未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

因为饮食变革,我们才开始发“F”音

Ancient switch to soft food made saying those "f" words easier

Friendship, family, and fun…
友谊 家庭 以及乐趣……
What do these words have in common?
这些单词有何共同点呢?
They’re integral parts of the human experience,
它们都是人类不可或缺的经历
and also share the same first letter.
而且有着相同的首字母
Our ancestors thousands of years in the past
我们的祖先可能在过去的千百年里
may have struggled to pronounce these words,
致力于发出这些词汇的音
as the “f” sound would have been cumbersome to produce.
因为要发“f”音可能有点吃力
Sounds liklabiodent “f” or “v” are called labiodentals:
像“f”和“v”这样的发音被称为唇齿音
labio, relating to your lips,
“labio”指你的嘴唇
and dentals, your teeth.
而“dentals”指的是牙齿
They are produced when you raise your bottom lip to touch your upper teeth.
抬起下唇触碰上齿 就能发出唇齿音
Labiodentals are used in over half of the
当今世界上使用的语言中
languages spoken around the world today,
有半数以上使用唇齿音
but before shifts in food-processing technology,
但在食物加工技术转变前
these sounds may not have been as common.
唇齿音的使用可能就没那么广泛了
Before the Neolithic, food was minimally processed,
新石器时代 食物仅被得到了最低程度的处理
and required more effort to chew.
而且需要花功夫咀嚼一番
This constant gnashing meant teeth wore down more,
这种持续的咬合意味着牙齿的严重磨损
resulting in what is known as an edge-to-edge
最终导致青春期时就出现了
bite by adolescence.
对刃咬合
Then came the emergence of food processing technologies.
随后便是食物加工技术的兴起
Gone were the days of laborious chewing, as stews,
随着炖煮 食品保存以及谷物磨成的面粉等
preserved food, and ground grain as flour
的普及 辛勤咀嚼的苦日子终于
became more common.
一去不复返了
Softer food meant less wear and tear on the teeth,
更软的食物意味着牙齿磨损的减少
and the preservation of an overbite,
从而保护了覆咬合
a vertical overlap of the teeth and an overjet,
这是一种垂直方向上的牙齿重叠 以及
horizontal overlapping of the teeth, which
水平方向上的覆盖 这两者
humans are normally born with.
都是人类天生就有的
Researchers created a biomechanical model
研究人员发明了一种生物力学模型来
of an edge-to-edge bite, aligned top and bottom teeth,
模拟对刃咬合 上下牙对齐
and an overjet and overbite to see
以及覆盖和覆咬合 进而判断
if one provided an advantage for articulating labiodentals.
一个人是否能清晰地发出唇齿音
They found that the edge-to-edge configuration
他们发现对刃咬合结构
would have required more effort to produce a labiodental,
发唇齿音更加吃力
as the distance from the bottom
因为下唇和上齿
lip and top teeth would have been greater.
之间的距离会更长
The preservation of an overbite and overjet
保护覆咬合以及覆盖
also increased the likelihood that a labiodental
也能增加唇齿音被偶然
would be made on accident–like saying “f”
发出的可能性 比如发“f”
instead of “p”.
而不是“p”
Today, nearly all societies have access to
如今 几乎所有社会的人们都能吃到
softer foods, and most people retain their
软的食品 绝大多数人都能
overbite and overjet throughout their lifetimes.
终生保留他们牙齿的覆咬合与覆合
This makes producing labiodentals easier,
这样 发唇齿音也就变得容易了
but historically not all languages
但由于历史原因 并非所有语言
have had these sounds.
都有这些发音
Nowadays, many languages are acquiring labiodental
如今 许多语言通过与其他有
sounds like “f” and “v” through contact
诸如“f”和“v”等唇齿音的语言
with other languages that have them.
进行交流而获得了它们
One example includes West Greenlandic speakers
一个例子就是西格陵兰地区的人们
who have been in long sustained contact with
与讲欧洲语言 包括丹麦语
European languages, including Danish.
的人有着长期持续的交流
This study shows how language can be shaped
这项研究展示了人类生物学方面的改变
by changes in human biology.
对一门语言塑形的影响
In the future, researchers hope to better
研究人员希望能在未来
understand not only how this language change
对语言变化的过程以及背后的原因
took place, but why.
得到更好的了解
Some data suggests that labiodentals served
某些数据显示 唇齿音也是
as an indicator of social class, proving advantageous
区分社会等级的一个指标 那些
to those who adopted the sound.
接受它的人往往从中受益
In the meantime, thank your local food processor
同时 你也要谢谢当地为你加工食物的人
for being able to say those “f words”.
是他们才让你能说出那些“f”词

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

有想过平时发的唇齿音吗?那有想过我们的老祖宗可能发不出这种音吗?这种改变原来和我们的饮食习惯密切相关!快来看看吧!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

收集自网络

审核员

审核员A

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SWceBh08pL8

相关推荐