未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

记忆都是真实的吗

Are all of your memories real? - Daniel L. Schacter

你越是怀念一段记忆 它就越是深刻和陌生
In a study in the 1990s,
在20世纪90年代的一项研究中
participants recalled getting lost in a shopping mall as children.
参与者回忆了自己小时候在购物中心迷路的经历
Some shared these memories in vivid detail
有些被试还能回忆起这段经历的生动细节
one even remembered that the old man who rescued him
有人甚至记得救他的是一位
was wearing a flannel shirt.
穿着法兰绒衬衣的老人
But none of these people had actually gotten lost in a mall.
但是这些人其实都没有在商场迷路过
They produced these false memories
当心理学家为了做研究告诉他们曾经迷过路时
when the psychologists conducting the study told them they’d gotten lost,
他们就创造了那些虚假的记忆
and although they might not remember the incident,
也许他们记不清这件事
their parents had confirmed it.
但是他们父母已经证实过他们没有迷过路
And it wasn’t just one or two people who thought they remembered getting lost—
而且不只是一两个人认为自己迷过路
a quarter of the participants did.
四分之一的参与者都是这样
These findings may sound unbelievable,
尽管这些结果也许听起来难以置信
but they actually reflect a very common experience.
但是这反映了一种普遍的认知
Our memories are sometimes unreliable.
我们的记忆有的时候并不可靠
And though we still don’t know precisely what causes this fallibility
虽然我们还不能在神经学层面上明确的知道
on a neurological level,
是什么导致了这种错误
research has highlighted some of the most common ways our memories
研究强调了一些我们的记忆与实际
diverge from what actually happened.
发生偏离的常见方式
The mall study highlights how we can incorporate information
商场迷路研究体现了我们是如何
from outside sources,
不知不觉把外界的信息
like other people or the news,
比如其他人或者新闻
into our personal recollections without realizing it.
整合到我们的记忆中去的
This kind of suggestibility is just one influence on our memories.
这种暗示只是对我们记忆的影响之一
Take another study,
在一些其他的研究中
in which researchers briefly showed a random collection of photographs
研究人员给一组参与者
to a group of participants,
随机地迅速展示了一些照片
including images of a university campus none of them had ever visited.
其中包括一些他们从未参观过的大学校园的照片
When shown the images three weeks later,
三周以后
a majority of participants said that they had probably or definitely
大多数参与者说他们可能或者肯定
visited the campus in the past.
在之前参观过那个校园
The participants misattributed information from one context— an image they’d seen—
这些被试把之前看过的照片中的信息
onto another— a memory of something they believed they actually experienced.
错误的嫁接到了他们真实经历的记忆上
In another experiment, people were shown an image of a magnifying glass,
在另一项实验中 研究人员向受试者展示了一张放大镜的图像
and then told to imagine a lollipop.
然后让他们想象棒棒糖
They frequently recalled that they saw the magnifying glass and the lollipop.
他们经常回忆起他们看到了放大镜和棒棒糖
They struggled to link the objects to the correct context—
这时无论是真的看到了还是只是想象
whether they actually saw them, or simply imagined them.
他们都尽力将物体与合适的情景联系起来
Another study, where a psychologist questioned over 2,000 people
在另一项研究中 心理学家就关于大麻合法化
on their views about the legalization of marijuana,
的看法对超过2000人进行了问卷调查
highlights yet another kind of influence on memory.
指出了影响记忆的另一种方式
Participants answered questions in 1973 and 1982.
参与者分别在1973年和1982年回答了问题
Those who said they had supported marijuana legalization in 1973,
那些在1973年支持大麻合法化
but reported they were against it in 1982,
却在1982年反对大麻合法化的人
were more likely to recall that they were actually against legalization in 1973—
更有可能回想起他们在1973年实际上是反对大麻合法化的
bringing their old views in line with their current ones.
这让他们的旧观点与当前观点保持一致
Our current opinions, feelings, and experiences
我们当前的想法 感觉 以及经历
can bias our memories of how we felt in the past.
会使我们记忆中过去的感受产生偏差
In another study,
在另一项研究中
researchers gave two groups
研究人员给了两组参与者
of participants background information on a historical war
一些关于历史战争的背景信息
and asked them to rate the likelihood that each side would win.
并让他们评估哪一方会赢
They gave each group the same information,
他们给了每一组相同的信息
except that they only told one group who had actually won the war—
但是告诉了其中一组哪一方真正赢得了胜利
the other group didn’t know the real world outcome.
另一组则并不知道真正的赢家
In theory, both groups’ answers should be similar,
理论上 两组参与者给出的答案应该是相似的
because the likelihood of each side winning
因为哪一方真正的胜利
isn’t effected by who actually won—
并不会影响他们评估实际胜利的是哪一方
if there’s a 20% chance of thunderstorms, and a thunderstorm happens,
如果雷暴发生的概率是20%并且发生了
the chance of thunderstorms doesn’t retroactively go up to 100%.
但这并不会使发生雷暴的概率提升到100%
Still, the group that knew how the war ended
然而知道了战争结果的一组比不知道结果的另一组
rated the winning side as more likely to win than the group who did not.
更倾向于预测真正的赢家会赢
All of these fallibilities of memory can have real-world impacts.
所有这些错误的记忆都可能对现实世界产生影响
If police interrogations use leading questions with eye witnesses or suspects,
如果警方在询问目击者或嫌疑人时使用诱导性问题
suggestibility could result in incorrect identifications or unreliable confessions.
这种暗示可能会导致不准确的指认或不可靠的供词
Even in the absence of leading questions,
即使没有诱导性问题
misattribution can lead to inaccurate eyewitness testimony.
错误的归因也可能导致不准确的目击者证词
In a courtroom,
在法庭上
if a judge rules a piece of evidence inadmissible
如果法官裁定某项证据不可采信
and tells jurors to disregard it, they may not be able to do so.
并告诉陪审员不予理会 他们可能并不能真的不理会
In a medical setting, if a patient seeks a second opinion
在医疗中 如果病人想寻求其他医生的意见
and the second physician is aware of the first one’s diagnosis,
而第二位医生知道了首位医生的诊断
that knowledge may bias their conclusion.
这种情况下可能会使他们的结论产生偏差
Our memories are not ironclad representations of reality,
我们的记忆不是对现实的复刻
but subjective perceptions.
而是主观感知
And there’s not necessarily anything wrong with that—
这不一定会出什么问题
the problems arise when we treat memory as fact,
但是当我们把记忆当做现实
rather than accepting this fundamental truth
而未接受记忆并不靠谱这个事实时
about the nature of our recollections.
问题就出现了
if you wanna understand how exactly memories are formed
如果你想了解记忆是如何形成的
check out this video
请观看这个视频
or keep exploring the subject of our fallible memories with this video
或者继续在本视频中探索“有些被试觉得自己小时候走失过”
on why some of them seem to just get lost.
这一错误记忆产生的原因

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

我们的记忆并不可靠

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

喵的薛定谔

审核员

审核员LIN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D-2p86FvqF4

相关推荐