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古埃及的衣着时尚 – 译学馆
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古埃及的衣着时尚

Ancient Egyptian fashion I Curator's Corner Season 5 Episode 3

You might know how to’Walk like an Egyptian’
也许你知道如何像埃及人一样走路
but do you know how to dress like an Egyptian?
但你知道如何像埃及人一样穿衣打扮吗?
Hi my name is Amandine Merat
我是Amandine Merat
I’m an Egyptologist and an expert in ancient Egyptian textiles
一名埃及古物学者 也是古埃及纺织品专家
and welcome to my corner!
欢迎来到我的专栏!
Amandine Merat院长的专栏
So today if I tell you ‘Ancient Egypt’,
如今 我和你说起古埃及人
you will tell me ‘Ohh, sculpture from pharaohs temples
你会说:哦!就是那个法老雕像 埃及寺庙里的雕塑
or maybe’Walk like an Egyptian’ – The Bangles (1986).
也可能会说《Walk like an Egyptian》
Well I’m going to introduce you
我要向你介绍的
to another period of Egyptian history
是埃及历史的另一时期
and also another kind of material.
以及另一种考古素材
Today we are going to say dress like an Egyptian
今天我们要讲的是像埃及人的穿衣打扮
and we’re going to talk about textiles in ancient Egypt
也会聊聊公元7世纪~15世纪
from the 7th century to the 15th century AD.
古埃及的纺织业
Egypt has a long tradition in textile production
在纺织生产方面 埃及有着悠久的历史传统
which dates back to the first millennium BC.
它可以追溯到公元前一千年
Where in other parts of the world textiles haven’t survived
那时世界其他地方的纺织品没能完好地保存
thanks to Egypt’s dry climate textiles survive in abundance.
多亏了埃及干燥的气候 大量的纺织品留存了下来
Today the British Museum collection
现今大英博物馆收藏了
of ancient Egyptian textiles comprises around 500 textiles
约500件古埃及纺织品
from the first millennium AD roughly.
这些都是一千纪前后的纺织品
They mainly come from excavations lead at
它们大都出土于
the end of the 19th century and early 20th century.
19世纪末 20世纪初
They come from graves because from the 2nd century onwards
是在墓葬中发现的 因为2世纪后
Egyptians stopped mummifying their dead
埃及人不再将尸体木乃伊化
to bury them in their daily clothes
而是让死者身着日常衣物
wrapped into furnishing textiles.
再用装饰织品包裹
So the textiles we’ll look at today are
所以今天我们看到的古埃及纺织品
both clothing items and furnishing textiles.
既有衣物又有装饰织物
So this one here is a fragment
那么这块碎片
of a shawl or a furnishing textile,
究竟是来自一条围巾还是装饰织物
it’s difficult to tell.
我们难以确定
It has been woven in linen
这块碎片是亚麻织物
the main fibre used in Egypt since 4th millennium BC.
公元前四千年 亚麻已然是埃及的主要织物
As you can see, it is decorated with a band here
如你所见 这有一条装饰带
which has been woven with tapestry,
上面织有各式各样的人和物
but this time not in wool as was mostly the case
但和所谓科普特时期的大多情况不一样
during the so-called coptic period
它没有用羊毛编织
but in silk.
它用的是丝绸
This is possible after the Arab conquest
埃及被阿拉伯人征服后 这是可能的
because Arabs controlled the silk road
因为阿拉伯人控制着丝绸之路
and so this makes silk more easily accessible in Egypt.
也就让丝绸的获取更为便捷
It shows some birds and quadrupeds in vegetal interlacing.
这里描绘的是枝叶交错下的鸟类和四脚兽
This iconography comes back from the classical imagery
这样的插图源于一种古典意象
imported by the Greeks during the arrival of Alexander the Great
它是公元前3世纪亚历山大大帝行至此处
during the third century BC.
由希腊人带入埃及的
However this piece dates to the 7th or 8th century
但是这件作品却可以追溯到公元前7或8世纪
and shows the continuation of imagery and iconography
它展示了埃及意象与图腾
throughout the centuries in Egypt.
长达几个世纪的延续
So this piece shows a transition
所以这张碎片展示的是一个过渡期
which will continue for example with this piece later on.
而后续阶段 我们将以这张碎片为例
So this textile has 4 edges preserved.
这件纺织品四个边都保存下来了
They have been sewn underneath
这些边沿被缝在下面
and the shape indicates that this is a sleeve of a tunic.
这个形状表明这是一件丘尼克的袖子
What is interesting here is
有趣的是
that we can find the same iconography here
我在另一张碎片找到了一样的图像
that we found here which means the vegetal interlacing and medallions
也就是说 植物交错和带有
which are housing some animal motifs here very much stylized.
动物图案的徽章是非常经典的装饰
This inscription doesn’t read anything
我们无法解读这些经文
it’s a pseudo-inscription
这是伪铭文
a pseudo-kufic inscription which is an Arabic script.
pseudo-kufic铭文 是阿拉伯文字
Such garments bearing such inscriptions are called tiraz.
带有这种铭文的衣服 我们称其tiraz
And’tiraz’ comes from the Persian word meaning embroidery.
tiraz一词来自波斯语 刺绣的意思
and tiraz was used to describe
tiraz被用来形容
both the clothes produced at the time
当时所制造的衣服
and also the workshops where they were produced.
及其制造衣服的工厂
At first tiraz were easily identifiable
织物上的铭文
because of their inscriptions.
让我们一开始就能轻易辨认tiraz
So the inscriptions was either naming the kalif
铭文的内容要么是对哈里发的任命
or quoting the Qur’an.
要么是对《古兰经》的引用
Later on, especially from the 9-10th century AD
之后尤其公元9-10世纪
tiraz were also just identifiable by these pseudo-inscription lines
根据伪铭文 我们依旧能够分辨出tiraz
and they could also be not only embroidered but woven
这些tiraz通过刺绣 还有编织的方式
in tapestry like this one.
被缝制在这样一块挂毯上
Tiraz were produced to decorate furnishing textiles or garments
tiraz是用来装饰织物或服装的
They were mostly found tunics on the sleeves.
大多出现在丘尼克的袖子上
And at the time the main item of clothing for men,
当时男人 女人 小孩的
women and kids alike was the tunic
主要穿的都是丘尼克
And the tunic could be of two types at this time
当时 丘尼克有两种款式
it could be either the traditional tunic which was adopted
一种是传统款式
after the Roman fashion from the second century AD
借鉴自2世纪罗马的衣着风尚
which is a tunic which was woven in one piece in a T shape
是一种先编织出T形的布料
folded and sewn along the edges
然后沿边折叠缝制而成的外衣
or it could be a tunic which was imported
另一种则是于7世纪引入的
from the 7th century AD after the Arab conquest
那时阿拉伯已经开始
from eastern countries.
侵略东部国家
And this tunic was made of several pieces of clothe sewn together.
这种丘尼克是由好几块布缝制而成的
So to imagine how this was worn
想象一下 这要怎么穿
if you look at my jacket for example
比如说 你可以看一下我的夹克
this part would be that part
这会在这里
and this would come up to here and
这一部分会到这里
these two ends would be sewn along the edge here.
然后两边末端沿着这边缝合
So we are now looking at textiles from the Mamluk period
那么我们现在看到的是 马穆鲁克时期的纺织品
which is roughly 13th century to mid-16th century.
这一时期大约是在13世纪到16世纪中期
So I have 3 textiles in front of me
我面前有3件纺织品
and I’m sure you can already notice some differences
我相信你们肯定看出了它们和
from the ones we just had a look at.
之前纺织品的一些差别
The main difference
其主要的差别
with the Mamluk is their taste for geometric decoration
在于马穆鲁克时期 人们对几何装饰的喜爱
and that’s why at this time the main decoration
这也是为什么马穆鲁克时期的
consists of geometric motifs.
主要装饰图案都由几何图形构成
So for example you can see on this textile
举个例子 你看这块纺织品
tiny, tiny triangle motifs.
它上面有小三角形图案
This textile is a pillow case
这是个枕头套
and it was found in a grave
是在一个坟墓里发现的
as we can notice it
我们可以看到
through the stains coming from the humor of the body.
这块污渍就是人类体液造成的
Geometric decoration can be found on furnishing textiles
我们在装饰织品上 在衣服上
but also on clothing items.
都能发现几何图案
So in front of me is another example
我面前的这张又是
of a sleeve of a tunic
丘尼克的袖子
This tunic is probably of the type 2 that we described earlier
这个很可能就是我们之前所说的第二种
because under the Mamluk’s type 1 is slowly but surely abandoned
因为在马穆鲁克时期 第一种丘尼克自然逐渐被淘汰
and men, women and kids
当时的男女老少
only wore tunics made of several pieces of clothe cut and sewn together.
都只穿这种由几块布缝制而成的丘尼克
But then you will tell me:’But hang on, here there is some patterns????’
然后你可能会说:等会 那这里的这些图案呢?
‘AND IT’S NOT ONLY GEOMETRIC!’
这可不仅仅是几何
This is true because under the Mamluk’s one
没错 因为在马穆鲁克时期
of the most important signs of high rank in society
象征着社会地位之高最重要的标志之一
became the blazon.
就是纹章
So a blazon is basically a kind of logo
所以从某种意义上来说
for an amir or a prince.
纹章是埃米尔或王子的标志
For example this blazon has been woven in cotton
这块白色纹章是用棉线缝制的
one of the most used fibres under the Mamluks
棉线是马穆鲁克时期最常用的纺织材料
and it was made to decorate a tent of an amir
这块纹章是用来装饰埃米尔的帐篷的
and it is decorated with a cup
上面有杯子的装饰图案
and this cup helps us to know that
这个杯子告诉我们
this amir was the’cup bearer’ at court
这位埃米尔是宫廷中的斟酒人
which was a very, very high duty under the Mamluks.
在马穆鲁克时期 那是个地位极高的职务
Thanks for watching my little introduction on fashion in Egypt
感谢观看我对埃及时尚和纺织品制造
and textile production.
的一些简单介绍
I hope you enjoyed it
希望你喜欢它
and I hope you’re going to look for these textiles in museums now.
也希望现在你就能去博物馆看看这些纺织品
If you want to see more Curator’s Corners you can find them here.
如果你想看到更多有关馆长专栏的内容 看看这里吧

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视频概述

古埃及时期的服饰,纺织材料介绍。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HkmfWfse41Q

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