未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

马修·沃克访谈:焦虑,皮质醇和冥想及其对失眠的影响

Anxiety, cortisol and meditation and their effects on insomnia | Matthew Walker

我们也知道
[Matt]: And we’ve seen this, too.
如果去探究刚刚提到的大脑情感反应特征
that if you look at that emotional brain reaction signature that I just sort of described,
你也说过这点
and you repeat that.
人分为高度焦虑和轻度焦虑
But with people who are high-anxious and low-anxious,
而且我们知道有些基因与焦虑程度有关
and we know some of the genes that are associated with being high anxious and low anxious
那么 我们可以把焦虑看作这种基因型的表现
So we’re using anxiety as a sort of a proxy for perhaps a particular genotype here.
我们能看到的是
What you see is
高度焦虑的人对缺乏睡眠表现地最为敏感
that it’s those high-anxious people who are the most vulnerable to this impact of a lack of sleep.
轻度焦虑的人也会焦躁不安
Those who are low-anxious still have a bad outcome,
但程度较轻
but it’s nowhere near as bad.
所以睡眠不足和大脑出现紧张焦虑状态
So there seems to be sort of interactions here between sleep loss and
似乎有一定的关联
your basic trait levels of being sort of nervous,anxious type to begin with.
– 这就说得通了 – 那些感到难受的人
– That makes sense.- And those are the people who are sadly,
晚上总是睡不好 无论怎样……
the people who typically don’t get a good night of sleep.Anyway…
是的 所以说
[Rhonda]:Right. So to say.
焦虑是失眠的因素之一
[Rhonda]: Anxiety is like one of the things that stops me from sleeping.
它是失眠的关键开关
[Matt]:It’s the principal trigger of insomnia.
– 对 的确- 目前 它是失眠的外在表现
– Yeah really, true.- is the model of insomnia right now.
如果你……如果关注神经系统
[Matt]: is that you get…And if you look at the nervous system,
就会知道我们目前是如何理解失眠的
[Matt]: that’s how we understand insomnia right now is that
其重点在于
is that… its principle is… I think
你最终会发现失眠形式是多种多样的
ultimately you’ll find that there are multiple flavors of insomnia, different forms.
我们把失眠分成两类
We already categorized two of them.
一种叫入睡性失眠
We’ve got what we call sleep onset insomnia
一种是睡眠维持性失眠
and sleep maintenance insomnia.
难以入眠或难以熟睡
Difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep.
并不是互斥的
They’re not mutually exclusive.
你可能同时遭受两种或是一种失眠
You can have both, or you can just have one or the other.
但回到刚刚说的
But coming back to it,
我认为覆盖生物红线对于失眠症的描述
I think the overarching biological red thread narrative of insomnia
是神经系统的一种放大式“战逃反应”
is an amplified “fight-or-flight” nervous system,
这就像将你的神经系统分成两个分支
like your nervous system is split into these two branches,
也就是我们说的自主神经系统的
what we call sort of the sympathetic and parasympathetic
交感神经和副交感神经
parts of your autonomic nervous system.
交感神经 就是交感神经系统
The sympathetic is anything.
但名字起得简单了点
But sympathetic it poorly named.
它就是神经系统的“战逃反应”分支
It’s the fight-or-flight branch of your nervoussystem.
它促使你兴奋激动 并释放皮质醇和肾上腺素
It ramps you up, charges you up, releasescortisol, adrenaline.
当以24小时为周期去测量失眠者皮质醇含量
You constantly see an overactive, sympathetic nervous system in people with insomnia,
你通常会发现他们的交感神经系统过于活跃
and when you measure their cortisol across the 24-hour period.
对于大多数人来说到了日常睡眠时间
In most of us, just as we’re getting to our natural bedtime,
皮质醇含量就开始下降
cortisol just starts to now drop down.
我们会观察到皮质醇逐渐循环下降
We start to see that cycling down of cortisol.
失眠者则恰好相反
The opposite happens in people with insomnia.
皮质醇含量在睡前持续上升
You get a continued rise right around that bedroom period.
这似乎是入睡性失眠问题的前兆
And it seems to be very predictive of sleeponset problems.
如果你观察整晚就会发现
If you look throughout the night,
皮质醇会出现断崖式下降
cortisol then starts to plummet, and it drops beautifully down.
所以这也是一部分原因 为什么说
It’s part of the reason why deep sleep
深度睡眠是最好的天然降压药
is the best form of natural blood pressure medication
这也是我们梦寐以求的
that you could ever wish for.
心率下降
Your heart rate drops down,
血流减缓
your vessels relax,
皮质醇含量慢慢下降
Cortisol drops down.
但在另一种失眠患者身上
But in other insomnia patients,
皮质醇含量在午夜会达到峰值
we see this bizarre spike in cortisol in the middle of the night.
这预示着你会在夜间惊醒
And it predicts nighttime awakenings.
也表明你患有睡眠维持性失眠
It predicts sleep maintenance insomnia. [Rhonda]:
我有过……这……这是我经历过的难题
I have experienced…So I… That’s one of the problems that I actually have.
现在好多了
It’s much, much better now
我的压力没有那么大了
that my stress level is, like,maintain
读研究生的时候
At graduate school,
我会在半夜惊醒 心跳加速
I would get nighttime awakenings where my heart would start racing.
醒来后就感觉
And I would wake up thinking
有蜘蛛这类恐怖的东西在我身边
that there was a spider or some kind of threat.
我会尖叫 有时候一撅而起
And I would scream, and sometimes jump fly outthe bed.
就是说 你知道 就是……
I mean, you know, and just…
这会吓到我的老公
it would scare my husband, you know.
那时我们还没结婚
At the time, we weren’t married.
但是 我想说 这种半夜惊醒的经历
But,I mean, you know, these nighttime awakenings,
是很久以前的事情了
it was something that’s dated back for quite some time.
但是真的 会持续出现在我压力最大的那段时间
But really, it manifested during a very stressful period,
也就是我读研究生的时候
and that was graduate school.
– 那现在……- 已经好多了
– We see that… – Got much better.
会很频繁发生
[Matt]:…so frequently.
是的
[Rhonda]:Yeah.
但如果你可以把那些看做一种
[Matt]:But if you can think about that as sort of, you know,
失眠压力的调节步骤
a stress management component to insomnia, you know,
那它就变成失眠认知行为疗法的一部分
it’s part of what we call cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia,
也就是缓解压力的方式 例如冥想
which is sort of dealing with that stress,you know, meditation.
有一些不错的应用 比如Headspace
There’s great apps out there, like Headspace,for example.
研究冥想和失眠得到的数据非常有用
And the data on meditation and insomnia isvery very powerful.
我原来只了解一点点
You know, I’d known about it a little bit,
直到我写书需要
but I hadn’t read really all of the studies
我才开始真正阅读研究所有的文献
until I started researching it for the book.
我深有感触 然后开始冥想
And I was so convinced that I started meditating.
并且一直坚持
And I haven’t stopped since.
因为 你知道……我通常睡得还不错
Because it was, you know…Typically, I’mnot a bad sleeper.
虽然我睡得很浅
I’m a light sleeper.
但我的睡眠质量很好
I’m a pretty good sleeper.
我发现这在我压力大
I found it hugely useful for times when I was under stress,
或者旅行调整时差时非常有用
or when I was traveling and jetlag.
让我收益颇多
It’s very beneficial, too.
但我认为 焦虑是失眠的一个前兆
But that underlying theme, I think, as a message for insomnia,
并不是造成失眠的唯一原因
it’s not the only cause of insomnia,
但要说那么多失眠患者
but it seems to be if there’s one common sort of rule
失眠症成因的共同点
that binds many of the patients with insomnia together,
就是神经系统“战逃反应”过于活跃
it’s this overactive fight-or-flightbranch of the nervous system.
如果你能安抚住它
And if you can settle that down,
– 就一定能提高睡眠质量- 没错
you are certainly on the path towards better sleep. [Rhonda]:Right.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

关于失眠两种类型的解释

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

小怂想吃奶酪

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kcf5_OZWS1Q

相关推荐