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用建筑来获得疗愈

Architecture that's built to heal | Michael Murphy

在我能够记住的每个周末
Every weekend for as long as I can remember,
我的父亲在周六起床后
my father would get up on a Saturday,
会穿上一件旧T恤衫
put on a worn sweatshirt
他会刮掉
and he’d scrape away
我们所住的老房子的油漆
at the squeaky old wheel of a house that we lived in.
我不能把它叫做修整
I wouldn’t even call it restoration;
那是一种仪式 一种净化
it was a ritual, catharsis.
他会用整整一年的时间来 用他的热风枪
He would spend all year scraping paint with this old heat gun
以及抹墙粉刀来刮掉油漆
and a spackle knife,
然后他会重新油漆他刮掉的部分
and then he would repaint where he scraped,
这只是为了能在来年重新开始
only to begin again the following year.
刮漆和再次刮漆 油漆和再次油漆
Scraping and re-scraping, painting and repainting:
这所老房子的工作永远不会结束
the work of an old house is never meant to be done.
当我父亲52岁的时候 我接到一通电话
The day my father turned 52, I got a phone call.
我母亲在线上
My mother was on the line
告诉我说医生在他的腹腔发现一个肿块儿
to tell me that doctors had found a lump in his stomach —
癌症晚期 她这么跟我说
terminal cancer, she told me,
他只能活三周
and he had been given only three weeks to live.
我立即搬家到纽约 Poughkeepsie,
I immediately moved home to Poughkeepsie, New York,
守护我父亲的临终死亡
to sit with my father on death watch,
不知道第二天我们会发生些什么
not knowing what the next days would bring us.
为了让自己分散注意力
To keep myself distracted,
我卷起了袖子
I rolled up my sleeves,
我去做他再也无法完成的事情
and I went about finishing what he could now no longer complete —
修整我们的老房子
the restoration of our old home.
当那个无形的三周期限来到了
When that looming three-week deadline came
又过去后
and then went,
他还是活着
he was still alive.
三个月后
And at three months,
他开始跟我一起
he joined me.
我们重新粉刷了内部
We gutted and repainted the interior.
六个月后 老窗户完成了
At six months, the old windows were refinished,
18个月的时候
and at 18 months,
破败的阳台也翻新了
the rotted porch was finally replaced.
而我的父亲
And there was my father,
和我一起站在外面 欣赏着一天的工作
standing with me outside, admiring a day’s work,
他头上的发 重新长了出来
hair on his head, fully in remission,
他走向我 对我说
when he turned to me and he said,
你知道 迈克
“You know, Michael,
这栋房子救了我
this house saved my life.”
所以 第二年 我去了建筑学院
So the following year, I decided to go to architecture school.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
在那儿 我学到了 关于楼房的很多不同的东西
But there, I learned something different about buildings.
成名似乎都是
Recognition seemed to come
给那些最先革新和雕塑的形式
to those who prioritized novel and sculptural forms,
比方说缎带 或者是
like ribbons, or …
腌黄瓜条?
pickles?
(笑声)
(Laughter)
但我认为这应该是一个蜗牛
And I think this is supposed to be a snail.
这很让我烦恼
Something about this bothered me.
为什么最好的建筑 最伟大的建筑
Why was it that the best architects, the greatest architecture —
全是美丽、创新和标新立异的--
all beautiful and visionary and innovative —
而且极其罕见
is also so rare,
并且只有少数人能够享受
and seems to serve so very few?
再加上一点
And more to the point:
在这些创造性的天分之上 我们还能做些什么呢?
With all of this creative talent, what more could we do?
就在我要我开始我期末考试的时候
Just as I was about to start my final exams,
我决定从通宵的学习中偷个懒
I decided to take a break from an all-nighter
我去了 Paul Farmer医生的一个演讲
and go to a lecture by Dr. Paul Farmer,
他是一个健康活动家领袖 为了全球的贫困而努力
a leading health activist for the global poor.
我很惊奇地听到一个医生
I was surprised to hear a doctor talking about architecture.
谈论到关于楼房令人生病的事情
Buildings are making people sicker, he said,
他说在全世界最贫困的地方
and for the poorest in the world,
这引起了流行病程度上的问题
this is causing epidemic-level problems.
在南非的医院
In this hospital in South Africa,
比如说 一个腿骨折的病人来到医院
patients that came in with, say, a broken leg,
在通风不好的大厅等候
to wait in this unventilated hallway,
就会带着几种抗药性的结核病菌种走出医院
walked out with a multidrug-resistant strand of tuberculosis.
根本没有想到为控制感染的简单设计
Simple designs for infection control had not been thought about,
人们因此而死亡
and people had died because of it.
“建筑师在哪儿呢?”Paul说道
“Where are the architects?” Paul said.
如果一个医院令人们生病
If hospitals are making people sicker,
那么帮助建筑和设计 那些可以让人痊愈的医院
where are the architects and designers
的设计师和建筑师又在哪儿呢
to help us build and design hospitals that allow us to heal?
那个接下来的暑期
That following summer,
我和几个同学一起开着路虎
I was in the back of a Land Rover with a few classmates,
在卢旺达的山岭间穿越颠簸
bumping over the mountainous hillside of Rwanda.
因为来年 我将居住在Butaro 这所老客房内
For the next year, I’d be living in Butaro in this old guesthouse,
这是种族屠杀后的一座监狱
which was a jail after the genocide.
我在那里与Farmer医生和他的团队
I was there to design and build a new type of hospital
一起设计和建造一种新型的医院
with Dr. Farmer and his team.
如果大厅会使病人病情加重
If hallways are making patients sicker,
那么我们能够设计一种医院可以 把大厅向露天敞开
what if we could design a hospital that flips the hallways on the outside,
使人们在外面走动
and makes people walk in the exterior?
如果机械系统不工作
If mechanical systems rarely work,
那么我们是否可以设计一种医院
what if we could design a hospital that could breathe
能通过自然通风而呼吸
through natural ventilation,
同时减少它的环境足迹
and meanwhile reduce its environmental footprint?
还有病人的体验将会怎样呢?
And what about the patients’ experience?
证据显示简单的自然景象
Evidence shows that a simple view of nature
能够从根本上提高总体健康
can radically improve health outcomes,
所以为什么我们不能设计一种医院
So why couldn’t we design a hospital
使每位病人有一面窗户
where every patient had a window with a view?
简单、特定的设计能建造一个治愈的医院
Simple, site-specific designs can make a hospital that heals.
设计是一件事
Designing it is one thing;
建造它 是另一件事
getting it built, we learned, is quite another.
我们跟Bruce Nizeye一起工作
We worked with Bruce Nizeye,
他是一个非常了不起的工程师
a brilliant engineer,
对于建筑 他对我从学校学来的那一套
and he thought about construction differently
有不同的看法
than I had been taught in school.
当我们必须在这个巨大的山顶挖掘的时候
When we had to excavate this enormous hilltop
推土机的消费昂贵而且难以到达那里
and a bulldozer was expensive and hard to get to site,
Bruce建议用双手来解决
Bruce suggested doing it by hand,
借助在卢旺达叫做“Ubedehe(愚公移山)”的方法
using a method in Rwanda called “Ubudehe,”
叫做“社区工作为社区服务”
which means “community works for the community.”
几百人带着铁锹和锄头来到现场
Hundreds of people came with shovels and hoes,
我们用了一半的时间
and we excavated that hill
和一半的推土机的费用而挖掘了山顶
in half the time and half the cost of that bulldozer.
Bruce带来了木匠大师
Instead of importing furniture, Bruce started a guild,
让他们来给其他人面授机宜
and he brought in master carpenters to train others
教导如何在现场手工做家具
in how to make furniture by hand.
所以 我们就不用进口家具了
And on this job site,
在卢旺达人的种族灭绝15年后
15 years after the Rwandan genocide,
Bruce坚持我们需要各种背景的劳动者
Bruce insisted that we bring on labor from all backgrounds,
其中一半是女人
and that half of them be women.
Bruce利用建筑来治疗
Bruce was using the process of building to heal,
不仅是为那些病人
not just for those who were sick,
而且是把整个社区团结起来
but for the entire community as a whole.
我们把这个叫做 当地人赤手空拳的建筑
We call this the locally fabricated way of building, or “lo-fab,”
或者是“当地-奇迹“ 它有四根立柱
and it has four pillars:
从当地雇佣的工人
hire locally,
就地取材
source regionally,
训练学徒
train where you can
而最重要的
and most importantly,
想想每个设计的决策是一个机会
think about every design decision as an opportunity
给你所服务的地方高贵的投资
to invest in the dignity of the places where you serve.
把它作为当地的食品运动
Think of it like the local food movement,
对建筑来说
but for architecture.
我们有理由认为这种建筑
And we’re convinced that this way of building
可以在全世界翻版再建
can be replicated across the world,
改变我们所说的评估构架
and change the way we talk about and evaluate architecture.
利用“当地奇迹”的办法来建造楼房
Using the lo-fab way of building,
即使审美决定的设计 也能对人们的生活产生影响
even aesthetic decisions can be designed to impact people’s lives.
在Butaro 我们选择利用当地的火山石
In Butaro, we chose to use a local volcanic stone
在那个区域里资源非常充足
found in abundance within the area,
而且通常被当地农人看作是很讨厌的
but often considered a nuisance by farmers,
堆砌在路边
and piled on the side of the road.
我们跟这些泥瓦匠切割这些石块
We worked with these masons to cut these stones
让它们做医院的墙
and form them into the walls of the hospital.
当它们从这里开始
And when they began on this corner
环绕了整个医院
and wrapped around the entire hospital,
这些石块放在一起非常好
they were so good at putting these stones together,
他们问我们是否能够拆掉原来的 重新建立一个
they asked us if they could take down the original wall and rebuild it.
你可以看见什么是可能的
And you see what is possible.
它很美
It’s beautiful.
对我来说 这个美人
And the beauty, to me,
是来自手工切割的那些石块儿
comes from the fact that I know that hands cut these stones,
他们把它们嵌进了这堵厚墙
and they formed them into this thick wall,
只是在此地利用了来自这片土壤的石块儿
made only in this place with rocks from this soil.
现在 当你到了外面 看看你建造的这个世界
When you go outside today and you look at your built world,
不仅要问
ask not only:
一个重要的问题 “什么是环境的足迹“
“What is the environmental footprint?” — an important question —
我们同时也会问
but what if we also asked,
”建造它的人类的手印又是什么呢?“
“What is the human handprint of those who made it?”
我们根据这些问题开始了一个新的练习
We started a new practice based around these questions,
我们在全世界做了试验
and we tested it around the world.
像在海地
Like in Haiti,
我们在问一坐新医院 是否会给霍乱的流行划上句号
where we asked if a new hospital could help end the epidemic of cholera.
在这个100张床位的病房里
In this 100-bed hospital,
我们设计了一个简单的策略
we designed a simple strategy
来清除污染的医疗废品 在它进入水源之前
to clean contaminated medical waste before it enters the water table,
而我们在 Les Centres GHESKIO的合作伙伴
and our partners at Les Centres GHESKIO
已经为此拯救了不少的生命
are already saving lives because of it.
或者在Malawi:
Or Malawi:
我们会问是否接生中心会从根本上
we asked if a birthing center could radically reduce
减少母婴的死亡率
maternal and infant mortality.
Malawi有着世界上
Malawi has one of the highest rates of maternal and infant death
最高的母婴死亡率
in the world.
利用一个简单的策略来做到
Using a simple strategy to be replicated nationally,
我们设计了一个接生中心
we designed a birthing center
吸引女人和她们的同伴
that would attract women and their attendants
早些来到医院 因此而有着较为安全的分娩
to come to the hospital earlier and therefore have safer births.
或者在Congo,我们会问
Or in the Congo, where we asked
是否可以有一个教育中心
if an educational center could also be used
来用以保护处于灭绝的野生动物
to protect endangered wildlife.
偷猎象牙和野兽肉
Poaching for ivory and bushmeat
会导致全球流行病的传染和战争
is leading to global epidemic, disease transfer and war.
在这个世界上最难以企及的一个地方
In one of the hardest-to-reach places in the world,
我们利用了泥巴 尘土和周围的木头
we used the mud and the dirt and the wood around us
建造了一个中心
to construct a center
像我们显示了 保留我们丰富的生物多样性的方法
that would show us ways to protect and conserve our rich biodiversity.
即便是在美国
Even here in the US,
我们被要求重新思考
we were asked to rethink
世界上最大的聋哑大学
the largest university for the deaf and hard of hearing in the world.
聋人社区 通过手势语言
The deaf community, through sign language,
像我们展示视觉交流的力量
shows us the power of visual communication.
我们设计了一个校园
We designed a campus that would awaken the ways
可以唤醒人们作为一个整体而交流
in which we as humans all communicate,
以语言或非语言的方式
both verbally and nonverbally.
即使在我的家乡Poughkeepsie
And even in Poughkeepsie, my hometown,
我们想到古老的工业基础设施
we thought about old industrial infrastructure.
我们疑惑
We wondered:
我们能用艺术文化和设计来振兴这个城市吗
Could we use arts and culture and design to revitalize this city
还有全国其它一些老旧的条带式城市
and other Rust Belt cities across our nation,
能把她们变成革新和成长的中心吗?
and turn them into centers for innovation and growth?
我们在每个项目上都询问一个简单的问题
In each of these projects, we asked a simple question:
建筑师还能够多做些什么?
What more can architecture do?
通过这个问题
And by asking that question,
我们被迫地考虑到我们怎样来完成工作
we were forced to consider how we could create jobs,
怎样就地取材
how we could source regionally
怎样在我们所服务的社区
and how we could invest in the dignity of the communities
有尊严地投资
in which we serve.
我已经学到了
I have learned
建筑可成为变化的转变性引擎
that architecture can be a transformative engine for change.
一年以前 我读过一篇文章
About a year ago, I read an article
是关于一位孜孜不倦的勇敢的民运领袖
about a tireless and intrepid civil rights leader
他叫Bryan Stevenson
named Bryan Stevenson.
(鼓掌)
(Applause)
Bryan有一个大胆的建筑观点
And Bryan had a bold architectural vision.
他和他的队友们已经记录了
He and his team had been documenting
在南美发生的
the over 4,000 lynchings of African-Americans
超过4000例的美国非裔的私刑案例
that have happened in the American South.
他们计划标记下这些私刑发生的每一个区县
And they had a plan to mark every county where these lynchings occurred,
他们在阿拉巴马的蒙哥马利
and build a national memorial to the victims of lynching
为私刑的牺牲者建立了一个国家纪念馆
in Montgomery, Alabama.
像德国和南非
Countries like Germany and South Africa
当然还有卢旺达
and, of course, Rwanda,
我们发现有必要建立一个纪念馆
have found it necessary to build memorials
来折射他们过去的暴行
to reflect on the atrocities of their past,
以便从心理上获得全国性的治愈
in order to heal their national psyche.
我们在美国也要这样做
We have yet to do this in the United States.
所以我发出了一个邮件到 info@equaljusticeintiative.org:
So I sent a cold email to info@equaljusticeintiative.org:
邮件上说:“亲爱的Bryan“
“Dear Bryan,” it said,
“我以为你的建筑项目
“I think your building project
也许是我们在美国能做到的最好的
is maybe the most important project we could do in America
而且它能改变我们所认为的种族不平等
and could change the way we think about racial injustice.
顺便问一句
By any chance,
你知道谁去设计这个建筑呢?“
do you know who will design it?”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
令人吃惊的是
Surprisingly, shockingly,
Bryan马上回了我的邮件
Bryan got right back to me,
并且邀请我去跟他的团队见面和谈话
and invited me down to meet with his team and talk to them.
不用说 我取消了自己所有的会议
Needless to say, I canceled all my meetings
直飞阿拉巴马的蒙哥马利
and I jumped on a plane to Montgomery, Alabama.
当我到达那里以后
When I got there,
Bryan和他的团队接我去参观了城市
Bryan and his team picked me up, and we walked around the city.
他们花了一番时间指出
And they took the time to point out
在全市所置放的
the many markers that have been placed all over the city
很多关于南部联邦历史的标记
to the history of the Confederacy,
没有几个标记是关于奴隶的
and the very few that mark the history of slavery.
然后他带我走上一个山坡
And then he walked me to a hill.
可以俯瞰整个城市
It overlooked the whole city.
他指给我看一条河和某些火车道
He pointed out the river and the train tracks
曾经是美国国内最大的奴隶交易港口
where the largest domestic slave-trading port in America
一度非常繁荣
had once prospered.
然后我们到了国会圆顶大厦
And then to the Capitol rotunda,
乔治华莱士曾经站在它的阶梯上宣称
where George Wallace had stood on its steps
“永远隔离”
and proclaimed, “Segregation forever.”
然后我们到了丘陵下面
And then to the very hill below us.
他说 “我们会建立一个新的纪念馆
He said, “Here we will build a new memorial
这将改变这座城市和这个国家的面目
that will change the identity of this city and of this nation.”
我们两个团队去年在一起工作
Our two teams have worked together over the last year
并设计了这个纪念馆
to design this memorial.
这个纪念馆会带领我们走上一个旅途
The memorial will take us on a journey
通过一个古典的 几近熟悉的建筑类型
through a classical, almost familiar building type,
像帕台农神庙或在梵蒂冈的柱廊
like the Parthenon or the colonnade at the Vatican.
但当我们进入的时候
But as we enter,
地面下降,我们的视界更换了
the ground drops below us and our perception shifts,
我们意识到这些柱子唤起
where we realize that these columns evoke the lynchings,
在公共广场发生的私刑
which happened in the public square.
当我们继续的时候
And as we continue,
我们开始明白数目巨大的这一部分人
we begin to understand the vast number
已经置于安息
of those who have yet to be put to rest.
他们的名字会刻在我们上面的这些标记
Their names will be engraved on the markers that hang above us.
而在外面 也会有相同的柱子
And just outside will be a field of identical columns.
但这些是临时的 等候着
But these are temporary columns, waiting in purgatory,
今后几年
to be placed in the very counties where these lynchings occurred.
在那些私刑发生的区县
Over the next few years,
尚在炼狱中的未明之人
this site will bear witness,
就像每个标记宣称的
as each of these markers is claimed
在这些国家有目共睹的
and visibly placed in those counties.
我们的国家将开始从世纪的沉默得到疗愈
Our nation will begin to heal from over a century of silence.
当我们考虑怎样来建造它
When we think about how it should be built,
我们想起了“卢旺达人的愚公移山”
we were reminded of Ubudehe,
我们开始了在卢旺达的那种建筑程序
the building process we learned about in Rwanda.
我们疑惑是否我们能够
We wondered if we could fill those very columns
用私刑发生的当地的泥土来填充这些柱子
with the soil from the sites of where these killings occurred.
Bryan和他的团队已经开始搜集了那些泥土
Brian and his team have begun collecting that soil
并且保存在瓶罐之中
and preserving it in individual jars
和他们的家庭成员 社区领袖和子孙后代们在一起
with family members, community leaders and descendants.
搜集泥土的行为本身
The act of collecting soil itself
就带来了某种精神的疗愈
has lead to a type of spiritual healing.
这是某种回顾性的司法
It’s an act of restorative justice.
就像一个Eji队员
As one EJI team member noted
在 Will McBride 的私刑处 的泥土搜集过程中记下来的
in the collection of the soil from where Will McBride was lynched,
“如果Will McBride留下了一滴汗
“If Will McBride left one drop of sweat,
一滴血
one drop of blood,
一根头发
one hair follicle —
我祈祷我会将它挖掘出来
I pray that I dug it up,
那么他的整个身体将会安息
and that his whole body would be at peace.”
我们计划在今年后半年将纪念馆破土动工
We plan to break ground on this memorial later this year,
它将是一个最终能够诉说不可说的行为
and it will be a place to finally speak of the unspeakable acts
而这个行为使这个国家伤痕累累
that have scarred this nation.
(鼓掌)
(Applause)
当我的父亲在那天告诉我这座房子
When my father told me that day that this house —
我们的房子--
our house —
挽救了他的生命
had saved his life,
那时我还不知道
what I didn’t know
他指的是我们和建筑之间
was that he was referring to a much deeper relationship
有着深深的联系
between architecture and ourselves.
建筑不仅仅是一座表达性的雕像
Buildings are not simply expressive sculptures.
它让我们个人和集体的愿望
They make visible our personal and our collective aspirations
浮现于社会
as a society.
伟大的建筑能给我们希望
Great architecture can give us hope.
伟大的建筑能够疗愈创伤
Great architecture can heal.
非常感谢大家
Thank you very much.
(鼓掌)
(Applause)

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MvXZzKZ3JYQ

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