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海鲜中的微塑料有致癌风险吗?

Are Microplastics in Seafood a Cancer Risk?

海鲜中的微塑料会致癌吗
Are Microplastics in Seafood a Cancer Risk?
“’海洋’中的塑料碎片不仅仅是难看这个问题”
“Plastic debris in the [sea] is more than just an unsightly problem.”
引起关注的不是如此多的饮料瓶的丢弃
The concern is not so much discarded bobbing bottles,
而是其作为微小的微塑料颗粒 是否可以致癌
as tiny microplastic particles,raising questions about cancer.
等等 塑料制品跟癌症有什么关系?
Wait,what does plastic have to do with cancer?
回溯到20世纪50年代 研究人员发现
Back in the 1950s,researchers had observed
当他们用玻璃纸包裹大鼠的肾脏后
that when they wrapped the kidneys of rats
-(本身是为了)导致大鼠患上高血压-
with cellophane—to cause high blood pressure—
但最后无意中导致了大鼠患癌
they ended up inadvertently causing cancer.
研究人员发现 癌细胞刚开始是在玻璃纸周围生长的
Cancers had started growing around the cellophane.
所以 他们尝试用不同种类的塑料
So,they tried slipping all sorts of different plastics
在啮齿动物的表皮上滑动 发现都可以令动物患上恶性肿瘤
under the skin of rodents, and they all could produce malignant tumors.
如果用塑料微生物喂大鼠
And then, if you feed rats some plastic microbeads,
高达6%塑料颗粒会在15分钟内
up to 6 percent of the particles end up
进入大鼠血液里
in their bloodstream within 15 minutes.
所以 微塑料污染可以成为 我们看见的野生动物中
So,could all this microplastics pollution be one of the reasons
肿瘤数量增加的原因之一吗?
we’re seeing an increased number of tumors found in wildlife?
或许 在全球范围内 野生动物患癌数量的增加应该是一个”警钟”
Perhaps the global increase in wildlife cancers should be a ‘ wake-up call.
现在 我们不知道是塑料本身
Now we don’t know if it’s the plastic itself
还是其中的一些化学添加剂 比如双酚A 会导致癌症
or some of the chemical additives, like BPA, that are to blame.
或许 仅仅是一个塑料颗粒堵塞在你身体里
Maybe just a plastic particle stuck in your body
但它带来的某种机械性刺激 会超过
causes some sort of mechanical irritation beyond the chemical impact
其作为可能的载体带来的的化学影响
of the plastics as carriers of possible carcinogens.
有些塑料也许本身就可致癌
Some plastics may be cancer-causing in and of themselves,
但一切种类的塑料都能很轻易地累积
but all plastics readily accumulate
有害化学物质 例如 残留的农药:
harmful chemicals such as persistent pesticides
DDT PCBs和阻燃化学品
like DDT, PCBs, flame retardant chemicals,
并且还会增加这些物质的浓度的数量级
increasing their concentration by orders of magnitude.
该过程是可逆的 在摄入时 微塑料会释放污染物
This process is then reversible, with microplastics releasing contaminants upon ingestion.
因此 塑料碎片可能充当载体
So,plastic debris may act as a vector, transferring persistent, bioaccumulative
将持久的 生物累积的和有毒的物质从水里转移到食物中
and toxic substances from the water to the food.
众所周知 塑料能利用多达一百万次的因子
Plastics are known to concentrate pollution from [water]
集中来自[水]中的污染 它的危害可以参考多次的PCBs污染事件
by factors of up to a million times, for example for PCBs.
实际上 这是环境科学家测试样品的污染程度的方法之一:
In fact, that’s one of the ways environmental scientists
用塑料来吸收污染物
sample for contamination levels:they use plastic to sponge up pollutants.
之后 塑料吸收了这些毒素
The concern, then, is that the plastic takes up all these toxins
然后继续下去 将有毒物质带入水生食物链中
and then goes and deposits them into the aquatic food chain,
这样 毒素便可以随食物链攀升 最终流向人类
where they can climb up the food chain and ultimately into humans.
但直到现在 这个分析仍然仅是理论上的
But this was all just theoretical…until now.
来自个人护理用品微粒子中的化学污染物
Chemical pollutants glommed on to ingested microbeads
的确会积累在鱼类体内
from personal care products do indeed accumulate in fish.
你将受污染的微生物喂给鱼类的时间越久
The longer you feed polluted microbeads to fish,
鱼的体内积累有害物质的程度越高
the higher the levels of fish flesh contamination.
所以 你可以看到 含污染物的程度是怎样在食物链中逐级累加的
So,you can see how pollutant levels can then concentrate up the food chain
并且(可以看到)在虎鲸或人类等顶级捕食者中会聚集最多的有害物质
with maximum exposure in the apex predators like killer whales or people.
鲱鱼能吃一群盐水虾
The herring can eat a bunch of brine shrimp,
鳕鱼吃一群鳕鱼
cod eats a bunch of herring,
然后 大比目鱼或是金枪鱼 可以吃掉一堆鳕鱼
then halibut or tuna eat a bunch of cod,
最终 我们人类把它们都吃掉
and then we can scoop it all up in the end.
我们知道 摄入的塑料可以将有害的化学物质转移到鱼类中
So,we know ingested plastic can transfer hazardous chemicals to fish,
接着 积累起来 导致鱼的肝脏染毒
which then accumulate and can cause liver toxicity and pathology in the fish.
但在人的身上又会怎么样呢
But what about in people?
好的 我们知道 在美国 所有的鱼类制品
Well,we know that in the US, of all food categories fish
都含有极高程度的PCBs 二恶英及其它污染物残留
has the highest levels of PCBs, dioxins,and other pollutants,
但这个国家并不爱吃鱼
but we don’t really eat a lot of fish in this country;
所以 塑料真的是个麻烦吗
So, is it really a problem?
好吧 很难(确切地)提出这些化学物质的容许的摄入量
Well,it’s hard to come up with a tolerable daily intake of these kinds of chemicals,
但世界卫生组织建议
but the World Health Organization recommends staying under
每天一到四个皮克(毒性当量)每公斤体重的容许摄入量
like one to four units a day ( measured in picograms of toxic equivalents ).
欧盟则提出了更小的容许摄入的数量
The European Union came up with a smaller number,
像是每天不超过两个皮克(毒性当量)每公斤体重
like no more than two a day on average,
在美国 我们也已经制定了容许摄入的范围
and in the U.S. we’re already past that;
鉴于目前PCBs与塑料碎片一同污染海洋环境
So,there is some concern for toxicity from PCBs
因此 (大众)对PCBs的毒性也存在着一些担忧
given the current levels of PCBs and plastic debris polluting the ocean.
海洋里已经没有额外的PCBs的负担“空间”
There is no “room” for additional PCB body burden;
那么 为此 我们能做什么呢
So,what can we do about it?
好的 我们可以践行”3R”原则:
Well,we can practice the three R’s,
减少使用 循环利用 回收塑料制品
reduce,reuse, and recycle plastic items,
比方说 购物时 携带可回收的手提袋
for example shopping with reusable tote bags.
政策方面 我们可以
On a policy level we could
禁止在化妆品 个人护理用品中
ban the use of plastic microbeads
使用塑料微粒
in cosmetics and personal care products.
理想的情况是 每个国家都一同开展(减少塑料的活动)
Though ideally all countries would do it together,
因为塑料碎片在地球上随处乱扔的话
since plastic debris dropped anywhere on earth
它最终可能会被运送到海洋上
may end up being transported to the ocean,
在那里 它可以(漂浮着)通往全世界各处
where it can travel around the world.
因此 无论采取哪种策略 国际间的合作在
So,whatever strategies are adopted, international cooperation will be critical
限制塑料对海洋造成的威胁和
in limiting the risk to the oceans
减轻食用海鲜的人们的患病风险这两方面 都至关重要
and the risk to humans from eating seafood.

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视频概述

介绍塑料可能的致癌原因。但不用担心,少量摄入并不会造成伤害。总之,实行3R原则,保护环境 ,也保护好自己。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Eric

审核员

审核员SX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0rGT8SrKnY4

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