ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

对他人残忍是人类天性? – 译学馆
未登陆,请登陆后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

对他人残忍是人类天性?

Are Humans Hardwired to Be Cruel to Each Other? | Robert Sapolsky

那么 当你观察“我们”
So when you look at ‘us’
“我们”是指 人类 类人猿 灵长类 哺乳动物等
‘us’ (such)as humans, (such)as apes, (such)as primates, (such)as mammals.
当你留心我们行为中某些最令人震惊的部分时
When you look at some of the most appalling realms of our behavior,
你会发现大部分是因为
much of it has to do with the fact
社会有机体是非常固定的
that social organisms are really, really hardwired
以此形成社交界基本的二分法
to make a basic dichotomy about the social world,
在这里一部分生物被看作“我们” 另一部分生物被看作“他们”
which is those organisms who count as Us’s and those who count as Them’s.
这种现象在人类中实际上是非常普遍的
And this is virtually universal among humans
甚至在所有社会性灵长类动物中都非常普遍
and this is virtually universal among all sorts of social primates
社会结构就建立在这些分离的社会群体上
that have aspects of social structures built around separate social groupings.
“我们”和“他们”是指:
Us’s and Thems:
我们把世界分成“我们群体”和“他们群体”
we turn the world into Us’s and Thems
我们对他们嗤之以鼻
and we don’t like the Thems very much
经常对他们态度恶劣
and are often really awful to them.
至于“我们群体”
And the Us’s,
我们夸大了自己的美好 慷慨 友爱
we exaggerate how wonderful and how generous and how affiliative
互相之间亲如一母同胞
and how just like siblings they are to us.
我们把世界划分成“我们”和“他们”
We divide the world into Us and Them.
最好的解释之一就是 在生物学上这种断层线是非常真实的
And one of the greatest ways of seeing just biologically how real this fault line is,
这都是由于“荷尔蒙催产素”的存在
is there’s this hormone oxytocin.
“催产素”正是世界上最棒的 最绝妙的荷尔蒙
Oxytocin is officially the coolest, grooviest hormone on earth,
因为 众所周知
because what everybody knows is
它既能增强母子之间的情感联系
it enhances mother-infant bonding and
也能增进夫妻关系
it enhances pair bonding in couples.
它能增强你们之间的信任 理解 情感表达 更善于眉目传意 更加宽容
And it makes you more trusting and empathic and emotionally expressive, and better at reading expressions and more charitable.
很明显
And it’s obvious that
如果你在地球上遍洒催产素
if you just like spritzed oxytocin up everyone’s noses on this planet,
第二天整个世界都会变成伊甸园
it would be the Garden of Eden the next day.
催产素提升了“亲社会行为”
Oxytocin promotes prosocial behavior.
人类仔细研究后
Until people look closely,
发现 “催产素”大有裨益
and it turns out oxytocin does all those wondrous things
但这种作用只是针对一类人 这类人属于“我们群体” 属于组内成员
only for people who you think of as an “Us”, as an in-group member.
催产素能改善组内的厚此薄彼 狭隘主义
It improves in-group favoritism, in-group parochialism.
催产素对“他们群体”有什么作用呢?
What does it do to individuals who you consider a Them?
它让你对“他们”更恶劣 更先发制人 在经济游戏中不那么合作
It makes you crappier to them, pre-emptively aggressive, less cooperative in an economic game.
可见催产素能加快“我们”和“他们”的分离
What oxytocin does is enhance this Us/Them divide.
我们还发现——
So that, along with other findings—
我们与他们的界限 就是在种族、性别、年龄、社会经济阶级方面的界线
the classic lines of Us versus Them along the lines of race, of sex, of age, of socio-economic class.
你的大脑能在毫秒的时间范围内区分“我们”和“他们”
Your brain processes these Us/Them differences on the scale of milliseconds.
只需1/20秒 你的大脑就能完成区分
A twentieth of a second, your brain is already responding differently to an Us versus Them.
好吧 总体而言这种情况的确让人沮丧万分
Okay, so collectively this is depressing as hell.
“天啊 我们天生就不可避免地与他们为敌”
“Oh my god, we are hardwired toinevitably be awful to Thems”,
“他们真是缺点重重”
“and Thems along all sorts of disturbing lines of”.
“哦 如果能克服我们与他们之间的分裂”
“Oh, if only we could overcome these Us and Them dichotomies”!
“哦 不可能”
“Oh, No”
“我们非得按民族 种族 国籍这种令人不安的标准来划分世界吗?”
“Are we hardwired to divide the world along lines of race and ethnicity and nationality and all those disturbing things?”
仔细观察就会发现:
And what becomes clear is, when you look closely is:
我们这样划分世界几乎是不可避免的
it is virtually inevitable that we divide the world into Us’s and Thems,
就是讨厌他们 就是不能和平相处
and don’t like Thems very much and don’t treat them well.
但我们情不自禁地划分“我们”和“他们”
But we are incredibly easilymanipulated as to who counts as an Us and who counts as a Them.
我们是这样看待那些断层线的“哦天啊 你怎么这么过时啊?”
And those fault lines that we view as, “Oh my god, how ancient can you get?”
也就是说 另一个种族的人会唤起我们的边缘反应 将他们定义为非我族类
that say, somebody of another race evokes limbic responses in us, commensurate with they are a Them.
他们会做出下意识的反应“天啊 这难道就是基本的断层线吗?”
They respond, they motivate automatic responses—”Oh my god, is that just the basic fault line?”
然后你会看看这个种族 再看看那个种族
And then you do something like have faces of the same race versus other race,
看看他们的帽子上是否有你喜欢的棒球队的标识
and either they are or aren’t wearing a baseball cap with your favorite team’s logo on it,
然后你肯定会重新定义哪个是“我们”
and you completely redefine who’s an Us.
“我们”喜欢洋基队 而“他们”是红袜队的球迷
Us is people who like the Yankees and Them are Red Sox fans.
突然间 你的大脑飞速运转 他们戴的他妈的什么棒球帽
And suddenly you’re processing, within milliseconds, what damn baseball cap they have,
这时候比赛完全被抛诸脑后了
and race is being completely ignored.
“天啊 我们非得分出个‘他死我活’来”
“Oh my god, we are inevitablyhardwired to make really distressing Us/Them…”
短短时间内 我们就认出了“非我族类”
We’re manipulated within seconds as to who counts as an Us and a Them.
好消息是:我们可以控制自己 不带有色眼镜看人
Good news with that: we can manipulate us out of some of our worst Us/Them dichotomies and re-categorize people.
坏消息是:我们可能被各种思想观念所操纵
Bad news: we could be manipulated by all sorts of ideologues out there
别人也会这样想“真的不同 他们完全和我们不一样 他们属于另一种人”
as to deciding that people who seem just like us “really aren’t. They’re really so different that they count as a Them.”
有一项惊人的研究显示 催产素是一把双刃剑
Okay, so a fabulous study showing this, this double-edged quality to oxytocin,
这是荷兰的一个小组做的研究
and this was a study done by a group in the Netherlands.
实验对象是荷兰大学的学生志愿者
And what they did was they took Dutch university student volunteers
他们给了志愿者一个经典的哲学问题:失控的电车问题
and they gave them a classic philosophy problem, the runaway trolley problem:
“牺牲一个人救五个人的方法可行吗?”
“Is it okay to sacrifice one person to save five?”
面对失控的电车:你把这个大块头的家伙推到轨道上 他被电车压扁了
Runaway trolley: can you push this big, beefy guy onto the track who gets squashed by the trolley
但电车减速了 轨道上的那五个人就会得救……
but that slows it down so that five people tied to the track don’t…
典型的哲学问题:功利主义 结果大于手段 等等
Standard problem in philosophy, utilitarianism, ends justifies means—all of that.
在这种情境下 人们有不同的观点
So you give people the scenario and people have varying opinions,
现在你说 被推到铁轨上的那个人是有名字的
and now you give them the scenario where the person you push onto the track has a name.
任何一个荷兰人的名字
And either it’s a standard name from the Netherlands,
德克 或者皮耶听起来更好 额 或者……
Dirk, I think, sounds good like a Pied orsomething which like if here this is like, hum, like
像大肉和土豆一样普通的荷兰名字
meat-and-potatoes Netherlandish name.
或者名字来自两个团体中的一个 这样会唤起荷兰人强烈的排外情绪
Or a name from either of two groups that evoke lots of xenophobic hostility among people from the Netherlands.
有人是典型的德国名字 哦 就叫第二次世界大战 好吧 这可不行
Someone with a typically German name—oh yeah, World War II, that’s right, that was a problem—
有人是典型的穆斯林名字
Or someone with a typically Muslim name.
所以现在他们选择是否把德克(或者叫奥托 穆罕默德)推到铁轨上 来拯救这五个人
So now they’re choosing whether to save five by pushing Dirk onto the track or Otto or Mahmoud and.
一般来说 有名或者匿名不会左右人们的决定
In general, give them those names and there’s no difference in how people would rate them if they were anonymous.
在不知情的情况下 给人们催产素
Give people oxytocin, where they don’t know that they’ve gotten it,
对照组只在鼻子上喷洒安慰剂
control group has just placebo spritzed up their nose,
那些被给催产素的人是这样表现的
give people oxytocin and,
“卡姆巴亚 你可不能把奥托推到轨道上”
“kumbaya, you are far less likely to push Dirk onto the track”,
你更可能让老好人奥托或者穆罕默德去送死
and you are now far more likely to push good old Otto or good old Mahmoud onto the rails there.
因此你有可能牺牲一个组外成员去救其他五人 却不太可能牺牲组内成员
And you are more likely to sacrifice an out-group member to save five, and you are less likely to sacrifice an in-group member.
划分“我们”和“他们” 放大了来说就是我举的这个例子
All you’ve done there is exaggerate the Us/Them divide with that.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

他人即地狱?所以我们不能好好玩耍?不,你的残忍只是针对那些“非我族类”。为什么会这样呢?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ccz

审核员

自动通过审核

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lrzXE5XttOE

相关推荐