seems to not move at all?
看起来一点也没有移动
They’re kind of like plants to these aliens and,
对这些外星人来说人类有点像植物
just like in our reality,
就像在现实中
if you look at a plant
如果你用快进的方法看一棵植物
in fast motion, you can see
你可以看到
that it has a lot of lively movements.
它有许多活泼的动作
But are they really conscious?
但是植物真的有意识吗?
That is a great question and,
这是一个很好的问题
it was first posed by a guy named Charles Darwin,
首先提出这个问题的是查尔斯·达尔文
who you may have heard of, at some point in time.
你可能曾听过他的名字
He came up with the concept of the root brain.
他提出了“根脑”的概念
The idea behind this is that the tips
这个观点的意思是指
of a plant’s roots act
植物根部的尖端就如同
as kind of a brain for it,
植物的大脑
accepting information from outside stimuli
当受到外部的刺激时
and telling the plant to act,
就会指导植物做出反应
or move or do something as a reaction.
动一动或者做出别的动作
Over time, this concept led to the field of what’s called
许多年来 这个观点引领了
Plant Neurobiology, and that term
植物神经生物学领域 并且
drives other scientists crazy.
这个术语使另外的科学家十分狂热
But T-S, because this field of inquiry has yielded
而且T-S因为这个领域的探寻取得了
some pretty cool ideas about plants.
一些关于植物很酷的想法
For example, we know that plants have a lot of senses
比如 我们知道植物和人类一样
that are analogous to human senses
有各种知觉
like sight, smells, sound, touch, taste.
比如视觉 嗅觉 听觉 触觉 味觉
Like when a plant senses that a caterpillar
比如说植物感觉到一只毛毛虫
is eating one of its leaves, it will produce
正在吃自己的叶子 它会释放
this kind of substance that’s like a mustard oil
这种近似芥末油的物质
that repelsthe caterpillar.
来驱赶毛毛虫
The cool thing is
超酷的是
that scientists have found when they play just the audio recording of a caterpillar,
科学家们发现 当他们只是播放毛毛虫的录音时
there’s no caterpillar anywhere around,
而事实上周围并没有毛毛虫
by a plant, the plant will still produce this
在植物的作用下 植物仍然会产生这种
mustard oil like substance, which means that plants can hear in a way.
芥子油状物质 意味着植物可以在某种程度上听到
That’s pretty awesome, right?
这是相当令人敬畏的 对吧
This chemical signaling thing appears in plants
这种化学信号物质存在于自然界的
throughout nature.
植物中
The smell of fresh cut grass is actually a signal
割草的新鲜气味实际上是一个信号
to other grass plants that there is some sort
对其他禾本科植物 是某种
of crazy danger afoot.
正在发生的超级危险
What’s going on?
发生了什么事?
I don’t know but everybody duck.
我不知道 但是大家快低头
Now the reason some scientists hate the term Plant Neurobiology is
现在一些科学家讨厌植物神经生物学的原因是
that plants lack neurons, hence,
因为植物缺少神经元 因此
they can’t have a neurobiology.
他们没法研究神经生物学
But this is kind of splitting hairs.
但这是一种滑稽的看法
Researchers have found that plants do have something
研究者已经发现植物有一些
that’s like a central nervous system.
类似的中枢神经系统
They have glutamate receptors, just like we do.
它们和我们一样有谷氨酸受体
We use ours to form memories.
我们用谷氨酸受体形成记忆
They have neurotransmitters and they use electricity
他们有神经递质 而且他们用电
to transfer information throughout the plant,
在植物体内传递信息
to get it to move and react. And,
驱使其移动和反应 而且
some scientists have found that when you give plants drugs, yes,
一些科学家发现 当你给植物播撒毒品时 是的
some scientists give plants drugs,
一些科学家给植物播撒毒品
that it can actually have weird effects
实际上它的中枢神经
on the plant’s central nervous system. Like,
会产生奇怪的效果 就好似
they’re on drugs.
它们上瘾了
Plants can also display learning behavior, which is another hallmark of consciousness.
能展现出学习行为是植物的另一个有意识的标志
For example, the Mimosa pudika plant has this
比如 含羞草具有
cool defense mechanism where when it senses danger,
刺激性反射机制 就是当它感觉危险时
it curls its leaves inward. But,
它会把它的叶子往里卷 但是
that requires a lot of energy,
需要很大的能量
so the Mimosa pudica plant has evolved
所以含羞草在感受到刺激
to not curl its leaves when it deems the stimulis
但不觉得危险时
non dangerous.
尽量不会卷曲叶子
Alright? Well,
对吗 好的
scientists found that when they dropped the Mimosa pudica plant,
科学家们发现当他们最初把含羞草扔下去时
at first, it’ll curl its leaves,
它将卷起它的叶子
but after a few drops, it’ll figure out
但是几次之后它就会认为
that the drop is not actually a threat,
这种摔落并不真是威胁
and will learn to stop curling its leaves.
因此将停止卷起它的叶子
Even more astounding, is that these plants display
甚至更令人震惊的是 这些植物展现了
some sort of memory, because a month later,
一种记忆力 因为一个月之后
when they’re dropped again, they still won’t curl their leaves.
当他们再次摔落它们时 它们仍不会卷起叶子
It’s not a novel experience anymore,
这不是一个出乎意料的结论
the plants have learned.
植物是能够学习的
So are plants conscious?
所以植物是有意识的吗?
The jury’s still out, but it’s starting to look that way.
这个结论仍不好说 但正在被越来越多的人所接受
So maybe, when you hear that you’re supposed to talk
所以可能 当你听到你应该同植物说话
to your plants, to get them to grow more, it
让它们茁壮成长时
‘s not actually because of the CO2 you’re breathing
事实上 并不是因为你呼出的二氧化碳的给养
out onto them, it’s because they’re reacting
而是因为它们
to being treated nicely.
感受到了你的关爱
This is a great episode.
这章的内容很好
I know you agree, and, for even more
我想你们也是这样觉得的 所以为了更好的
great stuff, a universe of great stuff, go
生物知识 全世界的好的生物知识
to How Stuff Works, you’ll love it.
来观看how stuff works吧 你将会爱上它的

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