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动画基础:时间和空间的艺术

Animation basics: The art of timing and spacing - TED-Ed

Norman McLaren, the great 20th century pioneer of animation technique,
20世纪动画技术先锋诺曼·麦克拉伦
once said, “Animation is not the art of drawings that move,
曾说:“动画不是会移动的画
but the art of movements that are drawn.
而是画出动作的艺术
What happens between each frame is more important
帧与帧之间有什么 远比
than what exists on each frame.”
每帧上有什么更重要”
What did he mean?
他的话是什么意思呢?
Well, for an object to appear in motion,
对于一个需要表现出动态的物体
it necessarily has to change in position over time.
它的位置应该随着时间变化而被改变
If time passes and no change in position occurs,
如果时间过去了但它没有改变位置
the object will appear to be still.
那这个物体就会呈现静止状态
This relationship between the passage of time
一段时间 以及在这段时间里
and the amount of change that occurs in that time
物体变化的量 这两者之间的关系
is at the heart of every time-based art form,
是所有以时间为基础的艺术形式的核心
be it music, dance, or motion pictures.
例如 音乐 舞蹈 以及动画
Manipulating the speed and amount of change
控制帧与帧之间的速度
between the frames is the secret alchemy
以及物体的变化多少 这是
that gives animation the ability to convey the illusion of life.
让动画栩栩如生的魔力
In animation, there are two fundamental principles
动画领域里 我们会常用到
we use to do this:
两个基本规律:
timing and spacing.
时间与空间
To illustrate the relationship between them,
为了解释他们之间的关系
we’ll use a timeless example: the bouncing ball.
我们用一个经典的例子:弹跳的球
One way to think about timing
时间规律可以被认为是
is that it’s the speed, or tempo,
某个动作发生时的
at which an action takes place.
速度或节奏
We determine the speed of an action
我们判断一个动作的速度
by how many pictures, or frames, it takes to happen.
是根据它所占用的帧数来决定的
The more frames something takes to happen,
它占用的帧越多
the more time it spends on screen,
在画面上停留的时间就越长
so the slower the action will be.
这个动作也就越慢
The fewer frames something takes to happen,
占用的帧越少
the less screen time it takes,
停留在画面的时间就越短
which gives us faster action.
这个动作也就越快
The timing is about more than just speed,
时间规律不仅包括速度
it’s also about rhythm.
还包括节奏
Like a drumbeat or melody only exists
就像播放一首歌时
when a song is being played,
同时会有旋律和鼓点一样
the timing of an action
动作的时间规律
only exists while it’s happening.
只有在它发生时才有意义
You can describe it in words,
你可以用语言来描述
say, something will take 6 frames, 18 frames, or so on.
说某动作将会占用6帧 18帧等
But to really get a sense of it,
但要想真正理解它
you need to act it out
你需要演出来试试
or experience it as it would happen in, well, real time.
或者在它确实发生时 实时的体验一下
Now, the timing of an action
一个动作的时间规律
all depends on the context of the scene
取决于场景内涵
and what you’re trying to communicate.
以及你想要传递的信息
What is doing the acting, and why?
什么构成了这个动作?为什么这样做?
Let’s take our example.
来举个例子
What makes a ball bounce?
是什么让球弹跳呢?
The action we’re talking about here
我们在这里讨论的动作
is a result of interacting physical forces,
是物理力相互作用的结果
a moving ball’s tendency to stay in motion,
运动的球趋向于保持动态
or its force of momentum
这是动力导致的
vs. the constant force of gravity
另外还有重力
bringing it back down Earth.
在将它拉向地面
The degree to which these invisible forces apply,
这些无形力量的大小程度
and the reason why the ball behaves the way it does,
以及造成球运动的方式
all depends on the physical properties of the ball.
都取决于这个球自身的物理属性
A golf ball is small, hard and light.
高尔夫球 小 硬且轻
A rubber ball is small, soft and lighter.
橡皮球 小 软 比高尔夫更轻
A beach ball is large, soft and light.
沙滩球 大 软 轻
And a bowling ball is large, hard and heavy.
保龄球大 硬 重
So, each ball behaves very differently,
因此 球的性质不同
according to its properties.
它的表现就不同
Let’s get a sense of the visual rhythm of each.
我们能从球触地的节奏看出
Each ball plays its own beat and tells us something about itself
不同的触地节奏能展现它的特征
and the time it takes to travel across the screen.
以及决定它穿过屏幕的时间
The visual rhythm of these hits is the timing.
这种可见的触地节奏就是时间规律
okay, let’s start animating our ball,
现在 我们来简单画一个圆来让
bouncing up and down with a simple cycle of drawings.
球开始跳动起来
We’ll draw a circle here,
我们在这画一个圆
call it point A, our starting point.
称为A点 起始点
We’ll have it hit the ground here, point B.
我们让它弹到这里 即B点
Let’s say it takes about a second
设它到落下到弹回
to hit the ground and come back up again.
需要1秒的时间
This is our timing.
这就是时间规律
Our spacing is where we position the circle
空间规律指的是我们在画面中
in the frames between point A and point B.
放置那个圆形的AB两点
If we were to move our ball
如果我们均匀移动
in evenly-spaced increments,
我们的球
we’d get something like this.
我们得到的是这个
It’s not really telling us anything about itself.
这看不出任何它的性质
Is it a bouncing ball or a circle on an elevator?
这是个弹跳的球还是坐电梯的一个圆?
Let’s look at our footage again
再看看视频
and think about what’s going on
想想球在每次
as each ball bounces.
弹跳时 发生了什么
Following each impact with the ground,
每次球受到地面的作用力
the ball’s upward momentum
产生向上的动力
is eventually overcome by gravity.
最终克服了重力
This happens at the peak of each arc.
到达了每个弧度的顶点
As things change direction,
当物体改变方向时
the motion is slowest.
运动的速度达到最慢
We see here the successive positions of the ball
这里 球的连续运动位置
are close together.
几乎连在了一起
The ball then speeds up as it falls,
下落时 球会加速
and is at its fastest
当它击中地面时
when it’s approaching and hitting the ground.
它的速度最大
We can see here each position is further apart.
这里 球的位置之间会离得更远
The change in position between frames
两帧之间 这种位置的变化
is the spacing.
就是空间规律
The smaller the change,
改变越小
the slower the action will appear.
出现的动作将会越慢
The greater the change,
改变越大
the faster it will appear.
它将越快
For an action to decelerate,
对于减速运动
each change in position must be less than the change before it.
位置的变化量将逐级递减
Likewise, for an action to speed up, or accelerate,
类似的 对于一个加速动作
each successive change must be greater.
变化量将逐级增加
Let’s change the mechanical spacing
让我们调整弹跳球的
of our animated bounce
空间规律
to reflect what we observed in the footage.
来反映镜头中的现象
Slow at the top, fast when it’s hitting the ground.
顶点慢 落地快
Simply by adjusting the spacing,
只需要调节空间规律
we’ve succeeded in suggesting
我们就可以
the forces of momentum and gravity at play
在画面中表现出动力和重力
and achieved a much more realistic motion.
来达到一种更加逼真的动作
Same timing but different spacing
时间相同 空间不同
gives us vastly different results.
会导致差异很大的结果
And in reality, as a ball bounces,
事实上 当球弹跳时
the physics of gravity eventually defeat
重力将最终阻止
the tendency of the ball to stay in motion.
球的不断运动
You can see this here in the decreasing height
你可以通过球在弹跳时不断
of each successive bounce.
减少的高度来看出
However, again, this decrease varies
然而 再说一遍 不同材质的球
according to the properties of the ball.
这种逐级降低的程度也不同
Even though these circles are the same size here,
尽管他们的尺寸相同
they’re each telling us a different story about themselves,
但在从它们不同的运动中就能看出
purely in how they move.
它们的性质不同
The relationship between these principles
时间和空间规则之间
of timing and spacing
可以被运用在
can be applied in countless ways
无数方面
and used to animate all types of action:
可以用动画来描述所有动作
a yo-yo,
比如悠悠球
a punch,
猛撞
a gentle tap,
轻轻的碰
a push,

a saw,

the Sun traveling across the sky,
太阳越过天空
a pendulum.
摆钟
Animation is a time-based art form.
动画是以时间为基础的艺术形式
It may incorporate the aesthetic elements
它混杂着美学
of other graphic arts,
和绘画艺术
like illustration or painting,
如同插图和油画
but what sets animation apart
但让动画与它们不同的是
is that, here, what you see
“你没看到的
is less important that what you don’t see.
比你看到的要更重要”
An object’s superficial appearance
一个物体的表面现象
only tells us so much about itself.
只能告诉我们关于它本身
It’s only when it’s in motion
只有当它运动时
that we really understand its nature.
我们才能真正了解它的本质

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动画怎么玩? 来看看。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KRVhtMxQWRs

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