未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

男人比女人更聪明吗?

Are Boys Smarter Than Girls?

男人要比女人聪明这一刻板印象由来已久
The stereotype that men are smarter than women has a long history,
但是在这场性别较量中
but in the battle of the sexes,
如果要下定论 究竟哪一方在智力上更胜一筹呢?
who actually has the superior intellect when it comes down to it?
男生比女生更聪明吗?
Are boys smarter than girls?
早前研究表明 男性脑容量比女性的大8%—13%
Early studies show that male brains are 8 to 13 percent larger in volume than female brains,
但是这一差异是由于男女身材大小差异造成的
however, this has been since attributed to differences in body size.
女性的大脑皮层有更多褶皱又称脑褶
Women’s brains have more gyrification or brain folding,
因此也具有更多皮层表面区
and as a result, a greater cortical surface area.
不过 更大并不一定代表更好
Besides, bigger isn’t always better.
抹香鲸 大象和海豚 它们的脑袋都比人类的要大
Sperm whales, elephants and dolphins all have larger brains than humans,
尽管它们都很聪明 但它们的认知能力还是低于我们人类
and while they are smart, their cognitive abilities are less than our own.
还有其他构造差异
There are other structural differences,
比如男性脑半球内部的联系更多
though, like males having more connections within hemispheres,
而女性大脑半球间的联系要更多
while women have more connections between hemispheres.
但总体上
But overall,
核磁共振脑部成像图表明 不同性别间的生理构造存在很多相似之处
MRI brain imaging shows significant overlap in the physical structure between the sexes.
在研究了1400人的脑部并进行性别比较之后 研究人员发现
After studying 14 hundred brains and comparing the sexes, researchers found that
几乎所有男性和女性的大脑构造都差不多
mostly all men and woman show a mosaic of female and male typical structures in the brain.
这一研究也对典型性别行为进行了分析
This study also evaluated gender stereotypical behaviours.
比如 玩电子游戏通常被认为是男性行为 而剪贴簿则是女性做的
Like how video games are often considered male behaviour while scrapbooking is female,
但结果发现
and the results found
只有0.1%的被试者表现出典型男性或典型女性行为
only 0.1 % of test subjects displayed only male or only female typical behaviours.
一些主要的智商测试也得到了类似的结果
Tests on intelligence find similar results with major IQ studies
总体上 男女表现的智商差异可忽略 或不存在
showing negligeable, or no sex differences in general intelligence
但女性的确拥有更好的口头能力 而男性则表现出更好的视觉空间能力
but do show women having stronger verbal abilities while men show stronger visual-spatial abilities.
有趣的是 研究显示男性之间差异反而较大
Interestingly, studies show more male variance in tests
测试分数呈高低两级分化
with their scores being both the worst and the best.
一项对22项研究的分析发现 男性确实比女性在智商上高出3.3到5.5分
One meta analysis of 22 studies did find men to be 3.3 to 5.5 IQ points above women.
但是这项研究引起了学术人士的质疑 理由是其研究方法存在问题
But this study has been called into question by academics who found the methodology flawed.
在语言 数学和科学的学术成就方面
In academic performance of language, math and science,
70%的国家的女性持续优胜
women consistently received better grade in 70% of nations.
但是在SAT方面 美国的男性在数学和科学上高出33分
But on SAT testing in the U.S., men scored 33 points higher in math and science.
其它测试比如国际学生评估项目表明
Other tests like the Program for International Student Assessment
在一些国家男性和女性表现相当
showed both sexes performing equally in several countries
而一些国家如冰岛的女孩在一些项目表现更佳 这表明还存在文化和环境的差异
with girls performing better in some like Iceland, suggesting cultural and environmental differences.
不一定就是生理差异导致的
and not necessarily biological differences at play.
然而研究发现
But research has found
对女性表现的刻板印象实际上影响了她们的表现
that stereotypes about womens performance actually impact how well they do.
当被告知一场特定的数学考试存在明显的性别差异时
When told that a particular math test had significant gender differences,
女同学比男同学的表现就差了许多
women performed significantly worse than their male peers.
而当女生被告知没有任何差别时 她们的分数和男生一样
While women who were told there was no difference, scored the same.
这个现象被称为“刻板印象威胁”
This phenomenom is known as the stereotype threat.
连谷歌搜索数据都显示 父母搜索:
Even Google search data shows that parents 2.5 times more likely to
“我的儿子比女儿更有天赋吗” 的概率是搜索 “我的女儿比儿子更有天赋吗”的2.5倍
search is my son gifted than is my daughter gifted?
尽管在美国 参加天赋课程的女生要比男生多11%
Despite 11% more girls in gifted programs in America.
女孩们早在六岁就被灌输这些偏见
And girls pick up on these bias as early as 6 years old.
当男孩女孩们五岁时 给他们讲关于
When told a story at age 5
一个非常聪明的人的故事
about a person who is really really smart
男孩女孩都把这个人的性别与自己的性别相联系
both boys and girls associate intelligence with there own gender
但是到了六岁 男孩和女孩
but by age 6 both girls and boys
都将男性角色视为最聪明的
picked a male character as the smartest.
在一个类似实验中 孩子们被问到是否玩愿意玩一个
In a similar experiment kids were asked if they wanted to play a game
给很聪明很聪明的人玩的游戏
for people who are really really smart
五岁的孩子 不论男女都表示愿意
and again at age 5 both sexes wanted to
而到了六岁 女孩子们则
play but by age 6, girls had decided
认为这个游戏不适合她们
these games weren’t for them.
虽然女性在
and though women do strive to work
自然科学 技术 工程和数学领域很努力 研究显示她们仍面临诸多困难
in STEM fields studies show they face barriers.
在一项双盲实验中 来自研究大学的科学人员
In a double blind study science faculty from research universities
为实验经理职位的申请打分
rated applications for a lab manager position.
他们所不知道的是
What they didn’t know is
申请上写的是任意男性或者女性的名字
that the applications were randomly assigned either male or female names.
结果
As a result,
工作人员认为名字是男性的申请者更有资质
faculty perceived the male applicant names to be significantly more competent,
更应该被雇佣和给予培训 尽管他们的申请和签有女性名字的申请是一样的
hireable and deserving of mentoring even though the applications with female names were identical.
男性的起薪也比女性更高
Males were also offered higher starting salaries,
男性平均起薪为3万而女性平均为2.6万
an average of 30,000 versus the females 26,000.
尽管这些研究清楚地呈现了现实
Though these studies produce a sobering
研究指出 这几十年随着教育程度的提高
reality research does point to greater equality
男女之间越来越平等
between the sexes with passing decades and education
尽管存在种种困难
and in spite of these barriers women continue
女性还在不断为各项科学知识添砖添瓦
to contribute to our collective scientific knowledge.
罗莎林德•富兰克林使我们能够了解自己的DNA
Rosalind Franklin allowed us to understand our own DNA,
凯瑟琳•约翰森帮助阿波罗11号登上月球
Katherine Johnson helped Apollo 11 land on the moon
而今年 玛利亚母•米尔扎克哈尼成为了首位
and this year Maryam Mirzakhani is the first
获得诺贝尔数学奖的女性
women to win a Nobel prize for mathematics.
数学家伊莎贝拉•拉巴说
Fellow mathematician Izabella Laba said
米尔扎克哈尼的获奖与我相信女性可以
“Mirzakhan’s selection does exactly nothing to convince me that women are capable of doing
把数学研究做到和男性一样的水平无关
mathematical research at the same level of men.
对此我从一开始
I have never had any doubt
就坚信不疑
about that in the first place..
相反 从中我看到的是在我们的社会
What I take from it instead is that we as a society,
不论是男人还是女人 都越来越支持
men and women alike, are becoming better at encouraging
和培养女性的数学能力
and nurturing mathematical talent in women,
对女性的卓越成绩也更加认可
and more capable of reconizing excellence in women’s work.”
为了更深入了解 我们采访了
To learn more we asked the women
在ASAP科学工作的女性 单独谈了谈她们的成长经历
at ASAP Science to speak personally about their experiences growing up
以及她们作为女性是如何处理来自社会的压力的
and give insight about how they navigate the societal pressures of being a woman.
点击下方屏幕或者链接
Click on the screen or the link
就可以看到这个视频
in the description to check out that video
记得关注我们 每周四定期更新科学视频
and subscribe for more weekly science videos every Thursday.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

男女典型大脑构造存在诸多相似之处,男女智力差异更可能是受到环境文化影响。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Abbi Gao

审核员

审核员D

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HKJFESU7hqE

相关推荐