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精灵语、克林贡语、多斯拉克语和纳美语是真实的语言吗? – 译学馆
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精灵语、克林贡语、多斯拉克语和纳美语是真实的语言吗?

Are Elvish, Klingon, Dothraki and Na'vi real languages? - John McWhorter

对很多人来说 《权力的游戏》最酷的地方之一
To many, one of the coolest thingsabout”Game of Thrones”
就是多斯拉克海的居民
is that the inhabitants of the Dothraki Sea
拥有他们自己的语言
have their own real language.
并且多斯拉克语也曾伴随纳美人在《阿凡达》中
And Dothraki came hot on the heels
所使用的真实的语言而名噪一时
of the real language that the Na’vi speak in”Avatar,” which,
当然了 纳美人需要(自己的语言)
surely, the Na’vi needed
当《星际迷航》中的克林贡人从1979年开始就有了自己一整套语言系统
when the Klingons in”Star Trek” have had their own whole language since 1979.
而且别忘了约翰•罗纳德•瑞尔•托尔金的《指环王》三部曲
And let’s not forget the Elvish languages
中的精灵语
in J.R.R. Tolkien’s”Lord of the Rings” trilogy,
尤其因为精灵语是这三种虚构的人造语言的
especially since that was the official grandfather
官方源头
of the fantasy conlangs.
“人造语言”是“人类创造出的语言”的缩写
“Conlang” is short for”constructed language.”
它们不只是颠倒英语词序的文字游戏
They’re more than codes like Pig Latin,
也并非是《发条橙》中流氓少年
and they’re not just collections
所说的纳查奇语那样的
of fabricated slang like the Nadsat lingo
人造俚语的集合
that the teen hoodlums in”A Clockwork Orange” speak,
其中正好借用了俄语中的”droog” 来表达”朋友”
where”droog” from Russian happens to mean”friend.”
使人造语言成为真正语言的——并不是人造语言词汇量多少
What makes conlangs real languages isn’t the number of words they have.
当然如果词汇量很多的话 也会很有帮助
It helps, of course, to have a lot of words.
多斯拉克语有数千个词汇
Dothraki has thousands of words.
纳美语一开始有1500个词汇
Na’vi started with 1,500 words.
而网络上的粉丝们仍在持续地创造更多的词汇
Fans on websites have steadily created more.
但看一下托尔金整合宏伟古老的精灵语的方法
But we can see the differencebetween vocabulary alone
就可以发现 单纯的词汇
and what makes a real language from a look
和真正形成语言的东西之间的区别
at how Tolkien put together grand old Elvish,
一种人造语言有几千个词汇
a conlang with several thousands words.
毕竟 你可能会记住5000个俄语单词
After all, you could memorize 5,000 words of Russian
但仍不知道怎样组织好一句话
and still be barely able to construct a sentence.
而一个四岁的小孩却能在你身边流利地说着俄语
A four-year-old would talkrings around you.
这是因为你必须知道怎样把词汇组织起来
That’s because you have to know how to put the words together.
也就是——一种真正的语言是有语法的
That is, a real language has grammar.
精灵语就是这样
Elvish does.
在英语中 把一个动词变成过去时态就在其后面加”ed” 比如”wash”变为”washed”
In English, to make a verb past,you add an”-ed.” Wash, washed.
在精灵语中 与”wash”对应的词是”allu”
In Elvish,”wash” is”allu”
而与”washed”对应的词是”allune”
and”washed” is”allune.”
真正的语言也会随着时间变化
Real languages also change over time.
今天的一种语言和它在一千年以前相同——
There’s no such thing as a language that’s the same today
这根本不可能
as it was a thousand years ago.
人们使用语言 会将其带入新的习惯中
As people speak, they driftinto new habits,
摆脱掉旧习惯 犯错 再进行新的创造
shed old ones, make mistakes, and get creative.
今天 人们会说:
Today,one says,
(我们日用的饮食 今日赐给我们)
“Give us today our daily bread.”
而古英语中人们会说:(古英语写法 含义与前句相同)
In Old English, they said, “Urne gedaeghwamlicanhlaf syle us todaeg.”
人造语言也会发生变化
Things change in conlangs, too.
托尔金在图表上标明了古精灵语和更新版精灵语
Tolkien charted out ancientand newer versions of Elvish.
自从第一批精灵在觉醒湖旁醒来
When the first Elves awoke at Cuiviénen,
在他们新的语言中
in their new language,
用来表达”people”的词是”kwendi”
the word for”people” was”kwendi,”
但是在迁走的那批精灵
but in the language of one
也就是勒瑞族中
of the groups that moved away, Teleri,
原来的”kwendi”随着时间变化成了”pendi”
over time,”kwendi” became”pendi,”
原来的”k”变成了”p”
with the”k” turning into a”p.”
和真实的语言一样 精灵语这样的人造语言也分出了许多分支
And just like real languages, conlangs like Elvish split off into many.
就像罗马在欧洲传播拉丁语时
When the Romans transplantedLatin across Europe, French,
法语 西班牙语 意大利语相继出现
Spanish, and Italian were born.
当各族群迁徙到不同地方 随着时间变化
When groups move to different places, over time,
各自的说话方式也会产生分歧
their ways of speaking grow apart,
就像和他们相关的其他任何事情都会发生变化一样
just like everything else about them. Thus,
因此 拉丁文中指“手”的单词是”manus”
Latin’s word for hand was”manus,”
而在法语中变成了”main”
but in French, it became”main,”
西班牙语中变成了”mano”
while in Spain it became”mano.”
托尔金也确保精灵语中有类似的变化
Tolkien made sure Elvishdid the same kind of thing.
当勒瑞族中 最初的”kwendi”变成了”pendi”
While that original word”kwendi” became”pendi”
在中土世界传播发展的瓦里族群中
among the Teleri, among the Avari, who spreadthroughout Middle Earth,
这个词变成了”kindi” 去掉了之前的”w”
it became”kindi”when the”w” dropped out.
托尔金将精灵语的多样性表现最多的是
The Elvish varieties Tolkienfleshed out the most
通过昆雅语和辛达林语
are Quenya and Sindarin,
这两者词汇的差异与法语和西语的差异类似
and their words are different in the same way French and Spanish are.
昆雅语中用”suc”表示”drink”
Quenya has”suc” for”drink,”
而辛达林语中用”sog”表示
Sindarin has”sog.”
你们都知道 真正的语言都很复杂
And as you know, real languages are messy.
而原因就是它们始终在变化
That’s because they change,
且变化的这种方式是不规则的
and change has a way of working against order,
就像是在客厅里面或书架之上
just like in a living roomor on a bookshelf.
真正的语言从没有有完美的逻辑
Real languages are neverperfectly logical.
这也就是托尔金确信精灵语有很多例外情况的原因
That’s why Tolkien made surethat Elvish had plenty of exceptions.
许多动词都是以你之前不知道的方式连接在一起
Lots of verbs are conjugated in ways you just have to know.
我们就拿”know”这个单词为例
Take even the word”know.”
过去时 它写做”knew”
In the past, it’s”knew,”
这用任何英语的语法规则都解释不了
which isn’t explainedby any of the rules in English.
好吧
Oh well.
在精灵语中 “know”是”ista”
In Elvish,”know” is”ista,”
但是”knew”是”sinte”
but”knew” is”sinte.”
好吧
Oh well.
但事实是
The truth is, though,
精灵语仅仅是一种真实语言的摹本
that Elvish is more a sketch for a real language
并不是一整套语言体系
than a whole one.
对托尔金来说 创造精灵语只是他的爱好
For Tolkien, Elvish was a hobby rather
而不是想要创造出一些人们真正能说的东西
than an attempt to create something people could actually speak.
《指环王》中的角色所说的大部分精灵语
Much of the Elvish the charactersin the”Lord of the Rings” movies speak
都是在托尔金之后由热心的精灵语粉丝
has been made up since Tolkienby dedicated fans of Elvish
基于托尔金可能会创造什么构想的猜测 创造出来的
based on guesses as to what Tolkienwould have constructed.
这就是我们能为精灵语做的最好的事了
That’s the best we can do for Elvish
因为世上没有真正的精灵为我们开尊口
because there are no actual Elves around to speak it for us.
但是现代人造语言却走得更远
But the modern conlangs go further. Dothraki,
多斯拉克语 纳美语 克林贡语都都已发展的很充分
Na’vi, and Klingonare developed enough
事实上你可以使用它们
that you can actually speak them.
这里有翻译好的克林贡语版本的“哈姆莱特”
Here’s a translationof”Hamlet” into Klingon,
尽管演戏剧的时候就意味着
although performing itwould mean getting used
你要习惯用小舌头发”k”音
to pronouncing”k” with your uvula,
小舌头是那个怪怪的 像动画一样的挂在你喉咙后面的东西
that weird, cartoony thing hangingin the back of your throat.
不管你信不信
Believe it or not,
世界上很多的语言都需要用到小舌头
you actually do that in plenty of languages around the world,
比如爱斯基摩人的语言
like Eskimo ones.
但是精灵语的发音是比较容易的
Pronouncing Elvish is much easier, though.
那么 该结束
So,let’s take our leave for now
对精灵语的介绍
from this introductionto conlangs in Elvish
以及其他所讨论的三种人造语言了
and the other three conlangs discussed
用真诚的 四种人造语言说再见吧:
with a heartfeltquad-conlangual valedictory:
再见!(精灵语)
“A Na Marie!”
再见!(多斯拉克语)
“Hajas!”
再见!(纳美语)
Na’vi’s”Kiyevame!”
再见!(克林贡语)
“Qapla!”
再见!(英语)
and”Goodbye!”

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视频概述

人造语言可以成为真实语言吗?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

海参崴

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a5mZ0R3h8m0

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