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动物伪装大师! – 译学馆
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动物伪装大师!

Animal Tricksters!

你有过伪装成其他东西的经历吗?宇航员?超人?或者
Have you ever pretended to be something else? An astronaut? Or a superhero? Or even your
你喜欢的动物?
favorite animal?
一些动物也会伪装 但它们不需要为此特别打扮
Well, some animals pretend to be other things, too, but they don’t need to wear special
它们本身的样子就能够扮演好这个角色
clothes to do it! They’re already dressed for the part.
当一只动物看起来与另一只动物很相似 尽管它们根本不是同种
When an animal looks a lot like another animal, even though they’re not the same kind of
生物 这就叫做拟态
creature at all, it’s called mimicry.
有些动物用拟态来保护自己 然而有些却用它来偷食!
And some animals use mimicry in order to keep safe, while others use it to sneak a snack!
看这只蝴蝶 它又小又纤弱而且飞不快
Have a look at this butterfly: It’s small, delicate, and doesn’t move very fast. For
对鸟儿来说 它将会是丰盛的一餐
a bird, it would be the perfect meal.
蝴蝶肯定不是鸟的对手 但或许它可以通过伪装来逃过一劫
The butterfly can’t fight off a bird, but maybe it can pretend to be something else!
看这只蝴蝶翅膀上的斑纹 看到像一双大眼睛的部分了吗?
Look at the markings on its wings. Do you see what looks like a pair of big eyes?
对一些鸟来说 这些特殊的斑纹看起来不只是像年老的眼睛 它们看起来更
To some birds, these special markings don’t just look like any old eyes, they look a lot
像猫头鹰的眼睛!
like owl eyes!
你知道猫头鹰吃什么吗?他们通常吃其他鸟类!所以当一只鸟接近
And you know what owls eat? Oftentimes, they eat other birds! So when a bird comes close
这只蝴蝶时 它真被吓了一跳!
to this butterfly, it gets a real fright.
通过模仿其他动物 这种蝴蝶免于成为食物的命运 并且获得了
By mimicking another animal, the butterfly avoids ending up on the menu, and earns it
“猫头鹰蝶(蛱蝶)”这个名字
the name “Owl Butterfly.”
有些动物不会选择伪装成更大或更恐怖的样子
Now, some animals mimic creatures that aren’t bigger or badder,
它们只要让捕食者觉得不能食用就好了
they are just dangerous to eat.
我想大家都不乐意吃蜜蜂对吧?  其他动物
I think we all agree that a bee would be a bad thing to eat, right? Well, other animals
也不喜欢吃蜜蜂
don’t like eating bees, either.
被蜇过一口之后它们就知道要离这些带黑黄条纹的昆虫远远的了
It just takes one sting for them to know to stay away from little insects with black and
那些颜色代表着危险
yellow stripes. Those colors signal danger.
但有些昆虫和蜜蜂有着相同的颜色 即使它们并不是蜜蜂也没有毒针
But other insects that aren’t bees and don’t even have stingers can have those same colors,
动物仍旧不敢靠近它们
and animals will leave them alone.
有些苍蝇——像是蜂蝇 或者甲虫——像这只涂蝗螟 甚至是
Some flies — like this drone fly — or beetles — like this painted locust borer — or even
一些有黑黄条纹的飞蛾 它们并不蜇人
some moths, have black and yellow stripes, even though they can’t sting. But, other
但是其他动物并不知道 所以他们离得远远的——以防万一!
animals don’t know that, so they keep their distance—just in case!
尽管如此 对部分动物而言 蜜蜂的毒刺可能构不成威胁
Still, for some animals, a bee sting might not be too much of a threat.
但是……换成毒牙呢?
But how about … a snake bite?
珊瑚蛇和假珊瑚蛇都很危险 被它们咬一口
The coral snake and the false coral snake are both dangerous — their bites can carry
其毒液的剂量也许能致死
a potentially deadly dose of venom.
它们身上都有红色 黑色和黄色或白色的鳞片构成的环形图案
And, they both have patterns of red, black, and yellow or white rings on their scales.
这对那些没有毒性但有着相同颜色的蛇来说可是件大好事
Which is great for snakes that aren’t venomous but also happen to have these same colors!
像是猩红色的王蛇——它完全没有毒 但是其他动物仍然
Like the scarlet kingsnake — it’s totally harmless, but other animals still give it
避之不及
plenty of room.
因为……好吧 把它们放到一起对比下!你能把它们
Because … well, take a look at them together! Would you want to try to tell these snakes
区分开来吗?
apart?
但是 有些动物不想被远离——他们想其他动物接近他们!
Finally, some animals don’t want to be left alone—they want other animals to come close!
所以它们伪装自己来吸引其他动物——尤其是它们想要捕食的对象!
So they use mimicry to attract animals — especially ones that they want to take a bite out of!
这种鱼叫做清洁鱼 它们会清理掉其他鱼身上的寄生虫和硬化的皮肤
This fish is called a cleaner fish. They pick parasites and crusty skin off of other fish.
当一条鱼需要一次清洁时 它就会留心寻找一条黑白相间
When a fish needs a good cleaning, it might keep an eye out for the little fish with black
游得很滑稽的小鱼 当它找到了一条 它就会游向这条小鱼
and white stripes and a funny way of swimming. When it spots one, it’ll swim in close and
接下来就能享受到清洁服务啦
get a good grooming.
但是 这儿有另外一种黑白相间的小鱼生活在同样的暗礁中
But there’s another little fish with black and white stripes that lives in the same reef.
这种鱼叫做剑齿鳚 经常出没在清洁鱼工作的地方
This fish, called a sabretooth blenny, likes to hang out where the cleaner fish work.
但当另一条鱼游过来想放松享受一次清洁 他就会得到一个恶心的惊喜
But when another fish swims up to it for a nice, relaxing clean, it gets a nasty surprise.
它会咬掉这条鱼的鳍!
The blenny takes a bite out of the fish’s fin!
所以剑齿鳚通过伪装来使自己看上去有帮助
So the blenny uses mimicry to trick other fish into thinking it’s helpful, when really
但实际上它只是在寻找食物!
it just wants to eat!
现在你知道了 伪装在动物王国内是很普遍的 有时候无害的动物为了保护自己
So now you know! Mimicry is all over the animal kingdom. Sometimes harmless animals pretend
伪装成有害的样子 有时候捕食者假装成能给予帮助的动物
to be harmful, in order to stay safe, and sometimes predators pretend to be helpful
以此来接近猎物
animals in order to get closer to their prey.
谢谢你和我们一起学习关于动物伪装的知识!如果你有什么想了解的问题
Thanks for learning about mimicry with us! Do you have a question about something you’d
找大人帮忙在下面留言或
like to learn more about? Get help from a grown-up and leave a comment below or email
发送邮件到kids@thescishow.com
us at kids@thescishow.com.
下期节目见!
See you next time!

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