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古埃及:象形文字及书写体系 – 译学馆
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古埃及:象形文字及书写体系

Ancient Egypt: Hieroglyphs and writing systems

Most people think about
人们大多认为
hieroglyphs as the main form of writing in ancient Egypt,
象形文字而非当时存在的其他文字
but many other scripts existed.
是古埃及的主要文字形式
It might also come as a shock, as well, to know that
以下事实同样令人震惊:
not many people could read and write in ancient Egypt,
会读写的古埃及人并不多
perhaps as many as one in a hundred.
他们占人口的比例约为百分之一
Throughout this gallery there’s different examples of scripts that were used in ancient Egypt,
本馆充满着各式各样的古埃及文稿图样
on a wide variety of medium,
它们的书写载体多种多样
from stone through to metalwork, right through to papyrus and coffins.
从石头到金属制品 再到莎草纸和棺材
Hieroglyphs was the most ornate script
象形文字是最适合做装饰的文字
and it was used for monumental inscriptions,
此种文字常用在纪念性碑文中
such as those found in temples and tombs,
比如寺庙和坟墓中的那种
like this granite stela here,
如这块制于4000年前
which is a tablet carved of hieroglyphs made about 4000 years ago
“中王国”时期的花岗岩石碑
in a period of time called the Middle Kingdom.
便由象形文字雕刻而成
At the bottom we have a scene here of three men,
我们可以看到 石碑底部刻有三个人
but at the top, this really interesting symmetrical arrangement of the hieroglyphs
顶部则是象形文字有趣的对称排列
and it demonstrates how hieroglyphs can read in two directions.
它展示了象形文字的双向阅读法
So, the top part of the stela gives us the name
我们能从石碑的顶部得知
of the two men that it’s dedicated for.
它所纪念的两个人的名字
If we start with this owl here we’re reading in this direction
如果我们从这只猫头鹰开始 我们从右向左读
and it says ‘the estate manager Khonsu’.
它的意思是“庄园主管Khonsu”
The second name begins here with this owl facing in the other direction,
第二个名字从面朝左方的猫头鹰开始
so read along here
从右向左开始读
and he has the same title ‘the estate manager’ but his name is Hotep,
他同样有着“庄园主管”头衔 但名叫Hotep
we can see Hotep and Khonsu
我们可以在下面(石碑底部)看到
down here at the bottom of the stela with some other man
Hotep和Khonsu及其他的一些男人
that we presume is their grandfather.
据我们推测 这是他们的祖父
Hieroglyphs were pretty and decorative on the walls of temples and tombs,
庙宇和陵墓墙壁上的象形文字美观且具有装饰性
but they were slow to carve or paint,
但雕刻或描绘它们的速度很慢
so a more joined up form of writing called ‘heiratic’
因此一种被称为“僧侣体”的更简便文字形式
was developed for more everyday documents,
被创造出来 并广泛用于日常文件
like letters and contracts,
如信件和合同
but also extraordinary inscriptions,
此外还有一些非同寻常的碑文
such as this one we have here on display in the gallery,
如馆中展示的这个文本便由僧侣体书写而成
which records the confession of a thief –
它记录了一个小偷的忏悔
a thief who robbed the tomb of Ramesses the 6th in the Valley of the Kings.
一个洗劫了国王谷的拉美西斯六世陵墓的小偷
This is during a time of civil unrest
这是一个处在社会动荡中的时期
and what you can see is his confession
你能从中看到他的忏悔
and it’s put into this script this heiratic script,
一个法庭抄写员以僧侣体文字
by a scribe in a courthouse, using a reed pen on a sheet of papyrus.
在莎草纸上用芦苇笔记录下了这一切
This is actually a really important object,
这个物件真的非常重要
it’s of great historical importance because it’s unique,
其独特性赋予它重要的历史意义
it’s the only documents that we have that
这是我们所拥有的
records a robbery in the Valley of the Kings.
记录帝王谷中抢劫案的唯一文件
Around the seventh century BC
大约在公元前7世纪时
a later phase of script developed to called
僧侣体中逐渐发展出
‘demotic’ is developed from heiratic
一种被称为“通俗体”的文字
but was closer to the spoken language of the time.
这种文字更接近当时的口语
Initially it was used for less formal documents
它最初用于不那么正式的文件
but later expands into use for religious
使用范围后来扩展到宗教用途
and texts and works of literature.
文学作品以及文本
In our gallery we have four amazing little pages from a book,
我们的展览馆里有四张令人惊奇的书页
they’re made from thin pieces of wood.
它们由薄木片制成
Each column recalls the observations of planets for a period of 62 years,
每一栏都记载了62年的行星观测
this painstakingly accurate information
占星师利用这些煞费苦心收集的
about the movements of the planets was used by astrologers,
有关行星运动的精确信息
using little books just like this to cast horoscopes.
以及类似这样的小书来占星
The modern Western zodiac we still use today
今天我们仍在使用的现代西方十二宫图
is based on the Egyptian view of the night sky.
同样基于古埃及人对夜空的认知

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视频概述

古埃及的象形文字和三种书写体系的用途、事例、发展等

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