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解剖分析 – 肩骨 – 译学馆
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解剖分析 - 肩骨

Anatomy Critiques - The Shoulder Bones

你好,我的名字叫Stan Prokopenko。欢迎来到另一个点评的视频。今天我要
Hello, my name is Stan Prokopenko. Welcome to another critique video. Today I’m going
讨论一下女孩的肩膀或肩骨 如果你没上过那节有关肩膀
to be critiquing The shoulder girl or the shoulder bones. If you haven’t seen the shoulder
的课 点击说明中的链接 先观看那节课的视频
lesson, click on the link in the description and watch that first. And then actually do
然后在看我点评别人的作业之前完成自己的作业 我认为你应该
the assignments before you watch me critique other people’s assignments. I think you should
在看正确的方法前 先尝试着画一下
attempt it before you watch corrections.
好 我们来看Alejandro Farrera Hernandez 画作 画的不错 很有3D感 首先
Okay, Alejandro Farrera Hernandez, nice drawings, very three dimensional. The first thing that
映入我眼帘的是肩胛骨上的肩胛冈 你画在这儿
pops out at me is the spine of the scapula that you’re drawing right in there. So first
所以 首先 这个连接点画的太大了 而且这看起来像是接在肩胛骨里面
of all, it’s way too big at the connection point, and it looks like it’s connecting inside
这应该画到边缘 所以我会画到这儿
the scapula. It should go all the way to the edge. So I would draw it all the way to here,
然后 底部应该画成这样 这些地方画的有些多余了
and then the bottom would go something like this. All that right there is extra, and it
这儿看起来 你犯了同样的错 这儿也是 你应该看到这个角
looks like you did the same thing there. Same thing there. It should- You see this corner?
这儿才是肩胛冈连接的点 就在这儿另外一点就是
That’s where the spine of the scapula connects, right in there. The other thing I’m seeing
在这第一幅里 这个肩胛骨对于这个胸腔来说画的有点大
in this first one, is that the scapula is just a little bit too big for the rib cage
我们来看下3D模型 这会帮助你看出有什么不同
shape. Let me show you a 3D model, and that’ll help you see the difference. So bottom of
在胸腔顶部 从这个角度看肩胛骨的顶部 在同一水平
the rib cage, top of rib cage, and top of the scapula from this angle, about the same
肩胛骨的底部 这看起来要比胸腔的一半稍微小一点 到这儿
level. Bottom of the scapula, see how it’s just slightly less than half? Right there
才是一半长 或者在这里应该是肩胛骨的两倍大小 但是来看你的图
would be half, or right there would be twice the size of the scapula. But on yours, you’re
你画的肩胛骨超过了胸腔的一半
making the scapula more than half.
好 下一个是Tomas de Zarate的图 我不得不扫兴的说
Okay, next is Tomas de Zarate. Tomas, you gave us this. So I’m going to be a buzz kill
你现在画阴影还太早 你的结构画的还不达标
here and say too early to start shading. Your structure just isn’t there yet. There’s not
你对于形状结构的理解还不足以让你分心来画阴影
enough understanding of the forms yet for you to get distracted with shading. It’d be
对你来说花时间来学习事物形状 会比直接画物体阴影更好
better for you to spend your time learning that stuff than to add cast shadows and stuff.
这幅画看起来还行 但是这太简单了 如果你真的想要进步的话
It looks nice, but that stuff is really easy. If you really want to progress, it’s better
你应该花更多的时间用在能给你带来最大进步的事上
if you spend your time on things that will give you the most growth. And for you, it’s
对于你来说 就应该用在结构上所以试着管着点自己 避免画那些
going to be structure. So try to be a little bit more disciplined and avoid some of that
好玩儿的东西 它虽然让你的画看起来好一些 但却不会真的帮助你提高
fun stuff that makes your drawing look better but doesn’t really help you improve.
好的,这一副是我非常喜欢的作业了 来自于Todd Jaeger 他画了很多
Okay, this one is my favorite submission. It’s from Todd Jaeger. He did a lot of them.
当然 他画的不仅多 而且对于每一副图他都做了很多研究
And not only did he do a lot, but he did a lot of research for each one of them. He looked
他查找了外界的信息 他查看了其他的参考来理解每一幅图
for outside sources. He looked at other references to really figure out what’s happening in the
所以让我们来看看其中的一些图 第一幅 你把所有的骨头都盖住了
photo. So let’s look at some of these. This first one, you covered up all the bones, except
除了一些标志物 这很好 但我想我要评论一下这些肌肉了
the landmarks, so that’s fine. But I guess I’ll critique the muscles. First thing I’m
首先我看见这儿 你把肌纤维的方向画的有些下了儿 这是不对的
seeing is, looks like you’ve got some fibers going down this way. That is not correct.
这里 这些肌纤维应该连起来 然后往上
From here, the fibers would attach and then they’d go from the front. They’d actually
它们实际上是这样展开的 然后所有的都连在这一边
kind of splay out like that, and it would attach all along the side over here. Another
然后就是斜方肌 在这儿 你画的有些圆了
thing about the trapezius muscle, right in here, you kind of just drew a round shape.
它应该是连在这儿的 所以应该是顺着这个方向连在肩胛骨上
I like to show where that’s actually attaching. So show this going all the way to the spine
然后这一部分是肌腱 所以肌腱覆盖在上面
of the scapula here, and then this whole part is tendon. So the tendon covers up all of
我喜欢画肌肉上的肌腱 因为它是这部分肌肉的延长
this. And I like to draw the tendon of a muscle, because it’s a continuation of the muscle
而且它展现了肌肉的走向 否则的话 它就是一个流动形状
and it really shows the point to which that muscle is going. Otherwise, it’s just a floating
那会是软塌塌的一团 不连接任何东西 所以 要把它一直画到肩胛骨上
shape, it’s a blob. It’s not attached to anything. So yeah, drawing it all the way to the bone
对于画肌肉来说是很好的练习
is a good practice for these muscles.
好 让我们来看下一幅 相较于下面这幅我更喜欢上面这幅
Okay, let’s move onto this next one. I like this drawing better than this one, mainly
主要是因为它的肩胛骨之间的结构关系更正确一些 一个是你有一个正确的角度
because the relationship between the scapulas is more correct. One, you have the correct
这里只有一点点垂直 这里你画的太向外旋转了
angles. See how these are a little bit more vertical. Here you’re showing way too much
我要说的不是这个 来看这个人画的 这些角度
lateral rotation. I’m not seeing that. Look on this guy, those are the angles, almost
几乎是直角 另外就是你看你画的这个形态 不对称
vertical lines. Another thing is look at the gesture you’re showing. It’s not symmetrical.
右边的这一个太低了 左边的这个又画高了
The one on the right is dipping too much and the one on the left is raising. So when you
所以当你在画这些的时候 要看清脊柱两旁的肩胛骨的基线
draw these, look for the gesture line between the spine of the scapulas. You can usually
通常 你可以把他们连起来 就在这 可以跨到另一边
connect them. So right in here, it goes all the way across to the other side. There’s
这就是你的基线 然后你可以画脊柱 的中间缘
your gesture line. And then you’d have the spine, medial edge.
所以这些都是非常好的线 在你开始画框架之前你可以先画这些格子线
So these are all very nice lines and grid lines you can start with before you start
这会帮助你找到结构的正确定位
putting in the structure, and it’ll help you find the placement of the things correctly.
另外对于你的画来说 就是你在画这一部分的时候 然后一旦你把所有的零件都画在这儿了
Whereas on yours, it looks like you started drawing the parts, and then once all the parts
那么它们的连接就不准确 位置错了 所以
were there, they didn’t relate correctly. The position is all off. So gesture lines,
找到基线的正确位置 会帮助你画准确的
find the placements, and that’ll help you place correctly.
这一副 你犯了同样的错误 右边肩膀太低了 左边又高了 好吧
In this one, similar thing as you did before: right shoulder is too low, left is high. Well,
左边肩膀画的更正确一些 是因为你右边肩膀画的太低了
the left one is more correct. It’s just that this right one is too low. It would’ve been
如果你能找到基线会更好 所以你应该知道了脊柱和肩胛骨
nice to find this gesture. So there you would know that the spine and the scapula is all
要一直画到这里
the way up here.
好的 同样的 你把它画的太过倾斜了 这里几乎是垂直的
Also, again, you’re tilting this too much. This is almost vertical. There’s a little
这里本该有一点倾斜 但是你画的太倾斜了因为这幅图
bit of a tilt, but you’re showing quite a bit of a tilt. Okay, so for this one, we’re
我们一起来看下模型 在这个3D模型里能看到你所想要的脊柱上的
looking up at the model. So I included this 3D model here to show you what the spine of
肩胛骨上的角度 注意它是如何开始往上的
the scapula will look like from this angle. Notice how it starts to go up, and then right
然后在这个位置 它开始转向了 这有一个角 它挨着肩峰
about there, it actually turns. It makes a corner, and then it hits the acromion. So
所以这里 这就是肩峰了就在这一小片地方 但是在这之前
right in there, this is the acromion, that little box right there. But before that, there’s
这有一个锐角 但看上去你并没有画出来 你画了一个钝角
a sharp corner. And it looks like you’re not really showing that. You’re doing the opposite.
一定要注意这一点 如果我们要画肩胛骨 要包裹住周边
Be careful with that. If we’re looking up at the scapula, it’s going to wrap around.
好 下一个是Neville Harvey的图 Neville 我要挑出你的一点小错
Okay, next up is Neville Harvey. And Neville, I’m going to pick on you a little bit here.
你要画一组图喽 所以我看到了一些问题
You’re going to have to take one for the team. So this is something that I see not too much,
但不是每一次都有的 这对于我来说就像是黑板上的钉子
but every time I see it, it’s like nails on a chalkboard for me, and that is taking good
所以当你在网上展示作品时 当你把你的作品公开之前
photos when you present your work on the internet. When you show your work to the public, put
多下一点功夫 确保它看起来好看 当你拿出这样一张图片时候
a little bit of effort into it, make sure it looks good. When you take a photo like
你的光线是从哪一边射出来的 你的阴影处理的很糟糕
this, where you’ve got the light coming from the side and you’ve got these really harsh
这让我很难专心看你的画 所以当我仔细看你的画的时候
shadows, it’s difficult to look at your drawings. It’s so distracting. So when I really look
我看的出来 对于肩胛骨和锁骨你画的很好
at it, I can see you did a really nice job drawing the scapula, the clavicle. You put
你在你的画上下了很大的功夫 但是你最后一步展示图片的工作没有做好
a lot of effort into your drawing, but then just that last step of presenting your work
所以你们 在某一天 把你们的带画出去的时候
needs work. And so anybody else out there, you can just take your drawing outside during
把它放在阳光下或是阴影下 这样可以然后阳光柔和一些 然后再拍照
the day, put it in the sun or in the shade so that the lighting is flat, and take a picture
把画放在一个合适的光线下并不难
there. It’s really not that difficult to take a picture with good lighting. Just don’t be
只要别偷懒 这就是我要对Neville说的了
lazy. So that’s all I had to say about Neville.
最后一个要点评的是来自John Stone的画 John交了五幅不错的画
The last critique is for John Stone. Okay, John submitted these five nice drawings. The
第一幅 同样是右边的画低了 左边的高了
first one, it’s that same one where the right shoulder is retracting and the left is protracting,
但是你的画 看起来两个肩胛骨距离脊柱一样远 所以 再说一次
but it looks like you’re showing almost the same distance from the spine. So again, move
让这个距离脊柱近一些 这个远一些 让你的肩膀看起来有一个转动
this one a little bit closer, move this one a little bit farther, to show that twisting
因为只有肩膀在转动 不是脊柱
of the shoulders, because it’s only the shoulders that are twisting. It’s not the spine. And
这样的话 你就可以展现出斜方肌的肌群了 然后把斜方肌延伸到这儿
that way, you can show the bunching of the trapezius here, and the stretching of the
另外就是 第一幅图的胸腔看起来
trapezius here. Another thing in the first one is the rib cage looks like it’s really
这里有点大 这里又有点小 我不知道你为什么犯同样的问题
big here and really small here. I’m not sure why you have that symmetry issue. And I’m
我在第二幅图看到了同样的问题 我们来看下左边的问题
seeing the same thing on number two. We are looking more from the left, and so this left
左边的肩膀应该比右边的肩膀大一点点
shoulder should be maybe just a tiny bit bigger than the right shoulder. But it looks like
但是你的这边的锁骨明显比这边长 你可以明显看到这里的空隙要比
you’re making this longer than this. You can even see how there’s a bigger gap in here
这边的大 这看起来她的左肩要远离胸腔一些
than there is in here. It just looks like her left shoulder is farther away from the
对比右边的胸腔
rib cage than the right.
所以再说一次 就是你的对称问题 跟你第一幅图的问题一样 第三幅图看起来
So again, a symmetry issue, same as you did in the first drawing. Number three looks pretty
不错 没有看出什么大的问题 第四幅图肩胛骨没有按照透视缩短法则来
good, not seeing anything crazy off. Number four, I’m seeing the scapula is not foreshortened
你画的有些宽了 你画的宽度就跟直接看
enough. You’re drawing it pretty wide. You’re drawing it as wide as if we were looking directly
肩胛骨一样宽 但我们是从一侧看去看肩胛骨的 所以这个肩胛骨应该按照透视缩短的原则
at the scapula, but we’re looking from the side. And so this scapula is going to be foreshortened
画短一些 然后我们来看胸腔的顶部 先画一个大致的胸腔形状
quite a bit. So let’s look at the rib cage from the top. A rough shape for the rib cage.
肩胛骨应该在这里 不能直接看到后面的
The scapula is going to sit somewhere in here. It doesn’t face directly back. It’s curved
在边缘处有一点弯曲 所以应该弯向这里 这副画
just a little bit on the side, and so it points that way. This drawing in here, we’re looking
的角度我们应该从这个角度看 我们直接从这边看 看我们到底能看到多少
from this angle. We’re looking directly from the side. Look at how much we’re going to
肩胛骨 就这么多 除了其他地方 我们就只能看到这么多
see of the scapula, just that much. Out of all of this, we’re seeing only this much.
这就是应该透视的地方 所以画肩胛骨的时候
That’s how much foreshortening is happening there. So instead of drawing a scapula at
不要画的太多了就像这样 而是应该应该画的有透视立体感觉 就像这样
full width like so, instead, you would draw it very foreshortened. Something like this.
好的 希望这样你能明白
Okay, so hopefully that makes sense.
这就是关于肩部画评的总结 再一次谢谢你们 所有递交作品的人
That concludes the shoulder critiques. Again, thank you, everybody, who submitted their
谢谢你们的勇气 能把作品放给大家看 我鼓励你们每一位
assignments. Thanks for being brave and putting it out there in the public. I encourage everybody
参加课程的人 能上传你们的作品 这能帮助你们从其他人那里得到反馈
who’s participating in the course, upload your stuff. It’ll really help you to get feedback
我知道有时候 作为艺术家 我们会害怕把我们的作品拿出来
from other people. I know sometimes as artists we’re afraid to put our work out there because
因为大家会评价这些作品 但有时候你真的需要脸皮变厚一些
people are going to criticize it. But you’ve really got to grow some thick skin and put
把自己置于大众目光之下 让自己变得更好才是最终的目标
yourself out there. It’s going to help you get better. That’s the ultimate goal here.
即使在最开始的时候遭受打击 但你需要最真挚的回馈
Even if in the beginning you take some hits, you need that honest feedback in order to
目的就是要知道你哪做错了 然后要如何修改它 所以 如果你想要变成一名
see what you’re doing wrong and how to fix that stuff. So if you want to become a good
好的画家 你想要更快的成为一名好的画家 你就得接受别人的意见
artist and you want to become a good artist fast, you’ve got to get feedback. All right,
好了 我希望你们能高兴地开始学习肌肉画法 因为这将是我们下次课的内容
I hope you’re excited to move onto muscles, because that’s where we’re going to start
下次再见!
next. See you next time!
嗨 看到我最新的应用软件了吗?Skelly:为画家展示解剖模型 快登陆 proko.com/skellyapp
Hey, have you seen my new app? Skelly: The Posable Anatomy Model for Artists. Go to proko.com/skellyapp,
或者点击这个按钮 把它下载到你的IOS或是Android系统里 就这样 感谢观看
or click this button to get it on iOS or Android. That’s it! Thanks for watching. If you’re
如果你喜欢这个课程 别自私 把它告诉你的朋友们 如果你想订阅
enjoying the course, don’t be all selfish. Tell your friends. And if you want to subscribe
Proko的实时信息 来这个网站proko.com订阅吧 再见!
to the Proko Newsletter, go to proko.com/subscribe. Buh-bye!

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