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隐身斗篷能否成为现实 – 译学馆
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隐身斗篷能否成为现实

Are Invisibility Cloaks Possible?

我们来说一说如果你是
So let’s say you’re the groundskeeper at a
魔法寄宿学院的管理员
magic-based boarding school and you’re
想把一条龙偷运出城堡
trying to smuggle a dragon out of a castle.
太扯了吗
Too out there?
好吧 又如果你是克林贡飞船船长
Ok, you’re the captain of a Klingon vessel and
你将要穿行于未知区域
you need to travel through a sector undetected.
你会怎么做
How would you do it?
如果你说你可以用隐形斗篷
If you said some kind of invisibility
这可能会有用
cloak, that would probably work.
然而很不幸的是 抛开哈利波特和星际迷航不谈
Unfortunately, there’s no such thing
世上并没有这种东西
outside of Harry Potter and Star Trek.
至少 我们现在不能隐形自己 巨龙或是飞船
At least, not yet. It’s true we can’t hide people,
这还是事实
dragons or space ships from sight.
但是在刚刚过去的十年里
But in the last decade scientists have come up
科学家们设想出了一种新材料
with amazing new materials — and clever uses of
它巧妙运用现有的材料
existing ones — that could one day let objects
能够在众目睽睽之下隐藏物体甚至人体
or even people hide in plain sight.
[反应简介]
[REACTIONS INTRO]
人们在讨论隐形斗篷或隐形装置时
When people talk about an invisibility cloak or
其实他们都在讨论
a cloaking device, they’re actually talking about
达到同一目的的不同途径
a range of ways to achieve the same goal.
目的就是让物体很难看清或完全看不见
That goal is making it hard or impossible to see an object.
看清东西需要光 ––
Seeing something requires light — and 2015
对了 2015恰巧是国际光年
just happens to be the International Year of Light.
当光线由物体反射然后进入你的眼球时
When light bounces off an object and
你的大脑会解读颜色 亮度及可变因素
Hit your eyeball, your brain interprets color,
来绘制我们所谓的景象
brightness and other variables to represent what we think of as sight.
最早使物体隐匿的方法是
The easiest way to make something invisible
中断事物发展的过程
is to disrupt that sequence of events.
用在飞机和飞船上的黑科技也是如此
Stealth technology used on planes and ships does
和吸收雷达的能量道理相似
something similar by absorbing the energy from RADAR.
就像可见光
like visible light, RADAR bounces
雷达把能量发射到物体上 这样就可以“看见”它
energy off an object to “see” it.
如果没有光反射回来 物体就不会被雷达发现
If no light comes back, the object doesn’t show up on RADAR.
你也可以利用可见光这样做
You can kind of do that with visible light, too.
即使黑色的物体也可以反射很微弱的光
Black objects reflect very little light.
很不幸吧 我们的大脑已经识破了这种把戏
Unfortunately, our brains have already figured
所以放弃躲在黑暗中吧
that trick out, so you can’t just put whatever
这是自欺欺人
you’re trying to hide behind something black.
反而 有一些很有前景的隐形材质
Instead, some of the most promising invisibility
研究有助于光完全避开物体
research helps light avoid an object all together.
2006年 杜克大学的研究人员
In 2006, researchers at Duke University first
首次描述了“超物质”
described something called a metamaterial
超物质可使物体周围的光线弯曲
that could bend light around an object.
理论上来说 如果你盯着某物体所在的地方
In theory, if you looked at the spot where the object
你只能看到该物体的背后
was, all you would see is the background behind it.
这是怎么一回事呢
How does that work?
是因为超物质会给物体周围的光导向
Metamaterials direct light around an object.
这种材料可以捕获来自同一方向的光线
The material could capture light coming in from
引导物体周围的光线
one direction, channel it around the object and
然后由光线射入的方向弯折180度并释放
spit it out 180 degrees from the direction it came in. The object
而在光线中的物体就看不到了
in the middle would disappear to the observer.
之所以被称为“超物质”是因为它的人造结构
They’re called metamaterials because their man-made
可以影响光线的正常传播方向
structures let them affect light in ways normal
而普通材料不可以 一些隐形材料由银或二氧化硅制成的超细线
materials can’t. Some are made with superthin wires of silver and silica.
而其他的隐形材料则是用碳素纤维制成的
Other invisibility devices are made with carbon fibers
甚至可以是蚕丝 但还不要太激动太早
or even silk — but before you get too excited: yes,
就算你穿了一身蚕丝和服我还能看见你
I can still see you when you’re wearing that kimono.
研究人员表示他们已经掌握如何
Researchers have figured out how to disguise larger
伪装更大的物体并且
objects and they say they’re getting closer to
据他们称 他们已快接近利用可见光达到隐形效果了
making cloaks that would work with visible light.
但是超物质并不是唯一使物体隐形的途径
But metamaterials aren’t the only way to make something invisible.
罗切斯特大学的科学家们组合了四个标准镜头
Scientists at the University of Rochester
发现这个装置也能使一部分物体隐形
arranged four standard glass lenses so they created a region of invisibility too.
它和超物质的潜在价值不尽相同
It doesn’t have quite the same potential as
致力于这个领域的研究人员表示
metamaterials, but the researchers behind the
这项技术可以
technology say it could help doctors see through
帮助医生做手术时视线穿过手指
their fingers when they’re doing surgery, or
也可以让司机轻松看清盲点
let drivers see what’s in their blindspots.
也许科学家可以找到方法
Maybe they could figure out a way
来隐形我的自拍杆
to make my selfie stick invisible, so
这样我就不必和自拍杆自拍了啊
I don’t have to be seen with a selfie stick.
还有其他隐形的方法吗
One more way to be invisible?
无需弯折光线 直接在物体另一端复制相同的光线
Instead of bending light around on object, just mimic it on the other side.
和一些头足类动物一样
It’s the way some animals like cephalopods and
变色龙会通过改变肤色伪装自己
chameleons camouflage themselves, by changing
与环境融为一体
the color of their skin to match what’s around them.
摄影机还有屏幕能够帮你完成这项主动伪装技巧
Video cameras and screens can recreate this active camouflage technique,
尤其像战争中特别惯用的那一套
which militaries are particularly interested in.
英国国防承包商BAE提出了一套类似坦克的系统
The British defense contractor BAE came up with
并且透露
a system like that for tanks, and they say
近几年将会用于实际
it could be ready for use in just a few years.
感谢ACS光子杂志提供服务
Thanks to the ACS Photonics journal for making this video possible.
感谢大家的收看
And thanks to you for watching.
欢迎大家收看关于光的其他视频
You can check out other videos about light and learn
了解收好你的手机会多么有益于睡眠
about how putting away your smartphone could
也可以看看科学家们眼中的原子
help you sleep better or how scientists see atoms.
点击订阅键收看
Be sure to hit the subscribe button for more
更多deee-LIGHT-ful的视频
deee-LIGHT-ful videos every week.
看到我的步骤了吗
See what I did there?
国际光年是一项全球倡议
The International Year of Light is a global
强调光和光技术
initiative to highlight the importance of light
在人们生活中的重要性
and light-based technologies in people’s lives.
浏览www.light2015.org获得更多资讯
To learn more check out www.light2015.org
再次感谢收看
and thanks again for watching.

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视频概述

你想过隐身吗?没有隐身斗篷,没有隐身设备 你能否做到“神龙见首不见尾”?该视频介绍最前沿的科技发展,一一罗列给大家!不容错过!

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sN70Bgm_PAQ

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