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Anatomy of the Shoulder Bones

前情提要 骷髅仔第一次看到骷髅妹时就爱上她 他试着
Previously on Proko.. Skelly sees Skella. It’s love at first sight. He tries to seduce
用一些情话去吸引她 但她对此并不感冒 他送了一朵花 他们拥抱在一起
her with questionable pickup lines. She’s not impressed. He gives her a flower. They
之后骷髅仔怀孕了 骷髅妹拿起了他一根肋骨 与也拿着肋骨了的骷髅仔厮杀
hug. Skelly gets pregnant! Skella pulls a rib, they swordfight!
Stan has bones too!
这周 Proko工作室有了新的剧本 现在就让我们开始新的旅程吧
This week, there’s drama in the Proko house. The new episode starts now!
大家好 我是斯坦 普罗科普恩科 你正在收看的是Proko 我们已经学了脊柱 骨盆和肋骨
Hello! I’m Stan Prokopenko, you’re watching Proko. We’ve already studied the spine, pelvis
这堂课将讲授肩胛区 这就完成了躯干基本构架啦
and rib-cage. This lesson on the shoulder girdle, will complete the bones of the torso.
Pretty soon we’ll move in on to muscles!
Simple Structure of the Clavicle
我们从锁骨开始 是因为这是肩关节的起始位置
Let’s begin with the clavicle, because that’s where the shoulder begins. A clavicle in its
least foreshortened position, is about one cranial unit… more or less, which is about
the same length of the sternum… more or less.
That’s the advantage of having them near each other on the front. They’re convenient to compare.
除非我们从正面观察胸部 否则有的结构长度会相应地缩短
But unless we’re looking at the chest from the front, one of these is likely to be foreshortened.
So we need to think of clavicles as fore-shortenable sticks
4 shorten-able sticks?
什么 不不 骷髅仔 它们是可伸缩的 意思是能按透视法缩短
What? No! No Skelly… They are FORE-shortenable. Meaning, they can be foreshortened.
但是 锁骨不是一根直的棍子 而是由三部分组成 就像这样
But a clavicle is not a straight stick. It has three parts, and they are offset like this:
事实上 当你将它们合在一起就可以组成了丘比特弓
In fact, when you put them together, they make the shape of a Cupid’s bow
如果这不是你想的 那锁骨可以比作自行车把手
If love is not your thing, the clavicles also look like a pair of bicycle handlebars.
它像一件衬衫的衣领环绕我们的脖子旁 因此称其为锁骨
And since they wrap around the base of the neck like the collar of a shirt, we call them
collarbones. That’s the first bone of the shoulder girdle: the clavicle.
Simple Structure of the Scapula
现在 让我们来看肩胛区那个主要的骨头 肩胛
Now let’s move to the dominant bone of the shoulder girdle: the scapula.
The scapula is also known as the shoulder blade.
我们可以将其简单地视为三角形 大约是一个头长度的高和宽
We can simplify it as a triangle that’s about a cranial unit high, and about a cranial unit wide,
正视肩胛骨的解剖位置时 它们相距约一个头的距离
and when the scapulae are in the neutral anatomical position, they are about a cranial unit apart…
more or less.
这样看或许有些帮助 肩胛骨大约有一个握杯手的距离
Here’s a comparison that may help. The scapula is about the size of a cupped hand, which
conveniently matches its concavity to the convexity of the rib cage.
肩胛骨是一块完整的骨头 但对于艺术家却是两个完全不同的部分
The scapula is all one bone, but for artists, it has two distinct sections.
主体部分像叶片 大部分于皮下不可见 除了中间的内侧缘
The body of the blade is here, mostly deep below the surface, except this medial ridge.
The spine of the scapula is almost a bone of its own.
It sticks out like a trowel handle that you can tap along the surface.
这就是肩胛冈 在皮下 且不可或缺
That’s the spine of the scapula… Sub-cutaneous and super-important.
当我们把肩胛骨和锁骨结合 它们就像是胸腔上的肩垫
Now, when we combine the scapula and clavicle, they sit on the rib cage like shoulder pads.
胸腔上部本来是最窄的 有了肩部之后 顶部变成最宽的了
The rib cage is thinnest at the top end, but with the shoulders, the thorax is widest at the top.
男性的肩部一般比女性宽 虽然在打架中并没有
The shoulder girdle is usually bigger in men than women, though it might not give any advantage
in a fight…
Anatomical Details of the Clavicle
Where do you think the arm begins?
The arm begins at the pit of the neck!
This is the only bone-to-bone connection of arm to the trunk.
the rest of shoulder girdle never touches the rib cage –
and network of muscles lies between them and secures them together.
这个小坑结构很简单 只是有点缺陷
The pit of the neck is simple, but it has some pit-falls…
你可能知道胸骨乳突处的肌腱会形成一个V形 但只有在
You may know that the sternomastoid tendons make a V shape in there, but only when they’re
肌肉收缩的时候才会这样 但它们不是时刻收缩的这时看起来像方形口袋
tensed, and they’re not always tensed. Watch for a box-shaped pocket…
Don’t place them too close together. Clavicles don’t touch each other. They attach at the
corners of the manubrium, spread out a good two-fingers-distance from the center. An eyeball
could fit in there.
韧带将锁骨与腔骨链接起来 它们允许关节运动
Ligaments strap the clavicles to the sternum. They allow it to rotate on its ellipsoid joint,
而且可以消除崎岖不平 所以这部分通常很平滑
and smooth out the bumpiness. So this area is usually smooth.
锁骨是横跨在皮下的 它们连接脖子和胸腔
Clavicles are subcutaneous all the way across. They anchor muscles from the neck and chest,
and serve as very important landmark lines.
Anatomical Details of the Scapula
When we get to the end of the clavicle, we reach the Acromion Process. It seems like
它就像锁骨的延伸 实际上却是肩胛骨的延伸 最远
an extension of the clavicle, but it’s actually an extension of the scapula – the furthest
可连接到肩胛冈 肩峰像一个平面矩形平台
reach of the spine of the scapula. The acromion process is a flat rectangular platform that
“steps down” from the clavicle.
俯视 我们可以看到肩峰的骨头
From the top view,we can see thebones of the acromion process
as the deltoid musle runs around it
附着在下边 旁边和后边
to attach the sub plane,side plane and the back plane.
If you remember from the figure drawing course,
we use this landmark to identify the top plane of the robo-bean
Let’s look at the spine of the scapular in more detail
The spine on a human scapula twists from back to top.
这就意味着肩胛冈是一个复杂的平面 就像圆柱体上的丝带
This means the spine of the scapula is a complex plane, like a ribbon on a cylinder.
这很难画 却物有所值 这个扭曲的平面影响表面
This may be hard to draw, but it’s valuable. That rolling plane affects the surface,
and helps an artist know how the light changes as it twists.
the glenoid cavity is the socket that holds the humerus.
it has shallow socket,not good for supporting weight.
but great form ability
the head of humerus is ball that fits into that socket
just below the acromion process
由于这个小窝太浅 因此这里有韧带交织成的网络称为肩袖
and since that socket too shallow,we have a network of ligaments called the rotator cuff
they secure the ball of humerus to the glenoid cavity.
接下来了解肩胛骨最重要的部分 叶片部分
Now, here’s the super important thing about the scapula. The blade, primerely this
其内侧缘 肩胛冈是最主要的准线
medial border, and the spine of the scapular make the primary landmark lines.
They make a fixed angle
大于90度的角 当肩胛骨运动时 这个角度保持不变
more than 90°, and when the scapula moves, that angle stays fixed…
So, how the heck do we find these lines on a model? Where’s the scapula on this crazy
mess of bumps? A lot of the scapula is covered with a mesh of muscles, but these lines will
特别是肌肉发达的或者健壮的人做某些动作时 我们可以看到
always be visible. In some poses, especially on muscular or heavy people we’ll see them
它们的压痕 斜方肌附着在肩胛骨靠脊柱的地方 菱形肌
as indentations. The trapezius attaches along the spine of the scapula. Rhomboids attach
沿着边附着 一群肩胛骨肌肉附着在内 而三角肌
along the side. A group of scapular muscles sit on the inside of the blade. And the deltoid
attaches along the bottom of the spine.
在另外一些动作中 特别是年轻健壮的人 他们的骨头会向外
In other poses,and expecially younger lean people,the bones project outward.
since the volume of the muscles is thin and stretched
在我们观察动作之前 需要知道为什么我们需要肩膀
Before we move on to motion, let’s ask why we even need a shoulder.
Why do we even need a shoulder?
显然 我们的手臂需要运动 将手放在我们需要的位置
Well, obviously to move our arms, which place our hands wherever they should be…
or shouldn’t be.
嗨 伙计
Hey dude.
手臂连接在胸腔上只能甩开甩去 而在肩胛骨允许
An arm stuck to a ribcage couldn’t do much beyond flopping around. A scapula allows movement
because it has a ball & socket joint.
If you’re one of those weirdos that likes to scare your friends by popping your shoulder blade out,
then you are experiencing Anterior tilter.
Please,just stop that.
It’s scary.
矮油 没时间了
Oh no! We’re out of time…
Well,to learn about the impressive motions of scapula
可前往以下网址了解 在收费的解剖课中
head on over to proko.com/anatomy. In the premium anatomy course,
会有拓展的视频 示例 可旋转运动的3d模型
each lesson has extended videos, more drawing examples, and 3d models that you can rotate and draw
你可以从任何角度画 走过路过不要错过 我还是很看好这个课程的
from any angle. Really check it out! I’m very proud of the premium course.
详见以下网址 Proko.com/anatomy
The Assignment
首先 画出胸腔 然后 在胸腔上画出锁骨
First, draw the ribcage. Then, draw the shoulder girdle on top of the ribcage.
画另一边 画出边缘的物体 画出角度和标线
Draw around to the other side, ghosting it as it goes around. Look for angles and landmarks, and
画成三维形式 我们要在学画肌肉之前掌握这些
draw them as three-dimensional forms. We’ll need to master this before we include muscles.
想想看——骨头的位置决定肌肉的形状 当我们
Think about it – the positions of the bones determine the shape of the muscles.
可以画锁骨和肩胛骨的时候 我们就有了最基础的
When we can draw the clavicle and scapula as forms, we have the underlying structure that shapes
the shoulders.
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就这样 谢谢观看 如果你在社交网络上发表画作
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记得圈上#proko# 或者发送到脸书proko.com/groups
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you can find them on
Hey have you seen my new App,
“Skelly-Poseable艺术解剖模型”了吗 到Proko.com/skellyapp
Skelly – the Poseable Anatomy Model for Artists Go to Proko.com/skellyapp
or Click this button to get it on iOS or Android.