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自我心中的反英雄

An anti-hero of one's own - Tim Adams

文学批评家Northrop Frye发现
Literary critic Northrop Frye once observed
在我们最蒙昧原始的时代,我们的文学巨人们—对,像不食人间烟火的神仙一样
that in our primitive days, our literary heroes were — well, nearly gods,
然后伴随着文明的进步,他们开始从圣坛坠落,可以说,
and as civilization advanced, they came down the mountain of the gods, so to speak,
他们变得更加有血有肉,也存在着缺陷而不是完美的英雄形象。
and became more human, more flawed, less heroic.
从像大力神那样神圣的英雄
From the divine heroes like Hercules,
到神坛下那些神奇的凡人英雄像贝奥武夫
down the mountain below the miraculous but mortal heroes such as Beowulf,
伟大的领导者就像亚瑟王
the great leaders such as King Arthur,
伟大却有缺陷的英雄就像麦克白、奥赛罗
and the great but flawed heroes like Macbeth or Othello.
甚至那些开始没有希望但最终成为英雄的哈利波特
Below even the unlikely but eventual heroes such as Harry Potter,
天行者卢克还有Hiccup,
Luke Skywalker, or Hiccup,
直到我们到达最底遇见反英雄
until we reach the bottom and meet the anti-hero.
和听起来的相反 反英雄的人不是坏人也不是敌人
Contrary to the sound, the anti-hero is not the villain, not the antagonist.
很多反英雄的人其实是一些当代文学作品中的主人公
The anti-hero is actually the main character in some contemporary works of literature.
“华氏451”里的孟泰格,《1984》里的温斯顿·史密斯
Guy Montag in ‘Fahrenheit 451,’ Winston Smith in ‘1984,’
不知不觉中向掌权者发起挑战的人——就是
who unwittingly ends up challenging those in power — that is,
那些滥用权力给大众洗脑的人 他们让大家相信社会之病已被根除
those who abuse their power to brainwash the populace to believe that the ills of society have been eliminated.
理想情况下,那些挑战当权者的人应该是智慧的,自信的,勇敢的,
Ideally, those who challenge the establishment should be wise, confident, brave,
身体强壮的,让人们追随你的魅力。
physically strong, with a type of charisma that inspires followers.
然而,反英雄,却是更好的描述出了一些未被发掘的人性
The anti-hero, however, at best demonstrates a few underdeveloped traits,
最坏情况下,这简直是种无能的表现
at worst, is totally inept.
反英雄的故事通常会这样展开
The story of the anti-hero usually unfolds something like this.
最开始 反英雄认可 不在意的接受了权威者的观点
The anti-hero initially conforms, ignorantly accepting the established views,
是名典型的 盲目的 被洗脑的社会成员
a typical, unquestioning, brainwashed member of society.
反英雄挣扎着去认同 然而 突然某天 他开始了抗拒
The anti-hero struggles to conform, all the while starting to object,
也许是某个墙外的人回答了他的疑问
perhaps finding other outsiders with whom to voice his questions,
并且很傻很天真的与一个代表权威的人物分享了这些疑问
and naïvely, unwisely, sharing those questions with an authority figure.
反英雄变成了公开挑战社会
The anti-hero openly challenges society,
他尝试去与压迫平民的谎言与阴谋做斗争
and tries to fight against the lies and tactics used to oppress the populace.
到这个阶段 反英雄成长为一位勇敢 机制和人英雄般的反对派
This step, for the anti-hero, is seldom a matter of brave, wise and heroic opposition.
也许结局会是反英雄成功摧毁了压迫政府
Maybe the anti-hero fights and succeeds in destroying the oppressive government,
这需要大量非凡的运气
with a lot of impossible luck.
也许他或她最终逃走了 来日再战
Perhaps he or she runs away, escapes to fight another day.
大部分情况是 反英雄被干掉了 或者
All too often though, the anti-hero is killed, or brainwashed
重新被洗脑回归到那个无差别的大众群体
to return to conformity with the masses.
没有英雄式的胜利 没有勇敢的个体站出来对抗现代世界的冷酷机构
No heroic triumph here, no brave individual standing up against impersonal institutions of a modern world,
激励他人去战斗 或者机制的夺取邪恶帝国的武装
inspiring others to fight, or resourcefully outwitting and outgunning the massive army of the evil empire.
我们讲故事的祖先们通过
Our storytelling ancestors calmed our fears of powerlessness
赋予大力神或其它英雄足够的力量来与恶魔们斗争 以此平复对无力的恐惧
by giving us Hercules and other heroes strong enough to fight off the demons and monsters
与那些夜晚在我们营火外游荡的魔鬼们战斗
that we suspected haunted the night beyond our campfires.
然而 最终我们意识到 恶魔并不在那里
But eventually, we realized the monsters did not lie out there,
它们其实就在我们心里
they reside inside of us.
贝奥武夫的最大敌人是死亡
Beowulf’s greatest enemy was mortality.
奥赛罗的是嫉妒
Othello’s, jealousy.
Hiccup,自我怀疑
Hiccup, self-doubt.
华氏45度里的蒙塔格,以及1984里的韦斯顿史密斯
And in the tales of the ineffectual anti-hero, in the stories of Guy Montag and Winston Smith,
就体现了当代讲故事的人会着力表现的非常原始的恐惧
lie the warnings of contemporary storytellers playing on very primitive fears:
我们还不够强大到可以战胜恶魔们
that we are not strong enough to defeat the monsters.
在这个时候 恶魔们不仅在营火边追逐着我们 还有在我们心里点起了自己的营火。
Only this time, not the monsters chased away by the campfire,but the very monsters who built the campfire in the first place.

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MEjgDeSnBMs

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