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一个小行星不能使恐龙灭绝,一个新的理论说明了是什么导致的 – 译学馆
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一个小行星不能使恐龙灭绝,一个新的理论说明了是什么导致的

An Asteroid Didn’t Kill the Dinosaurs, Here’s a New Theory About What Did

一组科研人员声称导致恐龙灭绝的那颗陨石
A group of scientists is saying that the asteroid impact that killed off the dinosaurs might’ve
可能造成了比我们想象中还要大的影响!
changed the world far more than we realized!
大约6600万年前 一颗10千米宽的陨石撞击了尤卡坦半岛
Some 66 million years ago, a 10-kilometer-wide asteroid hit the Yucatan Peninsula and the
它所引起的全球效应杀死了四分之三的物种 包括恐龙和很多
global effects killed more than three-quarters of all species, including dinosaurs and many
栖息海洋的生命
ocean-dwelling life forms.
直接引起的灾难有地震 海啸和火山喷发
The immediate aftermath was earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, as well as vaporized
还有汽化了的石块被喷到很高的地方又落下来
rock launched high above the surface that heated as it fell back to Earth, sparking
极速升温在陆地上引发一片火海
fires.
这些大火就是改变气候 导致多种物种灭绝的主要元凶!
And these fires are what changed the climate and decimated most living things!
根据这个新模型:全球大火引发的煤烟在阳光下升温
According to this new model: Soot from the global wildfires was heated by the Sun and
升到高至大气层的地方
lofted high into the atmosphere.
然后形成了一道无法穿透 包围全球的障碍
There, it created an impenetrable barrier around the globe.
想象一下吧…
Just picture it…
一个行星在正午都像有月光映照的晚上一样黑
The planet is as dark as a moonlit night in the middle of the day, meaning little to no
这意味着几乎没有光合作用
photosynthesis.
所有没被大火烧死的植物也全都死了
Any plants not killed by wildfires are dead.
海洋食物链的关键–浮游植物–消逝了
Then the lynchpin of the ocean food chain — phytoplankton — is gone.
所有以这些植物为食的物种也就灭绝了
All the species that rely on these for food are dead.
大气煤烟导致全球面表的温度在陆地上降了足足28摄氏度
The atmospheric soot causes global surface temperatures to drop by as much as 28 Celsius
海洋上降了11度
over land and 11 over the oceans.
而大气煤烟仍继续吸收着阳光 使平流层升温
But the soot in the atmosphere keeps absorbing sunlight, heating the stratosphere, sucking
吸干了水蒸气 破坏了臭氧层
up water vapour, and destroying the ozone.
最终大气层干净了 没有了煤烟 但仅仅经过一年的黑暗
Eventually the atmosphere is cleared of soot, but only after a year of darkness, and then
环境就急剧退化
the environment is decimated.
这不是一个可以称之为家的星球了
This is not a planet to call home.
令人惊叹的是 这种模式表示少量煤烟就能让这种全球破坏
Amazingly, this model shows it doesn’t take a lot of soot for this kind of global devastation
发生
to happen.
一个情景模拟仅仅用了50亿吨煤烟 大概只有科学家们想象中
One simulation used just 5 billion tons of soot, about a third of what scientists think
的三分之一会在效应后产生
was actually produced after the impact.
只是这个模拟并没有完全复刻地球6.6千万年前的样子
But this simulation isn’t exact to how the world was 66 million years ago.
但即使如此 这仍然是一个严峻的猜想
Still, it’s a sobering thought.
正如核战或者一个更小的效应不会有这么大的影响
While nuclear warfare or a smaller impact wouldn’t have the same effects, either would
让大气里有足够油烟 使地表温降 上层大气升温
still put enough soot into the atmosphere to cool the surface and heat the upper atmosphere,
有这么大的潜力改变全球气候 以至于清扫掉多重物种
potentially changing the global climate enough to wipe out multiple species.
说到灭绝了像恐龙这样的物种 恐龙到底是什么颜色的呢?
Speaking of wiping out species like dinosaurs, what colour were dinosaurs really?
在这个视频里我们深入回答了这个问题 就在这
We dug into it in this episode right here.
让我们知道你们还想让我们回答什么有趣的科学问题
Let us know what other interesting science questions you’d like us to answer in the
请记得喜欢这个视频 订阅更多Seeker哦!
comments, be sure to like this video, and subscribe for more Seeker.

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小行星还不足以使恐龙灭绝,究竟是什么有这么大的毁坏力量?答案就在我们身边。

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旖旎う

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VrbqkeB4UqE

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