ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

艺术家不得不知道的脊柱的解剖学画法—人体艺术解剖 – 译学馆
未登陆,请登陆后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

艺术家不得不知道的脊柱的解剖学画法—人体艺术解剖

Anatomy of the Spine - for Artists

脊椎是身体名副其实的支柱
The spine is literally the backbone of thebody.
它把躯干连接起来 驱动扭转
It holds the torso together and moves it around.
脊柱的解剖结构
Anatomy of the[lively music]
大家好 我是Stan Prokopenko 这里是Proko绘画
Hey there, I’m Stan Prokopenko, you’re watchingProko.
我们这次要学
We’re going to start
脊椎的概括画法
our study of the skeleton with the spine.
脊椎作为桥梁连接三大结构 头部 胸廓 和骨盆
The spine is the connection between the 3major masses: the head, ribcage and pelvis.
并且楔入两块臀部之间
And it’s wedged between 2 butt cheeks.
作图的时候
When constructing the figure,
常常要先画这三个结构
it’s common to start with these 3 masses,
然后才画四肢
before adding the limbs.
还记得我们是如何在形体绘画课程中
Remember how in the figure drawing course we
用豆子和机械豆来快速
used the bean and Robo bean to quickly
画出躯干的吗
establish the torso?
豆子法是一种简易方式 用简单图形来确立
The bean was a simple way of establishing the gesture
脊椎的形态
of the torso using simple shapes.
机械豆在豆子上多加了一些结构
The robo bean added more structure to the
来刻画它的空间动态
bean to describe its orientation in space.
Melissa:我们甚至看不到脊柱
Melissa: We can’t even see the spine.
那为什么要研究它呢?
Why do we study it?
这是脊柱的作用
Here’s the deal with the spine.
它定位了胸腔 骨盆
It places the rib cage, the pelvis,
以及头颅 不管它们在什么位置
and the skull wherever they happen to be,
它们只能到达脊柱允许的位置
and they can’t go anywhere the spine doesn’t let them.
它们随脊柱在有限范围活动
They inherit the spine’s limitations.
要画任何姿势的躯干
If we want to construct a torso in any pose,
都必需理解脊柱的结构
we need to understand the spine.
下面就来学吧
Let’s do it.
脊柱的大结构
Big Structure of the Spine
脊柱很坚固 足以支撑
The spine is strong enough to support
上身的重量 但是也可以灵活移动
the weight of the upper body, yet flexible enough to move.
它由24块独立的椎骨组成
It’s composed of 24 individual vertebrae,
椎骨很硬 是脊柱的力量来源
hard bones that give the spine its strength.
椎骨之间的椎间盘非常柔韧
The vertebrae have flexible cartilaginous discs between them,
使脊柱能够作为一整条来移动
that allow the spine to move as a single line.
每个位置只作微小移动
Each plane moves only a little,
但是累加的移动很大
but they add up to a lot,
像一串珠子一样
like a string of beads.
所有微小的角度合成一个优雅的弧
Every little movement contributes to a gracefulcurve.
脊柱分为四个部分
There are 4 sections to the spine.
颈部有七块椎骨
The cervical section of the neck consistsof 7 vertebrae.
胸部有十二块椎骨 一根肋骨一块
The Thoracic section of the ribcage has 12 vertebrae, one for each rib.
腰部有五块椎骨
The Lumbar section of the lower back has 5vertebrae.
第四部分实际被当做两个独立单元
The fourth section is technically considered as 2 separate sections,
我会合在一起说
but I’m going to combine them,
骶骨和尾骨 即尾椎
the sacrum and coccyx, which is thetailbone.
这些部位形成脊柱的四个弧
The sections give the spine a 4-arch curve.
如果脊柱是一条直线
If the spine were a straight line,
是会变得牢固 但同时也会僵硬
it would be strong, but rigid.
四个弧度使脊柱有更大的灵活性
This 4 arch curve gives better flexibility
以提供缓冲和平衡
for shock absorption and aids in balance.
它也是形体的框架
And it’s the framework for the posture ofthe body.
颈部曲线是弧度最小的
The cervical curve is the least curvy
几乎成一条直线
it’s almost a straight line.
但确实有一个细微的弯曲
But it does have a very subtle forward curve.
胸廓曲线最长
The thoracic curve is longest,
并且比颈椎曲线更弯
and more curvy than the cervical section.
它向后弯曲 与胸腔的形状结合
It curves backward and aligns with the shapeof the ribcage.
腰部弯向前面 弧度比胸椎更大
The lumbar section curves forward and is evenmore curvey.
骶骨曲线是所有部位弧度最大的
The Sacral curve is the most curvey of allthe sections.
因此 可以看出 脊柱越往下
So, as you can see the curves get progressively curvier
弯曲弧度越大
as they go down the spine.
椎骨的一般结构
Common Structure of the Vertebrae
每个部位的椎骨都稍有不同
The vertebrae of each section have slightly different structures,
有的强度更大 有的灵活性更好
some for strength, some for flexibility.
而所有的椎骨都有相同的组成
However all the vertebrae, share the samecommon components.
都有一个类似盘状的主体
Each has a thick disk-like Body,
以一个湿软的小枕部与相邻椎骨连接
which connects to the neighboring vertebra with a squishy little pillow,
构成脊柱的主要关节
forming the main joint of thespine.
椎骨背后呈“U”形弧
On the back of the body is a u-shaped Arch,
形成一个孔隙 供脊髓流通
creating a hole through which the spinal cord runs.
这种结构把脆弱的脊髓封起来 提供保护
This locks the fragile spinal cord insideand provides protection.
椎骨的弓形上有几个部件
On this arch are a few processes.
小小的像豪猪刺一样的突起物
Little spikes that stick out like the needles on a porcupine.
一个棘突随后伸出
A Spinous Process points out posteriorly.
皮下的凸起是椎骨中唯一
The subcutaneous tip is the only part of the vertebrae
在身体表面看得出来的地方
that makes an appearance on the surface body.
棘突的形状和角度
The shape and angle of the spinous process changes
会随我们脊柱的下弯而变化
as we move down the spine.
颈椎的棘突像龙虾尾一样伸出
The cervical spinous process fans out like a lobstertail.
胸椎的棘突像一根长钉
Thoracic is a long spike.
腰椎的棘突像斧头的锋
Lumbar is like the blade of an axe.
但是这些形态不会从表面观察到
But these shapes are not observable on thesurface.
我们只能观察到胸椎比较尖 腰椎比较长
We can only observe that the thoracic are pointy and the lumbar are longer.
前六块颈椎骨压根看不到
The first 6 cervical aren’t visible at all.
脖子上的这些比较深 被颈部韧带覆盖
Those are deeper in the neck, covered by thenuchal ligament.
第一块可见的椎骨是第七颈椎骨
The first visible vertebra is 7th Cervical,
被视作躯体的第一个主要界限
which is considered a major landmark of the body.
这是脊柱上最为显著和清晰的
This is the most pronounced and clearly visible vertebra
可见椎骨
along the spine,
位于这个菱形区域的正中间
seen right in the the middle of this diamond shape
斜方肌之间
between thetrapezius muscles.
胸椎中段的椎骨
The middle vertebrae of the thoracic section
即使人使劲往前弯腰
are usually not visible,
背部肌肉拉伸的时候 也是看不到的
even during an extrme forward lean,
但是不能一概而论
when the back muscles are stretched. But this varies.
有时能看到所有的胸椎和腰椎椎骨
Sometimes you’ll see all the thoracic andlumbar vertebrae.
动作
Motion
脊柱的动作影响整个躯干
What the spine does, affects the entire torso.
胸椎部分向后弯 尾椎部分向前弯
The thoracic section leans back, and the sacralleans forward.
由于胸腔和骨盆与脊柱密不可分
Since the rib cage and pelvis attach to the spine,
因此弯曲度与脊柱一致
they inherit this lean.
这幅是错误的姿势 而这幅是正确的
So this is the default position, not this.
所以说 每部分都有一定的运动范围
From there each section has it’s own rangeof motion.
腰椎椎骨是脊柱中最大 最坚固的
The lumbar section has the largest and strongest vertebrae of the spine.
它承担了整个上身的重量
It takes on the responsibility of holding all the weight of the upper body.
腰部主要的动作是弯曲和伸展
The main motion of the lumber area is flexionand extension
特别是向前弯腰
especially flexion, just forward bending.
弯腰去够自己的脚趾时
When you bend down to touch your toes,
最主要的弯曲部位就是腰部
most of that bending happens at the lumbar region.
腰部还能侧弯
The lumbar region is also able to bending side to side,
这由前三块椎骨支持
mostly at the top 3 lumbar vertebrae
因为底部两块通过韧带与骶骨相连
because the bottom two are connected to thesacrum by ligaments.
转动只局限在腰部
Rotation is restricted in the lumbar region.
胸椎不像腰椎那样大而坚硬
The thoracic vertebrae are not as large and strong as the lumbar,
所以你可能会想 它们应该更柔韧吧
so you’d think they have more flexibility.
但是 你错了
But, you’d be wrong.
椎骨的咬合结构
The interlocking structure of the vertebrae
以及椎骨跟胸腔相连的事实
and the fact that they are attached to the ribcage,
使胸椎部分十分固定
keep the thoracic section relativelystill.
能够弯曲 伸展和侧弯的幅度都很小
Flexion, extension and lateral bending arevery minimal.
而胸椎部分是可以转动的
However, the thoracic section is able to rotate.
转动是胸椎的主要动作
Rotation is the main motion of the thoracicsection.
颈椎是最细小脆弱的
The cervical spine is the thinnest and most delicate,
这也给了脖子更好的灵活性
so this allows for more flexibility in the neck.
三个方向的扭动都可以做到
Rotation along all 3 axes is possible.
前弯 伸展 侧弯和扭转
Flexion, extension, lateral bending and rotation.
颈椎的前两块椎骨很独特
The first 2 vertebrae of the cervical sectionare unique.
寰椎和枢椎
The Atlas and Axis.
枢椎上的一个垂直的柱形凸起插入寰椎中
The axis has a vertical cylindrical processinserting into atlas.
你能猜到形成了哪种关节吗?
Can you guess what kind of joint that creates?
猜对啦 是寰枢关节
You guessed it! A pivot joint.
一半的颈部扭动
50 % of cervical rotation
在寰椎和枢椎组成的关节上进行
is at the joint where the atlas meets the axis.
一半的颈部弯曲和舒展
50 % of cervical flexion and extension
在寰椎与颅骨组成的关节上进行
is at the joint where the altas meets the skull.
因此 头部可以上下左右扭动
So the head can rotate side to side and up and down
而不用脖子其他部分太多的协助
without much help from the rest of the neck,
但是头部不能向后弯
but the head can’t bend laterally.
后弯的是脖子
The neck does that.
这样画是不对的 应该画成这样
Instead of drawing this, you would draw this.
来回顾一下 颈椎多少有些独立于
Let’s review. The cervical section is somewhat separate
脊柱其余部位
from the rest of the spine.
颈椎带动头部扭转 可以非常自由地
It moves the head around and has a lot of freedom
向任何方向转动
to move in all directions.
胸椎和腰椎部分
The thoracic and lumbar sections
更局限 只能一起变化
are more limited and have to work together.
胸椎主要负责扭动
The thoracic takes care of most rotation
而腰椎负责前弯 舒展和后弯
and lumbar takes care of flexion, extension and lateral bending.
画一画脊柱
Drawing the spine
好的 现在该学的都已经学会了
Ok all that information is great now.
那么我们怎样画这个东西呢?
But how do we actually draw this stuff.
怎样将这些知识运用到人体绘画中?
How does this apply to drawing the figure?
我会在下个视频告诉你
I’ll show you in the next video.
敬请留意
Keep your eyes out for that.
好了 感谢观看
That’s it, thanks for watching!
用#proko的标签发布你的绘画
If you’re posting your drawings, use hashtag # proko
别忘了在Facebook和Instagram上关注我
and don’t forget to follow me on Facebook and Instagram.
在Facebook搜索“画家的解剖结构”团队
Also check out the Anatomy for Artists group on Facebook
网址是facebook.com/groups/anatomy4artists
at facebook.com/groups/anatomy4artists!
喜欢本视频就分享给好友吧
If you like this video, share it with your friends,
观看最新视频
and if you want to be updated about new videos
点击这个按钮订阅Proko资讯
click this button to subscribe to theProko newsletter.
[迪斯科音乐]
[lively disco music]
[花絮]
[interesting sidelights]
严肃点[笑]
Take it serious.[laughs]
好吧 要说了
Okay, I wanna do this.
脊柱连看都看不到[笑]
Can’t even see the spine.[laughs]
脊柱连看都看不到 那我们为什么要学
Can’t even see the spine. Why do we study it?

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

为了画好人体素描,必须先理解人体结构。本视频会用简单易懂的语言教会你脊柱的解剖学结构。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

凌辰

审核员

审核员 EM

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xonZvWOt670

相关推荐