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解剖肩胛骨 – 译学馆
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解剖肩胛骨

Anatomy of the Shoulder Bones

前情提要 骷髅仔第一次看到骷髅妹时就爱上她 他试着
Previously on Proko.. Skelly sees Skella. It’s love at first sight. He tries to seduce
用一些情话去吸引她 但她对此并不感冒 他送了一朵花 他们拥抱在一起
her with questionable pickup lines. She’s not impressed. He gives her a flower. They
之后骷髅仔怀孕了 骷髅妹拿起了他一根肋骨 与也拿着肋骨了的骷髅仔厮杀
hug. Skelly gets pregnant! Skella pulls a rib, they swordfight!
斯坦也有骨头哦
Stan has bones too!
这周 Proko工作室有了新的剧本 现在就让我们开始新的旅程吧
This week, there’s drama in the Proko house. The new episode starts now!
大家好 我是斯坦 普罗科普恩科 你正在收看的是Proko 我们已经学了脊柱 骨盆和肋骨
Hello! I’m Stan Prokopenko, you’re watching Proko. We’ve already studied the spine, pelvis
这堂课将讲授肩胛区 这就完成了躯干基本构架啦
and rib-cage. This lesson on the shoulder girdle, will complete the bones of the torso.
之后我们将会讲授关于肌肉的课程
Pretty soon we’ll move in on to muscles!
锁骨的简单构造
Simple Structure of the Clavicle
我们从锁骨开始 是因为这是肩关节的起始位置
Let’s begin with the clavicle, because that’s where the shoulder begins. A clavicle in its
在透视画法中的锁骨的长度大概是一个头的宽度
least foreshortened position, is about one cranial unit… more or less, which is about
和胸骨的长度差不多
the same length of the sternum… more or less.
这些结构相互比邻为后面的绘画的比较提供了便利
That’s the advantage of having them near each other on the front. They’re convenient to compare.
除非我们从正面观察胸部 否则有的结构长度会相应地缩短
But unless we’re looking at the chest from the front, one of these is likely to be foreshortened.
因此我们要将锁骨想象成一根可伸缩的棍子
So we need to think of clavicles as fore-shortenable sticks
4根能缩短的棍子?
4 shorten-able sticks?
什么 不不 骷髅仔 它们是可伸缩的 意思是能按透视法缩短
What? No! No Skelly… They are FORE-shortenable. Meaning, they can be foreshortened.
但是 锁骨不是一根直的棍子 而是由三部分组成 就像这样
But a clavicle is not a straight stick. It has three parts, and they are offset like this:
事实上 当你将它们合在一起就可以组成了丘比特弓
In fact, when you put them together, they make the shape of a Cupid’s bow
如果这不是你想的 那锁骨可以比作自行车把手
If love is not your thing, the clavicles also look like a pair of bicycle handlebars.
它像一件衬衫的衣领环绕我们的脖子旁 因此称其为锁骨
And since they wrap around the base of the neck like the collar of a shirt, we call them
就是肩胛区的第一根骨头
collarbones. That’s the first bone of the shoulder girdle: the clavicle.
肩胛骨的简单结构
Simple Structure of the Scapula
现在 让我们来看肩胛区那个主要的骨头 肩胛
Now let’s move to the dominant bone of the shoulder girdle: the scapula.
肩胛又称为肩胛骨
The scapula is also known as the shoulder blade.
我们可以将其简单地视为三角形 大约是一个头长度的高和宽
We can simplify it as a triangle that’s about a cranial unit high, and about a cranial unit wide,
正视肩胛骨的解剖位置时 它们相距约一个头的距离
and when the scapulae are in the neutral anatomical position, they are about a cranial unit apart…
差不多是这个样子
more or less.
这样看或许有些帮助 肩胛骨大约有一个握杯手的距离
Here’s a comparison that may help. The scapula is about the size of a cupped hand, which
凹下去的部分与胸部肋骨凸出相对应
conveniently matches its concavity to the convexity of the rib cage.
肩胛骨是一块完整的骨头 但对于艺术家却是两个完全不同的部分
The scapula is all one bone, but for artists, it has two distinct sections.
主体部分像叶片 大部分于皮下不可见 除了中间的内侧缘
The body of the blade is here, mostly deep below the surface, except this medial ridge.
肩胛冈几乎是一根单独的骨头
The spine of the scapula is almost a bone of its own.
在体表摸起来就像泥铲的把手
It sticks out like a trowel handle that you can tap along the surface.
这就是肩胛冈 在皮下 且不可或缺
That’s the spine of the scapula… Sub-cutaneous and super-important.
当我们把肩胛骨和锁骨结合 它们就像是胸腔上的肩垫
Now, when we combine the scapula and clavicle, they sit on the rib cage like shoulder pads.
胸腔上部本来是最窄的 有了肩部之后 顶部变成最宽的了
The rib cage is thinnest at the top end, but with the shoulders, the thorax is widest at the top.
男性的肩部一般比女性宽 虽然在打架中并没有
The shoulder girdle is usually bigger in men than women, though it might not give any advantage
得到什么好处
in a fight…
锁骨的解剖细节
Anatomical Details of the Clavicle
你觉得手臂的起始点在哪
Where do you think the arm begins?
手臂是从脖子这个小坑开始的
The arm begins at the pit of the neck!
这是手臂与躯干骨骨相连的唯一地方
This is the only bone-to-bone connection of arm to the trunk.
肩胛的其他部分不会与胸腔相接触
the rest of shoulder girdle never touches the rib cage –
但是有众多肌肉交织使它们紧密相连
and network of muscles lies between them and secures them together.
这个小坑结构很简单 只是有点缺陷
The pit of the neck is simple, but it has some pit-falls…
我错了
Sorry.
你可能知道胸骨乳突处的肌腱会形成一个V形 但只有在
You may know that the sternomastoid tendons make a V shape in there, but only when they’re
肌肉收缩的时候才会这样 但它们不是时刻收缩的这时看起来像方形口袋
tensed, and they’re not always tensed. Watch for a box-shaped pocket…
肌肉不会把锁骨拉得太近使它们互相碰触的
Don’t place them too close together. Clavicles don’t touch each other. They attach at the
它们依附的柄状体之间的间隔恰好是两根手指的宽度
corners of the manubrium, spread out a good two-fingers-distance from the center. An eyeball
也就是一个眼球的大小
could fit in there.
韧带将锁骨与腔骨链接起来 它们允许关节运动
Ligaments strap the clavicles to the sternum. They allow it to rotate on its ellipsoid joint,
而且可以消除崎岖不平 所以这部分通常很平滑
and smooth out the bumpiness. So this area is usually smooth.
锁骨是横跨在皮下的 它们连接脖子和胸腔
Clavicles are subcutaneous all the way across. They anchor muscles from the neck and chest,
是很重要的衔接物
and serve as very important landmark lines.
肩胛骨的细节剖析
Anatomical Details of the Scapula
锁骨的尾部就是肩峰
When we get to the end of the clavicle, we reach the Acromion Process. It seems like
它就像锁骨的延伸 实际上却是肩胛骨的延伸 最远
an extension of the clavicle, but it’s actually an extension of the scapula – the furthest
可连接到肩胛冈 肩峰像一个平面矩形平台
reach of the spine of the scapula. The acromion process is a flat rectangular platform that
从锁骨顺接下来
“steps down” from the clavicle.
俯视 我们可以看到肩峰的骨头
From the top view,we can see thebones of the acromion process
被三角肌环绕
as the deltoid musle runs around it
附着在下边 旁边和后边
to attach the sub plane,side plane and the back plane.
如果你还记得绘画基础课程的内容
If you remember from the figure drawing course,
我们用这些标线来确定模特的顶部
we use this landmark to identify the top plane of the robo-bean
让我们来仔细看看肩胛骨的肩胛冈
Let’s look at the spine of the scapular in more detail
人类的肩胛冈是从后面向前面弯曲
The spine on a human scapula twists from back to top.
这就意味着肩胛冈是一个复杂的平面 就像圆柱体上的丝带
This means the spine of the scapula is a complex plane, like a ribbon on a cylinder.
这很难画 却物有所值 这个扭曲的平面影响表面
This may be hard to draw, but it’s valuable. That rolling plane affects the surface,
同时帮助艺术家了解光线折射所造成的变化
and helps an artist know how the light changes as it twists.
肩胛盂是容纳肱骨的一个小窝
the glenoid cavity is the socket that holds the humerus.
但是这个小窝并不利于承载重物
it has shallow socket,not good for supporting weight.
但却提高了灵活性
but great form ability
肱骨头有与那个小窝契合的球面
the head of humerus is ball that fits into that socket
就在肩峰下方
just below the acromion process
由于这个小窝太浅 因此这里有韧带交织成的网络称为肩袖
and since that socket too shallow,we have a network of ligaments called the rotator cuff
它们加固了肱骨头与肩胛盂的联系
they secure the ball of humerus to the glenoid cavity.
接下来了解肩胛骨最重要的部分 叶片部分
Now, here’s the super important thing about the scapula. The blade, primerely this
其内侧缘 肩胛冈是最主要的准线
medial border, and the spine of the scapular make the primary landmark lines.
它们形成一个固定的
They make a fixed angle
大于90度的角 当肩胛骨运动时 这个角度保持不变
more than 90°, and when the scapula moves, that angle stays fixed…
那我们到底怎么在模型上找到这些准线?肩胛骨在这些
So, how the heck do we find these lines on a model? Where’s the scapula on this crazy
复杂的骨头的哪里?肩胛骨上都包着网状的肌肉但这些线是可见的
mess of bumps? A lot of the scapula is covered with a mesh of muscles, but these lines will
特别是肌肉发达的或者健壮的人做某些动作时 我们可以看到
always be visible. In some poses, especially on muscular or heavy people we’ll see them
它们的压痕 斜方肌附着在肩胛骨靠脊柱的地方 菱形肌
as indentations. The trapezius attaches along the spine of the scapula. Rhomboids attach
沿着边附着 一群肩胛骨肌肉附着在内 而三角肌
along the side. A group of scapular muscles sit on the inside of the blade. And the deltoid
附着在肩胛冈的底部
attaches along the bottom of the spine.
在另外一些动作中 特别是年轻健壮的人 他们的骨头会向外
In other poses,and expecially younger lean people,the bones project outward.
由于肌肉很弱或者拉伸导致骨头是向外
since the volume of the muscles is thin and stretched
动作
Motion
在我们观察动作之前 需要知道为什么我们需要肩膀
Before we move on to motion, let’s ask why we even need a shoulder.
我们为什么需要肩膀?
Why do we even need a shoulder?
显然 我们的手臂需要运动 将手放在我们需要的位置
Well, obviously to move our arms, which place our hands wherever they should be…
或者不应该
or shouldn’t be.
嗨 伙计
Hey dude.
手臂连接在胸腔上只能甩开甩去 而在肩胛骨允许
An arm stuck to a ribcage couldn’t do much beyond flopping around. A scapula allows movement
因为肱骨头和关节能运动
because it has a ball & socket joint.
喜欢把肩胛骨突出来吓唬你朋友的人
If you’re one of those weirdos that likes to scare your friends by popping your shoulder blade out,
你会得肩胛骨前倾的
then you are experiencing Anterior tilter.
停下来吧
Please,just stop that.
真的很恐怖
It’s scary.
矮油 没时间了
Oh no! We’re out of time…
想要学习更多关于肩胛骨的课程
Well,to learn about the impressive motions of scapula
可前往以下网址了解 在收费的解剖课中
head on over to proko.com/anatomy. In the premium anatomy course,
会有拓展的视频 示例 可旋转运动的3d模型
each lesson has extended videos, more drawing examples, and 3d models that you can rotate and draw
你可以从任何角度画 走过路过不要错过 我还是很看好这个课程的
from any angle. Really check it out! I’m very proud of the premium course.
详见以下网址 Proko.com/anatomy
作业
The Assignment
首先 画出胸腔 然后 在胸腔上画出锁骨
First, draw the ribcage. Then, draw the shoulder girdle on top of the ribcage.
画另一边 画出边缘的物体 画出角度和标线
Draw around to the other side, ghosting it as it goes around. Look for angles and landmarks, and
画成三维形式 我们要在学画肌肉之前掌握这些
draw them as three-dimensional forms. We’ll need to master this before we include muscles.
想想看——骨头的位置决定肌肉的形状 当我们
Think about it – the positions of the bones determine the shape of the muscles.
可以画锁骨和肩胛骨的时候 我们就有了最基础的
When we can draw the clavicle and scapula as forms, we have the underlying structure that shapes
肩膀的结构
the shoulders.
如果你喜欢这个视频 不要私藏 拿出来分享吧 如果你想
If you like this video, don’t be all selfish, share it with your friends! And if you want
看更新的视频 点击这个按钮 或者访问promo.com/subscribe
to be updated about new videos click this button or go to promo.com/subscribe.
就这样 谢谢观看 如果你在社交网络上发表画作
That’s it! Thanks for watching. If you’re posting your drawings on social networks use the hashtag
记得圈上#proko# 或者发送到脸书proko.com/groups
#proko# or consider posting them in one of the promo Facebook groups
你可以在proko.com/groups上找到
you can find them on
你看到我的新应用
Hey have you seen my new App,
“Skelly-Poseable艺术解剖模型”了吗 到Proko.com/skellyapp
Skelly – the Poseable Anatomy Model for Artists Go to Proko.com/skellyapp
按这个按钮下载IOS或者安卓版本
or Click this button to get it on iOS or Android.

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