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被埋没的公民权利运动英雄 – 译学馆
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被埋没的公民权利运动英雄

An unsung hero of the civil rights movement - Christina Greer

“在每个社区 我们都需要一群天使般的捣乱分子”
“We need, in every community, a group of angelic troublemakers.”
1963年8月28日
On August 28th, 1963,
小马丁•路德•金在华盛顿为争取就业和自由的游行上
Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech
发表了他的《我有一个梦想》的演讲
at the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.
那天 将近25万人聚集在国家广场
That day, nearly a quarter million people gathered on the national mall
要求结束美国各地黑人人种
to demand an end to the discrimination, segregation, violence,
仍然面临的歧视 种族隔离 暴力和经济排斥
and economic exclusion black people still faced across the United States.
没有这次游行的主要组织者——
None of it would have been possible
一个名叫贝亚德•鲁斯丁的人
without the march’s chief organizer
这一切都不可能实现
– a man named Bayard Rustin.
鲁斯丁成长于一个教友派信徒家庭
Rustin grew up in a Quaker household,
高中时开始和平抗议种族隔离
and began peacefully protesting racial segregation in high school.
他毕生都致力于和平主义
He remained committed to pacifism throughout his life,
1944年 因宗教信仰的原因 拒绝在二战中服兵役而入狱
and was jailed in 1944 as a conscientious objector to World War II.
在长达两年的监禁期间
During his two-year imprisonment,
他在监狱中抗议设立种族隔离设施
he protested the segregated facilities from within.
无论鲁斯丁去哪儿 他都会组织和倡导和平主义
Wherever Rustin went, he organized and advocated,
并不断与那些能够帮助进一步传递平等信息的
and was constantly attuned to the methods, groups, and people
方法 团体和人群保持一致
who could help further messages of equality.
他加入共产党时
He joined the Communist Party
美国黑人的公民权利还是他们优先考虑的问题之一
when black American’s civil rights were one of its priorities,
但很快他就对共产党的独裁倾向感到失望 随即离开了
but soon became disillusioned by the party’s authoritarian leanings and left.
1948年 他前往印度
In 1948, he traveled to India
学习不久前被暗杀的圣雄甘地的
to learn the peaceful resistance strategies
非暴力不合作抵抗策略
of the recently assassinated Mahatma Gandhi.
他带着
He returned to the United States armed
和平抗议的策略回到美国
with strategies for peaceful protest,
其中包括非暴力反抗
including civil disobedience.
1955年 他开始与马丁•路德•金合作
He began to work with Martin Luther King Jr in 1955,
并与他分享这些和平抗议的想法
and shared these ideas with him.
随着马丁•路德•金声望的提高
As King’s prominence increased,
鲁斯丁成为了他的主要顾问
Rustin became his main advisor,
同时也是更加广泛的民权运动的关键战略家
as well as a key strategist in the broader civil rights movement.
他将自己的组织经验
He brought his organizing expertise to
运用到1956年阿拉巴马州蒙哥马利市的公交车抵制活动中
the 1956 bus boycotts in Montgomery, Alabama
——事实上 他早在十年前就组织并参与了一场交通抗议活动
—in fact, he had organized and participated in a transportation protest
正是那场抗议活动引发了这次的抵制活动
that helped inspire the boycotts almost a decade before.
他最大规模的组织计划是在1963年
His largest-scale organizing project came in 1963,
当时他领导了华盛顿的全国游行计划
when he led the planning for the national march on Washington.
骚乱可能会伤害到游行者
The possibility of riots that could injure marchers
破坏他们和平抗议的信息 这是一个巨大的担忧
and undermine their message of peaceful protest was a huge concern.
鲁斯丁不仅联合特区警察和医院共同准备游行
Rustin not only worked with the DC police and hospitals to prepare,
还组织和培训了一支由2000名安全执法官组成的志愿部队
but organized and trained a volunteer force of 2,000 security marshals.
尽管鲁斯丁将活动组织得熟练
In spite of his deft management,
但由于他是同性恋的原因
some of the other organizers did
其他一些组织者不希望鲁斯丁
not want Rustin to march in front
和其他来自南方的领导人一起游行
with other leaders from the south, because of his homosexuality.
尽管受到轻视 鲁斯丁仍然保持着注意力
Despite these slights, Rustin maintained his focus,
在游行当天
and on the day of the march
他在针对约翰·F·肯尼迪总统的演讲中
he delivered the marchers’ demands in a speech directed
表达了游行者们的要求
at President John F. Kennedy.
游行进展顺利 没有发生任何暴力事件
The march itself proceeded smoothly, without any violence.
且游行帮助通过了1964年的《民权法》
It has been credited with helping pass the 1964 Civil Rights Act,
结束了公共场所的种族隔离
which ended segregation in public places
禁止了就业歧视
and banned employment discrimination,
同时1965年的《选举权法》
and the 1965 Voting Rights Act,
禁止了歧视性投票行为
which outlawed discriminatory voting practices.
尽管工作了几十年
In spite of his decades of service,
鲁斯丁在某些政治问题上的立场在他的同僚中并不受欢迎
Rustin’s positions on certain political issues were unpopular among his peers.
一些人认为他对越南战争的批评不够
Some thought he wasn’t critical enough of the Vietnam War,
或是太急于与包括总统和国会在内的
or that he was too eager to collaborate with the political establishment
政治建制派合作
including the president and congress.
一些人对他以前的共产主义者身份感到不爽
Others were uncomfortable with his former communist affiliation.
但最终 无论是他对与政府合作的信念
But ultimately, both his belief in collaboration with the government
还是他加入共产党的动机
and his membership to the communist party had been
都是他希望最大限度地
driven by his desire to maximize tangible gains
为美国黑人争取切实的自由
in liberties for black Americans,
而且是尽快争取到切实的自由
and to do so as quickly as possible.
鲁斯丁在20世纪60 70年代忽略了几个重要职位
Rustin was passed over for several influential roles in the 1960s and 70s,
但他从未停止过他的行动主义
but he never stopped his activism.
上世纪80年代
In the 1980s,
他公开承认出柜 直到1987年去世之前
he publicly came out as gay, and was instrumental
他一直致力于唤起人们对艾滋病危机的关注
in drawing attention to the AIDS crisis until his death in 1987.
2013年 华盛顿大游行50年后
In 2013, fifty years after the March On Washington,
美国总统巴拉克·奥巴马追授他
President Barack Obama posthumously awarded him
总统自由勋章
the Presidential Medal of Freedom,
称赞鲁斯丁 “朝着真正的平等迈进
praising Rustin’s “march towards true equality,
无论我们是谁或我们爱谁”
no matter who we are or who we love.”

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视频概述

鲁斯丁,公民权利运动的幕后英雄。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

PyroPigeon⁶

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NJcUnXTaCgU

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