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转基因生物

Are GMOs Good or Bad? Genetic Engineering & Our Food

转基因生物是科学界最具争议的领域之一
GMOs are one of the most controversial areas of science.
生物工程被应用于诸多领域 尽管医疗应用例如转基因胰岛素被广泛接受
Genetic engineering is used in many fields, but even though medical applications like GM insulin are widely accepted,
但当涉及到食品和农业方面 争论却越发激烈
The debate heats up when it comes to food and agriculture.
这是为什么?
Why is that?
为何同样的事情被如此区别对待?
Why is the same thing treated so differently?
让我们设法追溯其根源 探究事实真相 了解人们对转基因生物的担忧和恐惧 并且找寻它的未来
Let’s try to get to the bottom of this and explore the facts, the fears, and the future of GMOs.
人类改造动植物基因已有数千年的历史
Humans have been genetically modifing plants and animals for thousands of years.
或许你的一些农作物大获丰收
Maybe a few of your crops had very good yields.
或许你的一头狼格外忠诚
Maybe one of your wolves was especially loyal.
因此你做聪明的事 饲养和种植特性中对你有利的动植物
So you did the smart thing, and bred the plants and animals that had traits beneficial to you.
特性即是基因的一种显现
Traits suggest an expression of genes.
因此在每一代 那些基因变得越来越明显
So with each generation, those genes got more pronounced.
数千年后 几乎我们周围的每一个动植物 都与其被驯化前的状态大不相同
After thousands of years, almost every single plant and animal around us is vastly different from its pre-domesticated state.
既然人类已经改变基因数千年 到底是什么使得所谓的转基因生物如此不同
If humans have been changing genes for millennia, what makes a so called “Genetically Modified Organism”, or GMO, different?
有选择性的育种基本上是寄希望于幸运的命中
Selective breeding is basically hoping for lucky hits.
基因工程消除了此因素 我们能选择想要的特性
Genetic engineering eliminates this factor. We can choose the traits we want.
让水果长得更大个
Make fruit grow bigger,
免受虫害 等等
immune to pests, and so on.
那么 为什么人们对转基因生物如此关注?
So, why are people concerned about them ?
让我们从对转基因生物最常见的反对观点说起
Let’s start with one of the most common objections to GMOs.
基因流 意味着转基因农作物可以与传统农作物混合 并且为它们引入有害的新特质
Gene flow, meaning GM crops could mix with traditional crops and introduce unwanted new characteristics into them.
有一个方法可以确保阻止其引入 但这个方法本身就是反对转基因方一个大的论据
There is a method that might guarantee complete prevention, but is a big anti-GMO argument by itself.
终结者的种子
Terminator seeds.
这个观点即他们可能生产不育的植物 要求农民每年都要购买新种子
The idea is that they could produce sterile plants, requiring farmers to buy new seeds every year.
正是这个观点 引起了公众的强烈抗议 要求停止这项技术投入使用
The very concept of this, however, caused a public outcry, stopping the technology being put to use.
这把我们带回到改造的DNA的无意传播
This brings us back to the unintentional spreading of engineered DNA.
这有转基因生物在其不该种植的地方生长的案例 在外国农作物中也发现有转基因的痕迹
There have been cases of GMOs growing where they weren’t planted, and traces of modified genes found in foreign crops.
但是 转基因植物不能完全野生
But GM plants can’t run wild entirely.
很多农作物都自行授粉 而且所有农作物一定都是与杂交相关的
Many crops pollinate themselves, and all crops have to be related to mingle.
也有像缓冲区这样的栽培方法 用以防止最低限度的无意杂交
There are also cultural methods like buffer zones, to keep unintentional crossing at a minimum.
但是 如果原则上一种转基因生物无意中可以与另一种非转基因生物杂交是有可能的
But if it’s possible in principle that a GMO could unintentionally cross with a non-GMO,
那么 实际这里就存在一个更重要的问题
there’s actually a more important question.
分别来自于转基因作物和非转基因作物的食品是否有所不同
Is food that comes from GM crops different to food from non-GM crops?
这也是从一开始就备受关注的问题
This question has been a major concern from the very beginning.
必然会被食用的转基因作物要被检验是否会有潜在危害 并且很多机构都对检测结果要做出评估
GM plants that are destined to be eaten are checked for possible dangers, and the results are evaluated by multiple agencies.
30多年后 经过数以千计的科学研究表明
After more than 30 years and thousands of studies, the science is in.
与非转基因食品相比 食用其同类转基因作物并不会有更大风险
Eating GMO plants is no more risky than their non-GMO equivalent.
但不要仅仅是相信我们的话 这个结论的依据和其他结论都在视频介绍中
But don’t just take our word for it, the sources for this and other claims are in the video description.
但是 那些被改造得具有毒性的植物呢?
But what about plants that have been engineered to be toxic?
比如说 bt作物
For example, BT crops.
一种借由苏云金芽胞杆菌的基因 它能够让改造的作物产生一种蛋白 而此类蛋白会破坏某些特定害虫的消化系统
A gene borrowed from the bacterium Bacillus Thuringiensis, lets engineered plants produce a protein that destroys the digestive system of specific insect pests.
作物制作它自身的杀虫剂
The plant makes its own pesticide.
如果有昆虫食用过该作物 它就会死
Insects that eat it die.
这听起来令人担忧
That sounds alarming!
喷洒的农药可以被冲洗掉
Pesticide sprays could be washed off.
然而 BT作物中的毒性却存在于植物内部
While the poison in BT crops is inside the plant.
但事实上 这并非一个大的问题
But actually, it’s not a big deal.
有毒物质实际上只是角度不同的问题
Poison is really just a question of different perspectives.
对一个物种无害 也许可以杀掉另一个物种
What’s harmless to one species, might kill another.
例如 咖啡是一种可以杀害昆虫的有毒物质 然而对我们却无害
Coffee, for example, is a poison that kills insects but is harmless to us.
又比如说巧克力 如果是狗食用了会有危险 人类吃了却会变的愉悦
Or take chocolate, it’s dangerous for dogs but a pleasure for humans.
BT作物产生的这种蛋白是为某些昆虫消化道的特殊构造量身定做的 对我们完全无害
BT crops produce a protein that is tailored to the specific design of the digestive tract of certain insects; it’s completely harmless for us.
反其道而行同样成立
There’s also the opposite approach,
作物能够被改造成对某种除草剂产生抗体
Plants that are engineered to be resistant to certain weed killers.
如此一来 农民可以广泛使用除草剂 除掉与农作物争夺资源的其他植物 而避免伤害农作物
This way, farmers can use them widely, killing the other plants competing for resources without harming the crop.
接下来 我们来了解一下转基因作物的黑暗一面
Here, we get to the dark underbelly of GMOs.
作为杀虫剂产业 他们是大型企业
For the pesticide industry, they are big business.
美国超过百分之九十的经济作物都是耐除草剂 主要是耐草甘膦
Over 90% of all cash crops in the US are herbicide resistant, mostly to glyphosate.
因此 草甘磷的使用大幅度提升
As a result, the use of glyphosate has increased greatly.
这不仅仅是存在坏处 比起其他除草剂 草甘膦对人类的害处要小得多
That isn’t only bad, glyphosate is much less harmful to humans than many other herbicides.
然而 这意味着农民对这一种除草方法有很强的依赖性 也就抛弃了更为平衡的方法来管理杂草
Still, this means famers have a strong incentive to rely on this one method only, casting more balanced ways of managing weeds aside.
这是对转基因生物的辩论中最为根本的问题之一
That’s one of the most fundamental problems with the GMO debate.
许多对这项科技的指责实际上是对现代农业 对控制我们食品供应的那些大型公司的商业惯例的批评
Much of the criticism of this technology is actually criticism of modern agriculture and a business practice of the huge corporations that control our food supply.
这些批评不但正当合法 而且十分重要
This criticism is not only valid, it’s also important.
我们需要把现代农业转变成更加可持续的模式
We need to change agriculture to a more sustainable model.
转基因生物这项科技事实上在这场战斗中是我们的同盟而非敌人 有助于拯救和保护自然 并使我们对环境的影响降到最低
GMOs as a technology are actually an ally and not a enemy in that fight, helping to save and protect nature and minimize our impact on the environment.
让我们来看一些正面的例子
Let’s look at some positive examples.
茄子是孟加拉国一个重要的作物 但是整个收成通常会被害虫摧毁
Eggplant is an important crop in Bangladesh but often, whole harvests are destroyed by pests.
农民不得不严重依赖于杀虫剂
Farmers had to rely heavily on pesticides.
这不仅开销庞大
Not only was this very expensive,
农民也常常得病
Farmers also frequently got sick.
在2013年 一种新型转基因茄子的引入停止了这一切
The introduction of a new GM eggplant in 2013 stopped this.
我们之前所讲的同一种BT蛋白 对人类无害但是非常有效的杀虫剂 被改造进入这种茄子
The same BT protein we talked about before, an effective killer of insects but harmless to humans, was engineered into them.
这样一来 使用在茄子上的杀虫剂减少了百分之八十 农民的健康得到了改善 他们的收入也有了极大提高
This reduced insecticide use on eggplants by more than 80%. The health of farmers improved, and their income rose dramatically.
而且有时候 转基因的方法是唯一的选择
And sometimes, the GM approach is the only option.
在20世纪90年代 夏威夷的木瓜产业受到了环斑病毒的侵害 在当时 这种病毒席卷了整个夏威夷的木瓜
In the 1990s, the papaya industry in Hawaii was under attack from the ringspot virus which threatened to wipe out Hawaiian papaya.
解决方案就是给木瓜进行转基因改造 接种疫苗抵抗该病毒 如果不是采取这个办法 这个州的木瓜产业早已崩溃
The solution was a papaya genetically modified to be vaccinated against the virus. Without it, the state’s papaya industry would have collapsed.
所有这些故事显示其应用范围极其狭窄 我们现在所利用的百分之九十九的转基因生物 都产生杀虫剂 或者具有耐药性
All these stories show a very narrow application. 99% of all GMOs we use right now produce pesticides, or are resistant against them.
我们可以做得还有更多 科学家们致力于研究的转基因生物 可以改善我们的膳食
There is so much more we could do. The scientists are working on GMOs that could improve our diet.
作物会产生更多或不同的营养素 例如水果会具有更高的抗氧化性 用以抵抗疾病
Plants that produce more or different nutrients, like fruit with higher antioxidant levels that help to fight diseases
或 带额外维生素的稻米
or rice with additional vitamins.
在更大规模上 我们努力把作物改造成对气候变化更具有弹性
On a larger scale, we’re trying to engineer plants more resilient to climate change,
作物能够更好的适应不稳定的天气和不利的土壤条件
plants that can better adapt to erratic weather and adverse soil conditions,
使其更加耐旱和耐涝
making them resistant to droughts or floods.
转基因生物不但能减少农业对环境的影响 而且有助于积极的保护环境
GMOs could also not only reduce agriculture’s impact on the environment, but actively help to protect it.
科学家们正在研究一种作物 能够像微生物一样从空气中吸取氮
Scientists are working on crops that can draw nitrogen from the air, like microbes.
氮是一种常见的肥料 但是它的积聚会污染地下水 加速气候变迁
Nitrogen is a common fertilizer, but its build-up pollutes the ground water and speeds up climate change.
作物收集他们自身的氮可以一次性解决两个问题
Plants that collect their own nitrogen could fix two problems at once.
发达国家化肥的过度使用以及发展中国家化肥的不足
The over use of fertilizers in the developed world, as well as the shortage of it in developing countries.
我们甚至可以把作物改造成超级有效的碳收集器 例如美国的栗子树 进而缓解实际上是逆转气候变化
We could even modify plants to become super-effective carbon collectors, like the American chestnut tree, to mitigate and actually reverse climate change.
就我们今天所持有的工具而言 我们的想象力才是真正的限制
With the tools we have today, our imagination is the limit.
这个世界每天消耗一千一百万磅重的食物
The world eats 11 million pounds of food every day.
联合国的一项评估显示到2050年我们将需要增加百分之七十
A UN estimate suggests we’ll need 70% more by 2050.
我们可以通过砍伐越来越多的森林来创建耕地和牧场 通过利用更多的杀虫剂 来种植植物
We could grow that food by clearing more and more forests to create fields and pastures and by using more pesticides.
或者我们可以在现有的土地上 找到一个办法来实现 用更有效的方法 比如转基因作物
Or we find a way to do it on the land we’ve got right now, with more effective methods like GM crops.
强化农业而不是拓展农业意味着转基因生物可以成为新的有机生物
Intensifying farming instead of expanding it means GMOs could become the new organic.
简而言之 转基因生物具有这种潜力 不但能极大的改变农业生产 而且能够抑制我们不负责任的行为所造成的影响
In a nutshell, GMOs have the potential to not only drastically change agriculture but to also dampen the effects of our own irresponsible behavior.
转基因生物也许可以成为我们拯救生物圈最有力的武器
GMOs could be our most powerful weapon to save our biosphere.
我们花了600多个小时制作了这个视频 如果没有pattern.com观众的支持 就不可能完成
This video took more than 600 hours to make, which would be impossible without viewer support on Patreon.com.
如果你愿意支持用爱制作的仔细研究过的内容 这对我们是非常有帮助的
If you’d like to support carefully researched content made with love, it’s really very helpful!
而且你能够得到属于你自己的小鸟作为回报
And you can get your own bird as a reward.
如果你想学到更多关于基因改造的知识 我们有更多视频 解析这项科技的机会和风险 以及它会如何影响我们的未来
If you want to learn more about genetic modification, we have more videos explaining the opportunities and risks of the technology and how it could impact our future.
说明与鸣谢在视频介绍中
Caption & credits are in the description.

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视频概述

转基因生物究竟是好是坏?人们对它有什么样的期望和担忧?观看视频,让你对转基因生物有一个全新的认识。

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碧海青天

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瞌睡虫儿

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7TmcXYp8xu4

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