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远古人类和尼安德特人通婚

Ancient Humans & Neanderthals Had Sex, Here's How It Changed Us Forever

大约十万年前
Around 100,000 years ago (dates vary),
远古人类从非洲迁徙到了中东和欧洲
ancient humans moved out of Africa and into the Middle East and Europe.
然而那里已经有一个称作尼安德特的人种
But, another group of hominids called the Neanderthal were already there.
他们希望能融入这个世界
They want to be with the people world,
而如今我们永远成为了他们世界的一部分
and now we are forever part of their worlds.
可以说 我们吸引了他们
So to speak, we sexed them up.
如今 我们的DNA是由我们每一位祖先的混合而成的
Today, we live with a mix of the DNA of every one of our ancestors.
幸运的是 人类和尼安德特人的基因组都已经测序完成
Luckily for us, both the human and neanderthal genome have been sequenced.
这意味着我们可以着眼于整个基因组
This means, we can look at the full breadth of our DNAs
从而找出混杂的部分
and find places where things match up.
我们很多人的基因组都含有几百个尼安德特基因位点
For many of us, that includes a few hundred neanderthal bits as well.
比如 我的基因组中就含有301个尼安德特基因
For example, I have 301 neanderthal markers in my genome.
据说这比大多数人的都多 听起来不错
They say, that’s more than most,which sounds great.
我们很多人都有一些基因源于尼安德山谷
So, many of us have a little genetics from the valley of Neander
这使得很多人都有一个问题
which plants a questionin a lot of people’s minds…
尼安德奶油的加入对人类智慧这杯咖啡来说
did putting some Neander-cream in our Homo sapien-coffee
究竟是好是坏?
make things better or worse?
2016年 第一项关于尼安德特基因的影响的研究
In 2016, the first study to try and discover what genetics the neanderthal added
发现了一些令人震惊的事情
found some shocking results…
先说好 大多这样的研究有点恶心
I want to say first, a lot of this research sort of feels… icky.
“呕 我们的人种不纯了 我们变弱了”
“Ew, we mixed the races and now we’re somehow weaker!”
但事实并非如此
But, that’s not the case.
他们的研究发现 相对于其它方面
According to their research, neander-genes influence
尼安德特基因对皮肤 免疫系统 抑郁 瘾症及新陈代谢有影响
the skin, the immune system, depression, addiction, and metabolism among other things.
他们对比了几千人的基因和电子健康记录
They compared the genes and electronic health records of thousands of people,
发现这些具有特定的尼安德特基因的人
and found those with certain genetics related to neanderthals
也更容易对一些东西比如尼古丁上瘾——继而染上烟瘾
also had higher incidences of things like addiction to nicotine — and thus tobacco use.
尼安德特人带给古人类的另一个突变
Another mutation from the neanderthals gave ancient humans
是血液的快速凝结 研究者称这在当时是一种优势
hypercoagulability of the blood, which the researcher said was an advantage at the time
但在今天这增加了发生血栓的风险
but today increase the risk of clots in the bloodstream
一个独立小组发现
A separate set of researchers found
尼安德特基因可能使我们的皮肤更加坚韧
neanderthal DNA may have helped our skin toughen…
因为它们会影响角质的产生
As the genes influence keratin production
——一种使指甲和头发更坚硬的物质
— the stuff that makes fingernails and hair stronger.
也有研究发现 尼安德特基因能减少精神分裂症的发生
And so others have identified Neander genes that decrease risks of schizophrenia
此外 还有助于免疫系统发现真菌及微生物入侵者
and more that help the immune system detect fungi and organism invaders!
甚至有研究称 藏族人之所以能够耐受低氧水平
There’s even a study stating that Tibetans can tolerate lower oxygen levels,
部分是因为具有EPAS1基因 此基因源于与Denisovans的结合
in part, because of a gene EPAS1 — which came from mixing with Denisovans
一个与尼安德特人有关的独立远古种族
which is a separate ancient group related to the neanderthal.
但尼安德特基因也不总是有益的
But it’s not all positive.
随之而来的也有一些负面作用
Neanderthal DNA also brought some negatives with it,
就像结婚组建一个新家庭 你会觉得有得有失
— like marrying into a new family, you get both good and bad!
尼安德特DNA与狼疮 Ⅱ型糖尿病
Neanderthal DNA has been implicated in connection to lupus, type-II diabetes,
营养不良 易过敏等有关
malnutrition, heightened allergies… and so on.
这些当然不好 但从整体来看所有这些都是很不可思议的发现
Which is bad, but take it as whole all this is pretty incredible insight,
一项新研究使尼安德特基因混合的研究工作向前更进了一步
A new study took the neanderthal mixing a step further,
并且不得不说我对此有些惊奇
and I have to say they skeeves me out a bit…
他们声称 尼安德特基因的加入
They’re claiming an influx of neanderthal DNA
改变了人类头骨的形状从而改变大脑
could changed the shape of the skull and thus the brain.
为了检验这个假设 他们建立了一个系统
To test their hypothesis they created a system
用于比较一组人拥有多少尼安德特基因
to compare how much neanderthal genetics a group of people had,
并给那些参与者一个尼安德指数
giving those participants a NeanderScore.
他们的研究指向大脑中两个区域
Their research pointed to two areas of the brain were altered
在尼安德特基因混入后发生了改变
after mixing with neanderthals:
你所知道的视觉皮质以及顶间沟
the visual cortex, which you know, and also the IPS,
顶间沟与抓握以及协调躯体运动有关
which is associated with grasping and coordinating body movements
这也是我们能使用工具的部分原因
— it’s part of the reason we can use tools.
事实是 它们在那之后变得有些不稳定
The thing is, after that it get’s a little shaky,
就像他们基于自己的假设而做出的关于进化的猜想一样
as they’re making assumptions about evolution based on their hypotheses.
最后 显而易见 更多的研究是非常必要的
In the end, obviously, more research is very much needed.
对一些生物学特征来说 基因是非常重要的
Genes are very important for some traits,
但它们也不是100%准确
but they’re not 100-percent predictors.
比如说 即使你有一个使你容易患癌症的基因
For example, even if you have a gene that puts you at high risk for cancer,
但这也不是说你一定会得
it’s not guaranteed you’ ll get it.
就像在你的后代中 融合基因只是一个风险
Just like with any progeny, mixing genetics is a risk.
由于古人类与这些远古种族的混交
As ancient humans mixed their genes with these ancient groups,
我们的进化之路常常变得错综复杂
our evolutionary paths became intertwined forever.
随着我们对DNA所含的信息量的了解越来越多
As we learn more about the volumes of information hidden in our DNA
就个人来说 我希望扩大我的家族聚会
I, for one, look forward to expanding my family reunions
以邀请更多的“尼安德表亲”
to include even more of my neander valley cousins.
聚会后 我们可以建立一个网站
After the reunion, we could also start a website…
当然我们需要从Domain.com获取一个网址
But we’d need a URL from Domain.com.
当你从Domain.com购买域名时
When you buy a domain name from Domain.com,
你首先要为你的网站确定一个名称和图标
you’re taking the first steps in creating an identity and vision for your brand.
无扩展名会使路径更加清楚 比如.COM和.NET
No domain extension will help tell your story like a .COM or .NET domain name.
从Domain.com省下的20%就足够支付域名和网站经营的费用
Get 20% off Domain.com’s already affordable domain names and web hosting
如果你在结账时使用优惠码SEEKER
when you use coupon code SEEKER at checkout.
如果你对我们的远古祖先如何DTF感到好奇
If you’re wondering just how DTF our ancient ancestors were
可以在这里观看娜塔莉娅的解说
— you should watch Natalia explain that here.
作为部分尼安德特人 你感觉如何
How do you feel about being part neanderthal?
评论区见 欢迎订阅SEEKER
Let us know in the comments and please subscribe more SEEKER.
感谢观看
Thanks for watching.

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视频概述

远古人类曾与尼安德特人通婚,这永久地改变了我们

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ifSv1jXUzn4

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