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没有路?无人驾驶飞行器来帮你!

Andreas Raptopoulos: No roads? There's a drone for that

现今世界上有10 亿人
One billion people in the world today
不能享受全年畅通的道路。
do not have access to all-season roads.
10 亿人。
One billion people.
地球人口的七分之一
One seventh of the Earth’s population
在一年中的某些时候与外界完全隔绝。
are totally cut off for some part of the year.
我们没办法以可靠的途径给他们提供药材,
We cannot get medicine to them reliably,
他们没办法收取关键物资的供应,
they cannot get critical supplies,
他们也不能把自己的产品货物运到市场上去,
and they cannot get their goods to market
来创造可持续性的收入。
in order to create a sustainable income.
以撒哈拉以南的非洲地区为例,
In sub-Saharan Africa, for instance,
85%的道路在潮湿的季节无法通用。
85 percent of roads are unusable in the wet season.
虽然在这方面有得到投资,
Investments are being made,
但按照目前的进展程度,,
but at the current level,
据估计他们得需要花
it’s estimated it’s going to take them
50年才能赶上标准。
50 years to catch up.
仅在美国,就有超过400万
In the U.S. alone, there’s more than four million
英里的公路,建设成本极高,
miles of roads, very expensive to build,
基础设施维修保养费用极其昂贵,
very expensive to maintain infrastructure,
并留下巨大的生态足迹,
with a huge ecological footprint,
但同时,经常非常堵塞。
and yet, very often, congested.
看到这样的状况我们就想,
So we saw this and we thought,
难道就没有更好的办法么?
can there be a better way?
我们能不能创建一个系统,使用当今最先进的技术,
Can we create a system using today’s most advanced technologies
使这些地区获得飞跃式的发展,
that can allow this part of the world to leapfrog
就好像在过去10年里, 手机给他们带来的巨大变化一样?
in the same way they’ve done with mobile telephones
就好像在过去10年里, 手机给他们带来的巨大变化一样?
in the last 10 years?
这其中的许多国家当今有着优越的无线电通讯技术,
Many of those nations have excellent telecommunications today
却从没在地下埋过半根铜线。
without ever putting copper lines in the ground.
在交通方面,我们也能做到这类的发展吗?
Could we do the same for transportation?
想象一下这样的情境。
Imagine this scenario.
想象你在马里的一个产房区里,
Imagine you are in a maternity ward in Mali,
有新生儿紧切的需要药物。
and have a newborn in need of urgent medication.
你会怎么做?
What would you do today?
你会通过手机进行求助,
Well, you would place a request via mobile phone,
并且很快会有人对你的求助做出回应,
and someone would get the request immediately.
到目前为止的这部分都没问题。
That’s the part that works.
不过,药物可能要好多天之后才能到达,
The medication may take days to arrive, though,
因为道路太差。
because of bad roads.
这一部分就是有问题的部分。
That’s the part that’s broken.
我们认为我们现在有能力把东西在短时间内送到,
We believe we can deliver it within hours
依赖电动无人飞行器,
with an electric autonomous flying vehicle
就是像这样的飞行器。
such as this.
它们可以载重两公斤左右的物资,
This can transport a small payload today, about two kilograms,
飞行约10公里的距离,
over a short distance, about 10 kilometers,
不过这只是一个大网络的一个小部分,
but it’s part of a wider network that may cover
一个大网络可以覆盖整个国家、 甚至整个非洲大陆的范围。
the entire country, maybe even the entire continent.
这是一个超灵活的、自动化的物流网络。
It’s an ultra-flexible, automated logistics network.
它是一个物质运输的网络。
It’s a network for a transportation of matter.
我们称之为物质网(Matternet)。
We call it Matternet.
我们使用三个关键性的技术。
We use three key technologies.
第一个是电动自主飞行器。
The first is electric autonomous flying vehicles.
第二个是飞行器起飞和降落的自动化地面站,
The second is automated ground stations
第二个是飞行器起飞和降落的自动化地面站,
that the vehicles fly in and out of
在那里它们可以更换电池以飞得更远,
to swap batteries and fly farther,
或收发货物。
or pick up or deliver loads.
第三个是用来管理整个网络操作系统。
And the third is the operating system
第三个是用来管理整个网络的操作系统。
that manages the whole network.
让我们来具体的看一下这三项技术。
Let’s look at each one of those technologies in a bit more detail.
第一,电动自主飞行器(UAV)。
First of all, the UAVs.
我们最终会需要使用各种不同的飞行器,
Eventually, we’re going to be using all sorts of vehicles
来满足不同载重和距离的需要,
for different payload capacities and different ranges.
今天,我们使用小体积的四轴飞行器。
Today, we’re using small quads.
它们可以在大约15分钟内飞行10公里, 运输两公斤的物资。
These are able to transport two kilograms
它们可以在大约15分钟内飞行10公里, 运输两公斤的物资。
over 10 kilometers in just about 15 minutes.
和下面的情况来比较, 譬如试图穿越糟糕的道路,
Compare this with trying to trespass a bad road
在那些发展中的国家,
in the developing world,
或是被卡在交通严重堵塞的
or even being stuck in traffic
发达国家。
in a developed world country.
这些器械可以自主飞行。
These fly autonomously.
这是该技术的关键。
This is the key to the technology.
他们使用GPS和其他的传感器
So they use GPS and other sensors on board
在地面站之间进行导航。
to navigate between ground stations.
每架飞行器都配备了自动的
Every vehicle is equipped with an automatic
有效载荷和电池交换机能,
payload and battery exchange mechanism,
因此这些飞行器可以自主导航到这些地面站,
so these vehicles navigate to those ground stations,
停靠、 自动换电池,
they dock, swap a battery automatically,
并再次飞出去。
and go out again.
地面站位于地面上安全的地点。
The ground stations are located on safe locations
地面站位于地面上安全的地点。
on the ground.
它们保障这些飞行任务中最易出错的部分,
They secure the most vulnerable part of the mission,
即着陆的成功。
which is the landing.
它们位于地面上众所周知的地点,
They are at known locations on the ground,
所以它们相互之间的道路也是清晰的,
so the paths between them are also known,
这对于整个网络的可靠性来讲非常重要。
which is very important from a reliability perspective
这对于整个网络的可靠性来讲非常重要。
from the whole network.
地面站除了满足飞行器对能源的需求,
Apart from fulfilling the energy requirements of the vehicles,
最终它们会成为一个商业枢纽,
eventually they’re going to be becoming
让人们也可以在那里收发货物。
commercial hubs where people can take out loads
让人们也可以在那里收发货物。
or put loads into the network.
最后的环节是用于管理整个网络的操作系统。
The last component is the operating system
最后的环节是用于管理整个网络的操作系统。
that manages the whole network.
它监测所有地面站的天气数据,
It monitors weather data from all the ground stations
并通过系统来优化飞行器的飞行路线
and optimizes the routes of the vehicles through the system
以避免恶劣的天气条件和其他的风险因素,
to avoid adverse weather conditions,
以避免恶劣的天气条件和其他的风险因素,
avoid other risk factors,
以及优化整个网络的资源配置和使用。
and optimize the use of the resources
以及优化整个网络的资源配置和使用。
throughout the network.
我想给你们看一下这样的飞行是什么样的。
I want to show you what one of those flights
我想给你们看一下这样的飞行是什么样的。
looks like.
这是我们去年夏天在海地,
Here we are flying in Haiti last summer,
在那里我们做了第一次的实地试验。
where we’ve done our first field trials.
我们模拟了给2010年地震后的难民营 运送医疗物资的情景,
We’re modeling here a medical delivery
我们模拟了给2010年地震后的难民营 运送医疗物资的情景,
in a camp we set up after the 2010 earthquake.
当地居民爱极了这个。
People there love this.
我还想给大家近距离地
And I want to show you
看一下这些飞行器的样子。
what one of those vehicles looks like up close.
这是一架花费3000美金的飞行器。
So this is a $3,000 vehicle.
它们的成本在迅速地下降。
Costs are coming down very rapidly.
我们可以在各种天气条件下使用它,
We use this in all sorts of weather conditions,
很热和很冷的气候,
very hot and very cold climates,
有强风的时候。它们是非常结实的飞行器。
very strong winds. They’re very sturdy vehicles.
想象一下如果你的生命取决于它们运载的包裹,
Imagine if your life depended on this package,
不管是在非洲的某个角落,
somewhere in Africa
还是在飓风桑迪袭击后的纽约。
or in New York City, after Sandy.
下一个重要的问题是,费用会是多少?
The next big question is, what’s the cost?
事实上,用飞行器运输
Well, it turns out that the cost to transport
两公斤物资飞行10公里的成本
two kilograms over 10 kilometers with this vehicle
仅要24美分。
is just 24 cents.
(掌声)
(Applause)
听上去很不可思议, 但其实这样一次飞行所花费的能源的费用
And it’s counterintuitive, but the cost of energy
听上去很不可思议, 但其实这样一次飞行所花费的能源的费用
expended for the flight is only two cents
在今天只需要两美分,
of a dollar today,
而我们现在只是在这个技术的开始。
and we’re just at the beginning of this.
当我们了解到这一点的时候,我们觉得
When we saw this, we felt that this is something
这是技能可以对世界给予重大的影响。
that can have significant impact in the world.
所以我们想, 要在某个地方建设这样一个网络到底需要多大的花费?
So we said, okay, how much does it cost
所以我们想, 要在某个地方建设这样一个网络到底需要多大的花费?
to set up a network somewhere in the world?
于是我们研究了一下试着在莱索托 建设一个运输艾滋病毒样本的网络。
And we looked at setting up a network in Lesotho
于是我们研究了一下试着在莱索托 建设一个运输艾滋病毒样本的网络。
for transportation of HIV/AIDS samples.
在那个情况下的问题是,如何将样本
The problem there is how do you take them
从被收集的诊所处,
from clinics where they’re being collected
送到做分析步骤的医院?
to hospitals where they’re being analyzed?
我们就想,如果说我们想要覆盖约140平方公里的区域如何?
And we said, what if we wanted to cover an area
我们就想,如果说我们想要覆盖约140平方公里的区域如何?
spanning around 140 square kilometers?
那大约是纽约曼哈顿区域的1.5倍。
That’s roughly one and a half times the size of Manhattan.
结果我们发现这只需要花费不到100万美金。
Well it turns out that the cost to do that there
结果我们发现这只需要花费不到100万美金。
would be less than a million dollars.
拿这个跟做一般的基础设施投资来比较。
Compare this to normal infrastructure investments.
我们认为这可以成为 – 这就是一个新的模式所带来的力量。
We think this can be — this is the power
我们认为这可以成为 – 这就是一个新的模式所带来的力量。
of a new paradigm.
这正是我们想要的:一个新的概念,
So here we are: a new idea
一个使用互联网来建立交通运输网络的新点子。
about a network for transportation
一个使用互联网来建立交通运输网络的新点子。
that is based on the ideas of the Internet.
它很分散,很平等,
It’s decentralized, it’s peer-to-peer,
它是双向的,适应能力强,
it’s bidirectional, highly adaptable,
对基础设施投资的需求很低,
with very low infrastructure investment,
留下的生态足迹也很小。
very low ecological footprint.
如果这是一个新的模式的话,
If it is a new paradigm, though,
那它必然还有其他的用途。
there must be other uses for it.
也许它可以在世界的其他地方被使用。
It can be used perhaps in other places in the world.
所以让我们看一下社会群体的另一端:
So let’s look at the other end of the spectrum:
我们的城市和超大城市。
our cities and megacities.
今天地球上有一半的人口生活在城市里,
Half of the Earth’s population lives in cities today.
五亿人口生活在超大城市里。
Half a billion of us live in megacities.
我们在经历着一个惊人的城市化的潮流。
We are living through an amazing urbanization trend.
光在中国,每两年就增多一个和纽约一样大的超大城市。
China alone is adding a megacity
光在中国,每两年就增多一个和纽约一样大的超大城市。
the size of New York City every two years.
这些地方是有道路基础设施的,
These are places that do have road infrastructure,
但它们效率很低。
but it’s very inefficient.
交通堵塞是一个巨大的问题。
Congestion is a huge problem.
所以我们想我们可以在这样的地方
So we think it makes sense in those places
建设一个交通网络,
to set up a network of transportation
座落于路面和互联网之间的一个新的层次,
that is a new layer that sits between the road
座落于路面和互联网之间的一个新的层次,
and the Internet,
在初期用来运输轻小,紧急的东西,
initially for lightweight, urgent stuff,
之后将它逐渐发展成一种新方式的交通工具,
and over time, we would hope to develop this
之后将它逐渐发展成一种新方式的交通工具,
into a new mode of transportation
给一个老旧的问题提供一个完全现代化的解决方法。
that is truly a modern solution to a very old problem.
这解决方法可以无限制的延伸,
It’s ultimately scalable
生态足迹非常小,
with a very small ecological footprint,
日夜不停止的工作,
operating in the background 24/7,
就像互联网一样。
just like the Internet.
我们几年前的时候了,开始的这个项目,
So when we started this
我们几年前的时候了,开始的这个项目,
a couple of years ago now,
有很多人来跟我们说:
we’ve had a lot of people come up to us who said,
“这真是一个非常有趣,但是疯狂的想法,
“This is a very interesting but crazy idea,
短时间内绝对不应该开始做。”
and certainly not something that you should
短时间内绝对不应该开始做。”
engage with anytime soon.”
当然,我们是在讨论无人驾驶飞行器,
And of course, we’re talking about drones, right,
它不但在西方不受欢迎,
a technology that’s not only unpopular in the West
对很多生活在贫穷国家的人,
but one that has become a very, very unpleasant
尤其是经历过军事冲突的国家的人来讲,
fact of life for many living in poor countries,
无人驾驶飞行器也不是什么好玩的东西。
especially those engaged in conflict.
那我们为什么还要这样做?
So why are we doing this?
我们之所以选择这样做
Well, we chose to do this one
不是因为它容易,
not because it’s easy,
而是因为它可以改变世界的能力。
but because it can have amazing impact.
想象一下10亿人,物质上的 和各种东西连接在一起,
Imagine one billion people being connected
就像手机将他们跟信息连接在一起一样。
to physical goods in the same way
就像手机将他们跟信息连接在一起一样。
that mobile telecommunications connected them
就像手机将他们跟信息连接在一起一样。
to information.
想象一下如果我们在这个世界上建设的下一个网络
Imagine if the next big network we built in the world
是一个物质的运输网络。
was a network for the transportation of matter.
在发展中国家,我们可以 将更好的疫苗送到数百万人的手里,
In the developing world, we would hope
在发展中国家,我们可以 将更好的疫苗送到数百万人的手里,
to reach millions of people with better vaccines,
提供他们更好的药物。
reach them with better medication.
它给我们提供了一个强大的 战胜艾滋病、 结核病和其他流行病的优势。
It would give us an unfair advantage against battling
它给我们提供了一个强大的 战胜艾滋病、 结核病和其他流行病的优势。
HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and other epidemics.
随着时间的推移,我们希望它会成为
Over time, we would hope it would become
一个新的经济交易平台,
a new platform for economic transactions,
帮助数百万人脱离贫困。
lifting millions of people out of poverty.
在发达国家和新兴世界,
In the developed world and the emerging world,
我们希望它会成为一种新的交通工具,
we would hope it would become a new mode
让我们的城市居住起来更舒适。
of transportation that could help make our cities
让我们的城市居住起来更舒适。
more livable.
对于那些仍然觉得这是科幻小说的人,
So for those that still believe that this is science fiction,
我可以明确的告诉你,它不是。
I firmly say to you that it is not.
当然,我们仍然需要努力,
We do need to engage, though,
让它在”现实小说“中发生。
in social fiction to make it happen.
谢谢。
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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