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柏拉图的《理想国》介绍 – 译学馆
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柏拉图的《理想国》介绍

An Introduction to Plato's The Republic - A Macat Politics Analysis

欢迎来到Macat网多媒体系列
Welcome to the Macat Multimedia Series.
一则关于柏拉图《理想国》的Macat网分析
A Macat Analysis of Plato’s The Republic.
一个理想的国度长什么样子?它是如何运作的?
What would an ideal state look like – and how would it work?
在柏拉图的名著《理想国》中 这位希腊哲学家提供了一种思路
In Plato’s famous text, The Republic, the Greek philosopher offered a vision for an
即一种全新的社会结构-一个被他叫做”Kallipolis”的乌托邦
entirely new form of social structure and government – a utopia that he termed a “Kallipolis”
亦即美丽的城市
– or beautiful city.
对柏拉图而言 这种理想社会能够保证公正性
For Plato, the ideal society offered the guarantee of justice and would be ruled over not by
不是由专制君主而是一个全能的哲学家国王统治
a tyrant, but by an all-powerful Philosopher-King.
不过到底怎么建立一个Kallipolis呢?
But how does one create a Kallipolis?
这样的一个乌托邦社会真的可实现吗?
And is such a utopian society achievable?
想象一下一群陌生人遭遇海难
Imagine that a group of strangers become shipwrecked.
这些人已无获救希望 他们必须在一座孤岛上
There is no hope of them being rescued, and they must start a new society on a desert
建立一个新的社会
island.
除去和他们一起旅行的朋友和家人
Apart from the friends and family they have been travelling with, the shipwrecked have
海难幸存者们完全不知道应该相信谁
no sense of who they can trust.
每个个体或群体都开始收集食物 建立栖身处
Each individual or group of individuals start to collect food and build shelter to ensure
来保证能活下来
they stay alive.
但是在个体或群体间并不存在明确的合作或协商
But there is no clear cooperation or coordination amongst individuals or groups.
结果就是 这个社会没有效率 反而处于一个无政府的状况
As a result, there is no efficient society, but instead an anarchic situation with people
所有人都做着相同的工作 往往还做不好
all doing the same tasks – often badly.
在这种情况下 没有人获益 生活也远不如意
In this situation, nobody benefits and life is far from good.
每个人都寻找着最佳的地点建造栖身处
Each person searches for the best place to build their shelter.
由于好的位置实在太少 社会成员间出现纷争
With very few good spots available, disputes arise between individuals.
这就加剧了群体内的矛盾 并且削弱了
This increases the potential for serious inter-group conflict and diminishes the safety of the
整个社会的安全系数
overall society.
更强势的群体开始将他们的意志施加于更弱势的群体
The stronger groups start imposing their will on the weaker ones.
在这样一种不如意的状况下 柏拉图则提议一种全新的社会秩序
In place of such an undesirable situation, Plato would suggest a totally new type of
它是由高度构建化和有计划的直线型组成的
social order – one constructed along highly structured and planned lines with the aims
目标是最小化腐败和最大化公正
of minimising corruption and maximising justice.
幸运的是 这群海难幸存者也是这么想的 于是情况开始好起来
Luckily, the shipwrecked society has the same idea – and things begin to change.
他们结盟到一起合伙经营资源
They band together to pool their resources.
现在浪费的精力少了 所有的设施都被平等分享
Now, less energy is being wasted and utilities are all shared equally.
在这样的社会结构下 劳动通过能力分配
Under this social structure, there is a division of labour according to capability.
善渔者渔
Those who are good at fishing will fish.
善烹者烹
Those who are good at cooking will cook.
然后柏拉图则补充说明 让那些看重公正和真理的人来统治
And, Plato would add, those who valued justice and truth would rule.
他们将承担哲学家国王的角色
They would assume the role of ‘philosopher kings’, and take control of directing the
把控资源和岛上人民的政治努力的主导
resources and political efforts of those living on the island.
柏拉图相信一个社会一旦到达这样的发展阶段
Plato believed that once a society had reached this state of development, the entire community
整个集体不仅能获得生活质量的提升
would not only be capable of attaining an improved standard of living, but would also
还将获得政治和睦和社会公正
attain political harmony and social justice.
《理想国》是在政治理论和哲学的范式方面
The Republic is one of the most influential and important works in the canon of political
最有影响力也最重要的著作之一
theory and philosophy.
一则对其理念的更详细检验可以在”Macat网分析”栏目中找到
A more detailed examination of his ideas can be found in the Macat Analysis.

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