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一架你能驾驶的飞机

Anna Mracek Dietrich: A plane you can drive

为什么飞行汽车让我们痴迷?
What is it about flying cars?
一百年前我们就开始想建造它
We’ve wanted to do this for about a hundred years.
回望历史有不少尝试
And there are historic attempts
技术上有了一定进展
that have had some level of technical success.
但今天我们仍然没能坐上飞行汽车
But we haven’t yet gotten to the point
(如果成功的话)各位早上来的路上
where on your way here this morning
就能够感受到它会将
you see something that really, truly seamlessly integrates
我们熟悉的二维世界
the two-dimensional world that we’re comfortable in
和头顶的三维天空天衣无缝地融为一体-
with the three-dimensional sky above us —
不知道各位怎么想,但我真的是乐在其中
that, I don’t know about you, but I really enjoy spending time in.
我们回顾了以往的尝试
We looked at the historical attempts that had been out there
发现尽管事实上
and realized that, despite the fact
今天我们有许多的
that we have a lot of modern innovations
现代化创新
to draw on today
在以前是没有的-
that weren’t available previously —
我们有现代复合材料,
we have modern composite materials,
有无可比拟的省油
we have aircraft engines that get good fuel economy
且超大输出功率的飞机引擎
and have better power-to-rate ratios than have ever been available,
我们有玻璃的座舱电子设备
we have glass cockpit avionics
提供飞行信息
that bring the information you need to fly
坐在驾驶舱就可以一揽全局-
directly to you in the cockpit —
但不从其它视角来探索根本性问题的话
but without fundamentally addressing the problem from a different perspective,
我们得到的结果
we realized that we were going to be getting
与近一百年来这些人的结果
the same result that people had been getting
将没什么两样
for the last hundred years,
我们可不想这样
which isn’t where we want to be right now.
于是我们觉得与其要汽车上天
So instead of trying to make a car that can fly,
不如让飞机下地
we decided to try to make a plane that could drive.
这就是Terrafugia陆空两用飞车
And the result is the Terrafugia Transition.
它是一个两座、单引擎飞机
It’s a two-seat, single-engine airplane
就像其他小型飞机一样
that works just like any other small airplane.
在机场起降
You take off and land at a local airport.
一旦着陆后
Then once you’re on the ground,
就可以把机翅叠起来 开回家
you fold up the wings, drive it home,
停在车库里
park it in your garage.
它非常好使!
And it works.
经过两年的研发与制作
After two years of an innovative design and construction process,
终于在2008年
the proof of concept made its public debut
面世了
in 2008.
就像所有
Now like with anything
横空出世的东西一样
that’s really different from the status quo,
测试并不是一路顺风
it didn’t always go so well testing that aircraft.
但是这也不完全是坏事
And we discovered that it’s a very good thing
当你一直搞不定一个问题的时候
that, when you go home with something that’s been broken,
你会学到很多
you’ve actually learned a lot more
比起一次就成功的
than when you managed to tick off all of your test objectives
会学会很多
the first time through.
尽管如此
Still, we very much wanted to see
我们一直期待
the aircraft that we’d all helped build
它能按计划
in the air, off the ground,
早日升空
like it was supposed to be.
第三次高速试飞
And on our third high-speed testing deployment
是一个寒风刺骨的早晨在纽约州北部
on a bitter cold morning in upstate New York,
那一次没有办法
we got to do that for the first time.
我身后的照片是僚机上的副驾驶捕捉到的镜头
The picture behind me was snapped by the copilot in our chase aircraft
就是飞机腾空而起后的瞬间
just moments after the wheels got off the ground for the first time.
看到那一幕我们都无比兴奋
And we were all very flattered to see that image
这象征着成就了一项
become a symbol of accomplishing something
世人以为不可能完成的
that people had thought was impossible
任务
really the world over.
后续的测试
The flight testing that followed that
较之简单而安全
was as basic and low-risk as we could make it,
但要把项目向前推进
but it still accomplished what we needed to
就必须完成这些
to take the program to the next step
才能获得来自最终我们的市场-飞行界
and to gain the credibility that we needed
和监管机构-特别是负责美国境内的
within our eventual market, the general aviation community,
使用和设计
and with the regulators
飞行器的机构的信任
that govern the use of design of aircraft, particularly in the States.
大约一年前 美国联邦航空总署
The FAA, about a year ago,
给了我们一个特许证
gave us an exemption for the Transition
允许我们的飞车超重110磅
to allow us to have an additional 110 lbs.
仍可列在轻航机的种类下
within the light sport aircraft category.
这听起来没什么 但其实很重要
Now that doesn’t sound like a lot, but it’s very important,
因为只要它符合轻航机的规定
because being able to deliver the Transition as a light sport aircraft
发放执照就容易些
makes it simpler for us to certify it,
也更加方便学员
but it also makes it much easier
掌握驾驶技术
for you to learn how to fly it.
轻航机的驾驶执照
A sport pilot can be certificated
只需要20小时的飞行时数
in as little as 20 hours of flight time.
而额外的110磅
And at 110 lbs.,
对我们解决另一个问题非常重要-
that’s very important for solving the other side of the equation —
驾驶
driving.
我们发现驾驶的
It turns out that driving,
设计细则和规定
with its associated design implementation and regulatory hurdles,
比飞行还复杂
is actually a harder problem to solve than flying.
这对我们一辈子生活在地上的人
For those of us that spend most of our lives on the ground,
是有点异想天开,
this may be counter-intuitive,
开车会碰上坑洞,石子
but driving has potholes, cobblestones,
行人,其它车辆
pedestrians, other drivers
还有一大堆
and a rather long and detailed list
政府对机动车辆安全的规定要遵守
of federal motor vehicle safety standards to contend with.
所幸 需求是发明之母
Fortunately, necessity remains the mother of invention,
许多应用在
and a lot of the design work
飞机上的高明设计
that we’re the most proud of with the aircraft
正好能够解决
came out of solving the unique problems
陆地行驶的特定问题-
of operating it on the ground —
数不胜数的例子 比如无段自动变速器
everything from a continuously-variable transmission
液态冷却系统
and liquid-based cooling system
能让飞机引擎在时走时停的路上
that allows us to use an aircraft engine
应付自如
in stop-and-go traffic,
还有专用定制变速箱
to a custom-designed gearbox
对飞行所用的螺旋桨和驾驶所用的车轮能双管齐下
that powers either the propeller when you’re flying or the wheels on the ground,
还有稍后能看到的折叠式机翼
to the automated wing-folding mechanism that we’ll see in a moment,
和安全设计
to crash safety features.
它有一个碳纤维安全机舱
We have a carbon fiber safety cage
能确保乘客安全
that protects the occupants
而重量比传统钢材汽车要轻百分之十
for less than 10 percent of the weight of a traditional steel chassis in a car.
这听上去不简单了 不过还不够好
Now this also, as good as it is, wasn’t quite enough.
陆地交通的相关规定
The regulations for vehicles on the road
从来没涉及到飞机上去
weren’t written with an airplane in mind.
所以我们需要
So we did need a little bit of support
美国国家公路交通安全管理局的协助
from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
最近的新闻也许能看到
Now you may have seen in the news recently,
大概是上个月底
they came through with us at the end of last month
我们获得了几项豁免
with a few special exemptions
陆空两用飞车可以在
that will allow the Transition to be sold
运动休旅车和小型货车的分类下上市销售
in the same category as SUVs and light trucks.
因为是多功能客运工具
As a multi-purpose passenger vehicle,
因此号称是“非常规越野用途的设计”
it is now officially “designed for occasional off-road use.”
(笑声)
(Laughter)
现在让我们来看看实况
Now let’s see it in action.
它的机翼折起收在机身两侧
You can see there the wings folded up just along the side of the plane.
引擎推动的不是螺旋桨而是车轮
You’re not powering the propeller, you’re powering the wheels.
不到七尺高
And it is under seven feet tall,
这样就能开进标准车库
so it will fit in a standard construction garage.
这是机翼自动收展装置
And that’s the automated wing-folding mechanism.
这是实时的
That’s real time.
只要按下驾驶员座舱边的几个按钮 机翼就展开来
You just push a few buttons in the cockpit, and the wings come out.
全部展开后
Once they’re fully deployed,
有一个机械锁定装置能将其固定
there’s a mechanical lock that goes into place,
这是在驾驶舱内操作的
again, from inside the cockpit.
然后就可以象其它飞机一样
And they’re now fully capable of handling
进行操作了-
any of the loads you would see in flight —
就像把敞篷车车顶放下来一样
just like putting down your convertible top.
要是你们邻居看了不知道是什么反应呢
And you’re all thinking what your neighbors would think of seeing that.
(视频)试飞员:在没真正飞起来之前
(Video) Test Pilot: Until the vehicle flies,
首次试飞有75%的风险
75 percent of your risk is that first flight.
无线电1:飞起来了!耶!
Radio: It actually flew. Yes.
无线电2:太棒了!
Radio 2: That was gorgeous.
无线电:看起来怎么样?
Radio: What did you think of that?
这里俯瞰太美了,我打包票。
That was beautiful from up here, I tell you.
我们都为这个“超级跳”而兴奋得难以自已
AMD: See, we’re all exceedingly excited about that little bunny hop.
而我们的试飞员
And our test pilot gave us
给出了前所未有的对试飞的评价
the best feedback you can get from a test pilot after a first flight,
他说是“非同寻常地毫无意外”
which was that it was “remarkably unremarkable.”
他又告诉我们
He would go onto tell us
这个陆空两用飞车是他30年试飞生涯里
that the Transition had been the easiest airplane to land
降落操作最容易的机种
that he’d flown in his entire 30-year career as a test pilot.
我们不仅仅想创造
So despite making something
革命性的产品
that is seemingly revolutionary,
更想尽可能得创造
we really focused on doing
先进创新的东西
as little new as possible.
我们采用了大量的最尖端前沿的航空
We leverage a lot of technology from the state-of-the-art in general aviation
和汽车竞技技术
and from automotive racing.
而真正突破的是
When we do have to do something truly out-of-the-box,
我们使用了递增式概念,设计,建造,测试,再设计的循环方法
we use an incremental design, build, test, redesign cycle
得以在起步就减少了风险
that lets us reduce risk in baby steps.
我们是从六年前开始Terrafugia的设计
Now since we started Terrafugia about 6 years ago,
就是这样一步一个脚印走来
we’ve had a lot of those baby steps.
我们三个人
We’ve gone from being three of us
从还是研究生的时候就在麻省理工的地下室里钻研
working in the basement at MIT while we were still in graduate school
到现在有二十多人
to about two-dozen of us
在波士顿郊区的一个工厂里进行开发
working in an initial production facility outside of Boston.
我们必须得克服各种挑战
We’ve had to overcome challenges
比如我提到的轻航机的重量限制
like keeping the weight below the light sport limit that I talked about,
还有怎样不失礼貌地回答
figuring out how to politely respond
监管单位的官员的问题
when a regulator tells you,
“可是要是机翼不收起来就过不来收费站啊”
“But that won’t fit through a toll booth with the wings extended —
(笑声)
(Laughter)
还有许多许多刚才提及的耐用性和
to all of the other associated durability and engineering issues
地面机械工程的问题
that we talked about on the ground.
只要目前我们正在做的
Still, if everything goes to our satisfaction
两个生产机型的
with the testing and construction
测试和制造都
of the two production prototypes
一切顺利的话
that we’re working on right now,
头一批
those first deliveries
到目前为止大约一百台的订单
to the, about a hundred, people who have reserved an airplane at this point
明年年底就能出货了
should begin at the end of next year.
这种陆空两用飞车和其它轻航机价格相差无已
The Transition will cost in line with other small airplanes.
当然我不是说要你换掉家里雪弗莱
And I’m certainly not out to replace your Chevy,
不过我认为它应该是你下一架飞机
but I do think that the Transition should be your next airplane.
原因就是
Here’s why.
目前全球的商用航线
While nearly all of the commercial air travel in the world
都集中在少数几个大型航空港
goes through a relatively small number of large hub airports,
很多资源没有被好好利用
there is a huge underutilized resource out there.
上千条地区性飞机跑道
There are thousands of local airstrips
使用率非常低
that don’t see nearly as many aircraft operations a day as they could.
在美国 平均方圆二十到三十公里
On average, there’s one within 20 to 30 miles
就有一个
of wherever you are in the United States.
这个陆空两用飞车
The Transition gives you
能为你提供一个安全便捷和有趣的
a safer, more convenient and more fun way
途径来利用这些资源
of using this resource.
对于还不懂飞行的人来说
For those of you who aren’t yet pilots,
无非是四个原因让他们不能
there’s four main reasons why those of us who are
想飞就飞:
don’t fly as much as we’d like to:
首先是天气
the weather, primarily,
费用,及门旅运时间长
cost, long door-to-door travel time
还有达到目的地后交通问题
and mobility at your destination.
那么现在碰上坏天气
Now, bad weather comes in,
降落 收起机翼直接开回家
just land, fold up the wings, drive home.
下点雨也不是问题,反正有雨刷
Doesn’t matter if it rains a little, you have a windshield wiper.
也不同花钱租停机坪
Instead of paying to keep your airplane in a hanger,
停在自己车库就是
park it in your garage.
我们用的油就是一般的无铅汽油
And the unleaded automotive fuel that we use
比起航空用油
is both cheaper and better for the environment
便宜又环保
than traditional avgas.
及门旅运时间也减少了
Door-to-door travel time is reduced,
因为不用装行李,找停泊位
because now, instead of lugging bags, finding a parking space,
脱鞋检查,把飞机从停机坪开出来
taking off your shoes or pulling your airplane out of the hanger,
那么一大阵功夫你就能开到目的地了
you’re now just spending that time getting to where you want to go.
而目的地交通问题也解决了
And mobility to your destination is clearly solved.
只要收起机翼继续开就好了
Just fold up the wings and keep going.
这个陆空两用飞车拓展了我们的视野
The Transition simultaneously expands our horizons
让世界更小更触手可及
while making the world a smaller, more accessible place.
也让生活充满探险
It also continues to be a fabulous adventure.
希望你们每个人利用一点时间
I hope you’ll each take a moment
想一下你能怎样利用它
to think about how you could use something like this
让你自己拥抱更广阔的世界
to give yourself more access to your own world,
让每一次旅行都便捷而愉快
and to make your own travel more convenient and more fun.
感谢大家让我能由此机会与你分享!
Thank you for giving me the opportunity to share it with you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=snHS-UcG--E

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