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人类究竟是感性生物还是理性生物 – 译学馆
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人类究竟是感性生物还是理性生物

Are Humans Emotional Creatures or Are We Rational? | Yale Psychologist Paul Bloom

某方面来说 我写的是一本乐观的书
In some way, my book is an optimistic book.
我对 因共鸣的误导而造成人类的
Because I argue about all of our um…
局限性
our limitations
的观点 提出反对
and now empathy leads us astray.
但若是要证明我的观点
But in order to make that argument,
我们首先要
we also have to have an appreciation
意识到
of we’re smart enough to realize
共鸣的确会影响我们的判断
that empathy can lead us astray.
但我们也能够
and that we’re smart enough to act
使自己的行为不受它的影响
so as to override its pernicious effects.
正是共鸣使我
So it’s empathy that causes me to favor
相较于陌生人
um, somebody who looks like me
更偏爱于与我相似的人
over somebody who doesn’t
或者与我同国家或同种族的人
or somebody from my country or ethnicity over a stranger.
但正是我的理性
But it’s rationality
告诉我
that leads me to say:
嘿 这是不合理的
Hey, that’s not reasonable.
这种偏爱不合理且不公平
There is no reason to do it. It’s not fair.
完全不公平
It’s not impartial.
所以我们该试着去避免被共鸣误导
And so we should try to override empathy.
而我觉得这是完全可行的
And my outlook is very optimistic.
我深信理性与合理性
I’m a huge fan of reason and rationality
使我们能一起工作
that we can work together
一起商议 探讨 争辩
and deliberate and talk and argue,
从而取得巨大的成就
and through this, come with some great accomplishments.
所以 我想说明的是
So, what I argue is that
我们有能力做到理性和合理性
we have the capacity for rationality and reason.
这实际上是相当具有争议的
This is actually fairly controversial.
在我的领域 我共事的心理学家 哲学家 神经系科学家
In my field, my fellow psychologists, philosophers, neuroscientists
经常认为我们是感性情绪的俘虏
often argue that we are prisoners of emotions that were foundamentally and profoundly irrational,
并且理性在我们的生活中的角色微乎其微
and that reason plays very little role in our everyday lives,
这是在说
which is to say, well,
决定论是有点儿道理的
determinism of a sort is true.
我们做什么 如何做 怎么思考
What we do, how we act, how we think
是先前事件和自然法则
is a product of events that
共同作用的产物
have started a very long time ago plus physical law.
我们是顺应自然规律的生物
We are just kind of we are physical creatures,
无法逃离因果关系 所以我们
we can’t escape from causality.
未来将继续现在正在做的事
So we’ll just continue doing what we’re doing.
我的核心目标之一
One of the main goals
就是反对这个观点
of my work is to argue against that.
我认为道德责任的观念符合决定论的思想
I think that notions of moral responsibility can be reconciled with determinism.
但是我同时认为决定论是正确的
But I think determinism is correct.
这也并不与理性逻辑相悖
But none of that challenges rationality.
为了更好地说明这一点 你可以想象出一部电脑
And as an illustration you could imagine your computer
所有程序已经被设定 但是它是完全逻辑化的
that is entirely determined but is also entirely rational.
想象另一个电脑 提前设定了程序
You could imagine another computer is entirely determined
但它的运行却是完全混乱 毫无逻辑性可言
but is capricious and arbitrary and random.
所以在这个一切早已被设定的世界里
And so even in a deterministic universe,
真正的疑问是 我们是什么类型的电脑
the question remains: what sort of computer are we?
我们到底是情感动物还是理性动物
Are we emotional creatures or are we rational creatures?
但是从来没有
But there is nothing
没有一丝的不合理性来推倒
not the slightest bit of inconsistency between the claim
我们是遵循着决定论法则
that we live in a determined universe
的理性动物 这个想法
and that we’re rational reasoning creatures.
科学也曾是这样
I think it’s worked with science.
它是一个范例
Science is the paradigmatic case
不完美的人类用理性推论
with the exercise of reason by these imperfect people
取得了非凡的发现
has come out with extraordinary discoveries,
从世界的起源 生命的起源
from the origin of the universe, to the origin of life,
到物质的原子结构 真的很神奇
the atomic structure of material objects. Amazing things!
我认为道德理念也可以一样
And I think we could do the same thing with morality.
关于道德理念 人们可以争议和商讨
I think people can argue and deliberate about morality.
当我像这么说的时候
Now, whenever I say this,
当我说起共鸣时
whenever I talk about empathy,
我总是得到嘲讽
I always get a cynical response
和讽刺的回答
and a cynical response is I think reasonable enough
他们的意思是
which is to say:
现实世界不是这样的
Well that’s not how it works in a real world.
我近来意识到我们现在
I was reminded recently that we’re supposed to live in
生活在后现实的世界中
a post-fact world right now.
在现实世界中
In the real world,
人们被说话最大声
people are persuaded by whoever yells the loudest,
最能为他们提供利益
whoever appeals to their self-interests,
最能触动他们的人 说服
whoever tweaks their emotions including empathy.
就眼前来说我真诚地认为这是真的
And I honestly don’t doubt the that’s right in the short term.
我认为在任何情况下
I think that in any case
如果我想劝说某人去攻打叙利亚共和国
if I wanted to persuade somebody to go to war against Syria,
投资这场战争
to give money to this cause,
把叙利亚人从我的国家驱逐
to expel that group for my country.
我会动之以情
I would appeal to their emotions
而那些被我触动的人
and anybody who appeals to their emotions
会更可能支持我
would be much more successful
相较于那些用理性思考的人
than those who attempt to make a rational deliberate argument.
但是我认为在将来
But I think in a long run over time,
理性辩解会胜出
reason and rationality tends to win out.
看看我们现在的世界
I look at the world we are in now
虽然还有很多不足和问题
and for all of its many flaws and problems,
但是到处可见道德素养的存在
I see signs of those moral accomplishments all over the place.
我认为我们现在更加地人性化了
Well, I think we care more for people, we had forgotten about
用彼得·辛格的话来说就是 我们的“道德圈”扩张了
that we have a broader moral circle as Peter Singer would say.
我们杀彼此的意向减轻了
We are less prone to kill each other
而史蒂芬·平克的实验展示了这一点
as Steve Pinker has demonstrated in his work.
对于这些改变有很多解释
And there is a lot of explanation for these changes,
但是我认为理性推论的发展是其中一个关键
but I think one key component has been exercised a reason.
我相信这个情况会一直发展下去
And I’m optimistic we’ll continue this in the future.
网站 BIGTHINK.COM
BIG THINK. COM

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视频概述

人们是感性还是理性的,这个需要通过实践来证明

听录译者

郝思嘉

翻译译者

晨曦

审核员

审核员U

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K3l9B1c879M

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