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Amphiterra:青蛙占领世界

'Amphiterra' Explained | Speculative Biology

Curious Archive
《好奇归档》
Hypothetical question for you:
问你个假设性问题:
what if frogs ruled the Earth?
如果青蛙统治地球会怎样?
Not just in terms of numbers
不仅就数量而言
but in terms of their position in the ecosystem.
更就其在生态系统中的地位而言
Amphiterra is a speculative biology project by the
由有才华的艺术家兼作家Roxy Valdez创办的Amphiterra
talented artist and writer Roxy Valdez,
是一个假想的生物学项目
which imagines the incredible and surreal forms frogs might achieve
该项目猜测如果给青蛙一个完美的进化环境
if given the perfect environment to evolve.
它们可能会进化出不可思议的超现实形态
While the world of Amphiterra often looks like an alien planet,
尽管Amphiterra的世界常常看上去像外星球
the artist imagines it’s actually an alternate timeline of Earth,
艺术家猜想这实际上是地球的另一条时间线
where subtly different climatic conditions
在那里 气候条件的微妙差异
led to early amphibians outcompeting
导致早期两栖动物在竞争中战胜了
the first dinosaurs and protomammals.
初代恐龙和原始哺乳动物
What creatures will develop and thrive in this drastically different history?
在这段截然不同的历史中 哪些生物会发展壮大呢?
For this entry into the archive,
本期《好奇归档》
we’ll be exploring the fascinating possibilities of the Amphiterra project
我们将探索Amphiterra项目迷人的可能性
And remember to support Roxy Valdez
若你是这个项目的粉丝 记得点击下方链接
on Patreon using the links below if you’re a fan of this project.
在Patreon上支持Roxy Valdez
Now let’s leap back 252 million years,
现在让我们回到2.52亿年前
and begin our tour through the timeline of Amphiterra…
开启穿越Amphiterra的时光之旅……
Our epic tale of frog ascendency begins in the early Triassic,
青蛙统治的史诗传奇始于三叠纪早期
with the oldest member of the frog lineage: the diminutive Triadobatrachus.
青蛙家族最古老的成员:小型三叠蛙
This amphibian is present in our timeline as well,
这类两栖动物在我们的时间线里也出现了
but in the alternate world of Amphiterra,
但在另一个世界Amphiterra中
the wetter, damper conditions will lead Triadobatrachus to be better suited for the period
更潮湿的环境使三叠蛙比早期合弓纲和爬行动物
than early synapsids and reptiles.
更好地适应这一时期
As a result, its descendants will rise to the top of this primordial Earth.
最终 它的后代将站在原始地球的生物链顶端
By the Late Triassic in what is now Nigeria,
到了三叠纪晚期 在如今的尼日利亚
the Common Eofrog has emerged from the Triadobatrachus
始祖蛙从三叠蛙进化而来
and represents the first major deviation from our world.
代表着相对于我们世界的首次重大偏离
Brought on by the ideal conditions of this alternate timeline,
这条时间线的理想环境下孕育的始祖蛙
the Eofrog is, essentially, just a big frog.
本质上只是一种巨蛙
But over many eons,
然而历经亿万年
it will provide the anatomical basis for the most significant species of this alternate reality.
它将为另一个世界最重要的物种提供解剖学基础
The reign of the amphibians has now begun.
现在两栖动物的统治已然开启
By the early Jurassic, the descendants of the Eofrog have evolved to
到了侏罗纪早期 始祖蛙的后代已进化到
fill various major niches across the ecosystems of the world.
遍布世界生态系统的各种主要生态位
In the marshy plains, an effective predator has emerged
在沼泽平原 一种高效捕食者出现了
in the form of the amusingly named Greater Moistboy.
它有个有趣的名字 大湿地蛙
While these lifeforms have a comical appearance,
尽管这些生物有着滑稽的外表
the advance they represent is tremendous,
但其代表的进步是巨大的
having brought their limbs under their body to be taller and faster than their competition.
身体下的四肢让它们比竞争者更高更快
The Moistboy also possess an enlarged clavicular ring,
湿地蛙还有一个放大的锁骨环
which essentially functions like a ribcage
基本功能与肋骨相似
and helps support their growing weight.
有助于支撑其不断增长的体重
Many of the most successful predators of the future will branch off from this design.
未来很多顶端的捕食者们都将是这种形态的分支
In the rainforests of what is now Northern Africa,
在雨林中(现位于北非)
the Marbled Snapapple perches on a branch.
大理石纹树行蛙栖息在树枝上
This early tree-dweller has evolved a creeping, unpredictable form of movement
这种早期的树栖生物进化出了难以预料的爬行方式
convergent with our timeline’s chameleons,
与我们时间线上的变色龙趋同
and will serve as a foundation for various unusual offshoots.
它将充当各种独特分支的根基
Already it is becoming more sedentary
树行蛙越来越适应定居的生活方式
a lifestyle that will continue until it reaches truly extreme levels.
这一方式将延续下去直到真正达到极致
In the forests of what is now Eastern Africa,
在森林中(现位于东非)
another major tree climbing species has emerged in the Lanky Frogget.
另一种主要的爬树物种长腿蛙出现了
While they still spend some time on the forest floor,
尽管有些时候仍生活在森林的地面上
these thin, long-legged organisms are expert climbers,
这些瘦小的四肢纤长的生物也是攀爬高手
patiently navigating from branch to branch.
耐心地在树枝间爬行
Even more than the Snapapple,
长腿蛙的后代甚至比树行蛙
the Froggets descendants will be the champions of the world’s canopy.
更可能成为这一世界树冠上的王者
And the last major niche filled is that of the grazing herbivore,
最后一个主要生态位 遍布着食草动物
which is currently occupied by the Lowland Dogus.
目前由低地蛙占据主导地位
These heard dwelling lifeforms are cousins of the Greater Moistboy,
这些传说中的生物是大湿地蛙的近亲
and have similarly made the critical advancement of raising their frame off the ground.
在脱离地面限制方面同样取得了关键性进展
A wide range of future herbivorous megafauna
随着各种始祖蛙后代的多样化和数量增长
will owe their evolutionary ancestry to the Dogus
未来大范围内的巨型食草动物
as the various Eofrog descendants continue to diversify and expand in number.
则将其进化始祖追溯至低地蛙
On the dry plains of the Cretaceous period,
在白垩纪时期的干燥平原上
a mighty predator comes to rule.
一种强大的掠食动物开始统治平原
The Bullpronks are the descendants of the Greater Moistboy
公牛食肉蛙是大湿地蛙的后代
and have become efficient pack predators.
已经成为高效的群体掠食者
They hunt grazing animals in coordinated prides,
它们成群结队地猎杀食草动物
much like lions in our modern day.
与现代的狮子十分相似
To communicate while on patrol,
在巡逻时为了交流
Bullpronks can raise and lower their tails like signal flags,
公牛食肉蛙会像摇信号旗般上下摆动尾巴
and even flush them with color.
甚至会让尾巴变红
These tails are actually a retained trait from their tadpole stage,
这些尾巴实际上是蝌蚪时期保留下来的特征
showing these lifeforms have had to get creative
表明这些生物不得不发挥创意
to take over niches typically unassociated with amphibians.
才能占据通常与两栖动物无关的生态位
And speaking of getting creative, in the misty rainforests of the north,
说到发挥创意 在北部多雾的雨林中
the Mottled Suckerlump is a creature whose specialized lifestyle has
斑点吸盘蛙作为一种生物 其特殊的生活方式
caused a tremendous shift in its body plan.
使它的身体结构发生了巨大变化
Even more than their ancestors the Marbled Snapapples
甚至超越了其祖先大理石纹树行蛙
these animals are incredibly inactive,
这些动物异常地不活跃
with some spending their entire adult life rooted to a single branch
有些整个成年期都扎根在一根树枝上
like an amphibious barnacle.
就像两栖藤壶一样
As with our timeline’s flatfish,
和我们时间线里的比目鱼一样
their anatomy seems absurd,
它们的解剖结构似乎很荒谬
yet is actually perfectly suited for their methods of survival.
但实际上非常适合其生存方式
The Suckerlump’s lifestyle requires few calories,
吸盘蛙的生活方式几乎不需要消耗卡路里
so they can subsist on the insects that come into the range of their projectile tongue.
它们以进入其舌头攻击范围的昆虫为生
And with their characteristic mottled coloring,
由于其特有的斑驳色彩
they can hide effectively from their pray,
它们能有效地躲避天敌
until it’s too late.
直到为时已晚
And further along into the Cretaceous,
再往前到白垩纪
an even stranger variant of the Suckerlump will emerge under the waves.
一种更奇特的吸盘蛙的变体将在海浪下诞生
The Tropical Frondle can be found nestled in the underwater shallows,
热带蛙被发现栖息于水下的浅滩
and has a truly bizarre lifestyle.
有着非常奇特的生活方式
Beginning as a free-swimming tadpole,
最初是自由游动的蝌蚪
once they mature, they never develop limbs,
一旦成熟 它们就会停止四肢发育
becoming completely stationary filter feeders.
成为完全静止的滤食动物
This lifestyle requires little brain power,
这种生活方式无需脑力
so like soft bodied “sea squirts” of our timeline,
就像我们时间线上的软体“海鞘”一样
Tropical Frondle shockingly digest most of their brains upon reaching adulthood
骇人的是 成年后热带蛙会消化大部分的大脑
repurposing the valuable proteins elsewhere.
将这些有价值的蛋白质用到其它地方
The Frondle’s most characteristic adult feature is their highly derived tongue,
热带蛙最典型的成年特征是其高度进化的舌头
which has evolved sticky branches
舌头进化出了粘性的分支
to catch the planktonic organisms it survives on.
来捕捉其赖以为生的浮游生物
At this point in the timeline,
在这一时间点上
some creatures have clearly become unrecognizable as amphibians.
有些生物显然很难被辨认为两栖动物了
And high in the treetops around the same period,
大约同一时期 在高高的树顶
a frog with an equally bizarre body plan makes its home.
一种同样有着奇怪身体结构的青蛙在此安家
The Tree Frixel is a descendent of the Lanky Frogget,
猿蛙是长腿蛙的后代
the other tree-dwelling specialist that emerged alongside the Snapapple.
是和树行蛙同期出现的另一个树栖专家
The Tree Frixel is even better adapted for the trees,
猿蛙甚至更好地适应了树上环境
however, with a body plan that at first seems implausibly awkward,
然而 它的身体结构初看令人难以置信的尴尬
but makes perfect sense when the Tree Frixel is in its element.
但从它的栖息地看来却十分合理
Like our primates, Tree Fixels swing through the canopy above
和灵长类动物一样 猿蛙在树冠上腾挪跳跃
with their hindlimbs perfectly positioned to navigate from branch to branch,
其后肢的位置非常适合在树枝间穿行
as this biomechanical visualization illustrates.
正如这张生物力学可视化演示图所示
As a result, the Tree Frixels have developed thumb-like digits,
最终 猿蛙进化出了拇指般的脚指
and a general rise in cognitive ability.
和普遍提高的认知力
Given time,
假以时日
they may give rise to something truly special.
它们可能会带来一些真正特别的东西
One relative of the Frixel
猿蛙的一位近亲
will take a very different path than its tree climbing cousins.
将会走上与它的爬树表亲截然不同的道路
In the forests of our timeline’s Central America,
在我们时间线上是中美洲 那时是森林
you might spot a Gliding Alloo.
你可能会看到一只滑翔蛙
Thus far in the Amphiterran timeline,
迄今为止 在Amphiterra的时间线上
amphibians have yet to conquer the skies in the way our birds or bats have,
两栖动物还没能像鸟类或蝙蝠那样征服天空
as their ectothermic, low metabolism bodies
由于它们变温的 低代谢的身体
aren’t well equipped for the rigors of powered flight.
无法满足动力飞行所需严苛条件
But the Alloo has found a loophole.
然而滑翔蛙找到了一条出路
To hunt, it climbs up trees
为了捕猎 它会爬上树
and uses eyes rotated almost to the back of its head
眼睛几乎旋转到后脑勺
to calculate the distance of its prey.
以便计算猎物的距离
Once a target is locked, the Alloo leaps back first towards the forest floor
一旦锁定了目标 滑翔蛙会第一时间跳回森林地面
using primitive wings
利用原始的翅膀
and a specialized sac that inflates to provide drag
和一个能充气提供阻力的特殊气囊
to slow its descent.
来减缓其下降速度
As bizarre as the Alloo’s strategy might seem,
尽管滑翔蛙的策略看起来似乎很古怪
it is not unlike the early dinosaurs,
但它与我们时间线上早期恐龙
like Archeopteryx in our timeline,
和始祖鸟实现飞行的方式
that achieved flight.
并无不同
The future may yet hold skies dominated
未来的天空也许还会
by the Alloo’s curiously inverted descendants.
由滑翔蛙会离奇转动眼睛的后代主宰
Speaking of curious descendants, at the very end of the cretaceous period,
说到奇怪的后代 在白垩纪末期
the arid grasslands will give rise to a creature
干旱的草原上将出现一种
so bizarre it’s at first difficult to comprehend.
奇怪到让人一开始难以理解的生物
This is an Inhabited Lorge,
这就是宿主蛙
a slow bulky herbivore that is the distant descendant of the Lowland Dogus.
一种缓慢而笨重的食草动物 它是低地蛙的远缘后代
At a glance, the slow-moving Lorge might seem vulnerable to predation.
乍一看 移动缓慢的宿主蛙似乎很容易被捕食
But the Lorge has its own private security in the form of the Colonial Gobolins —
但它有自己的私人保镖 那就是寄居蛙
a species that have evolved to live within the Lorge’s hump.
一种进化为生活在宿主蛙背峰内的物种
The tiny Gobolins are actually another branch of the Banded Suckerlump’s family tree,
微型寄居蛙实际上是吸盘蛙家族的另一个分支
and they have developed a close symbiotic relationship with their living nests.
它们与自己的巢穴形成了一种密切的共生关系
At the first sign of danger, the Gobolin horde will exit the Lorge,
一有危险迹象 寄居蛙群就会离开宿主蛙
and swarm the attacker until it backs off.
成群涌向攻击者直到它退却
It’s an effective strategy,
这是一种有效的策略
yet this highly specialized pairing won’t have many offshoots
但在不断变化的世界中这种高度专一化的配对
going forward in a changing world…
不会有太多进化分支……
Yet another descendant of the Lowland Dogus will continue on.
而低地蛙的另一个后裔将继续进化
Upon the cold tundra of the early Tertiary period,
在第三纪早期寒冷的冻土带上
one amphibian has found an ingenious way to survive the cold.
一种两栖动物找到了在寒冷中生存的巧妙方法
The Foaming Squander lives farther north
泡泡蛙生活得比大多数
than most amphibian megafauna can exist.
大型两栖动物能生存的地方更靠北
Yet the Squander stays warm thanks to its eponymous foam.
而正如名字中的泡沫 泡泡蛙能保持温暖
Specialized pores on the Squander’s back produce a thick, towering covering of insulating form.
泡泡蛙背部的特殊气孔形成了厚实而高耸的隔热层
This foam is similar to the mucus coating
这种泡沫类似于我们时间线上
some frogs in our timeline produce to keep their skin moist.
一些青蛙为保持皮肤湿润而覆盖在身上的粘液层
The Squander’s foam is unique, however,
然而 泡泡蛙的泡沫是独一无二的
as it traps heat within its structure,
因为这一结构中积蓄的热量
allowing the Squander to roam the polar reaches.
让泡泡蛙可以在极地区域自由徜徉
With this clever adaptation,
有了这种巧妙的适应
descendants of the Squander will be well equipped for the cooling climate.
泡泡蛙的后代将足以应对变冷的气候
To the south, another species that will have many successful descendants
在南方 另一个将有许多成功后代的物种
dominates the dry step.
向主宰干旱地带迈进一步
The Steppe Fraggon is a carnivorous behemoth
沙地蛙是一种食肉巨兽
distantly related to the nimble pack hunting Plains Bullpronk.
是敏捷的群体掠食者平原公牛食肉蛙的远亲
Now highly territorial,
如今领地意识极强的
the massive Steppe Fraggon has no need for a pack,
巨型沙地蛙已经无需群体狩猎
hunting all on its own.
完全依靠自己捕猎
But the Steppe Fraggon is actually an omnivore,
但沙地蛙实际上是一种杂食动物
with a lifestyle that could be compared to a bear,
生活方式可以比作熊
gorging itself to build fat for a winter hibernation.
不停贪婪进食为冬眠积累脂肪
As the planet continues to cool, the Fraggons will endure
随着地球持续降温 沙地蛙将继续生存下去
and will diversify in unexpected ways…
并将以意想不到的方式更加多样化……
But one creature whose fate is more mysterious
然而有一种命运更加神秘的生物
inhabits the trees of temperate environments.
栖息在温带地区的树林中
High in the canopy, the astonishing Freeple
在高高的树冠上 令人惊讶的直立蛙
live in elevated, wooden villages.
就住在这高高的木质村庄里
A descendant of the Tree Frixel,
作为猿蛙的后代
Freeple have achieved a level of intelligence roughly analogous to a human.
直立蛙已经有了与人类大致相当的智力水平
Like male frigate birds, under their chin,
像雄性军舰鸟一样 直立蛙的下巴下面
Freeple have a highly developed gular sac for communication.
有一个高度发达的喉囊 用来进行交流
But Freeple communication is highly complex,
但是直立蛙的交流是非常复杂的
with their language almost comparable to a curious form of morse code.
其语言几乎相当于一种奇怪的摩斯密码
Even more curiously, it seems the Freeple vanish from the Amphiterran timeline
更奇怪的是 在进化了几百万年后
several million years after their evolution.
直立蛙似乎在Amphiterra的时间线上消失了
What fate befell these enigmatic creatures?
何种命运降临到这些神秘生物身上了?
Did they die out,
它们是灭绝了
or given time, reach a level of advancement
还是何时 达到了某种进化程度
that allowed for a different kind of exit?
以至于长成了截然不同的样子?
We have no way to say for sure, but no matter the nature of their departure,
我们无法断言 但无论其离开的真相为何
the Freeple’s absence makes room for even stranger species.
直立蛙的消失为更神奇物种的诞生腾出了空间
By the late Tertiary,
到了第三纪晚期
an isolated island environment has given rise to a stunning lifeform.
孤岛环境孕育出了一种迷人的生物
The Splendid Fraggon is a descendant of the Steppe Fragon
绚彩蛙是沙地蛙的后裔
that has become a peaceful herbivore,
它变成了一种性情温和的食草动物
spending its day wading through swampy jungles on graceful, stilt-like legs.
每天用优雅的高跷似的大长腿在沼泽丛林中徜徉
With a vibrant coloring, a Splendid Fraggon
一只色彩艳丽的绚彩蛙
silently picking their way through their island home
默默穿过其岛上家园
would likely be a magnificent sight.
很可能是一个壮丽的景象
They feed on mushrooms that grow in this region in abundance,
它们以该地区大量生长的蘑菇为食
forgoing the omnivorous lifestyle of their ancestor…
放弃了其祖先杂食的生活方式……
On the mainland, however,
然而 在大陆上
another Fraggon descendant has taken the opposite path.
另一种沙地蛙的后裔走上了相反的道路
The Catastrophic Fraggon is the largest land-dwelling carnivore
霸王蛙是Amphiterra世界有史以来
the world of Amphiterra has ever seen.
最大的陆生食肉动物
The Catastrophic Fraggon’s rotund anatomy might seems surprising at a glance,
霸王蛙圆滚滚的身材乍一看似乎令人惊讶
as it almost looks too bulky to be able to stand.
因为它看上去笨重得几乎无法站立
Yet examining the animal’s skeleton,
而检查其骨骼
the Fragon’s center of gravity is a clavicular ring
可以看到霸王蛙的重心是个锁骨环
that began overdeveloping all the way back in the Greater Moistboy.
自大湿地蛙时期就开始过度发育
This ring acts as the lynchpin to the fraggon’s massive bulk.
这个环是支撑霸王蛙巨型身躯的关键
While the catastrophic fraggon’s reign is amazing, it’s also rather short.
虽然霸王蛙的统治是惊人的 但也相当短暂
An impending drop in temperature
即将到来的降温
will cause the age of the Fraggon to end prematurely.
将导致霸王蛙时代的提前终结
Yet one type of Fraggon, already well adapted to the cold,
而一种已很好地适应了寒冷的青蛙
will live on.
将继续生存下去
The Arctic Fraggon thrives late into the Tertiary,
极地蛙在第三纪晚期繁衍生息
protected from the cold thanks to layers of blubber and a thick hide.
得益于脂肪层和厚实的兽皮而免受寒冷的侵袭
Its most unique adaptation to stay warm, however,
然而 它最独特的保暖适应性
is the thick coating of “fur” on its underside.
是腹部一层厚厚的“毛皮”
These hairs are actually dermal papillae:
这些毛发实际上是毛乳头:
tubes of skin and fatty tissue
由皮肤和脂肪组织构成的管状物
that trap warm air against the Fraggon’s body much like fur.
它们将热气保留在极地蛙身上 很像毛皮
And since the Amphiterran ice age
由于Amphiterra的冰河期
is imagined to be less severe than our own,
被认为没有我们世界的那么严重
the Fraggons have all they need to continue to thrive.
极地蛙拥有继续繁衍所需的一切
But there are other ways of surviving the cold.
然而还有在寒冷中生存的其他方法
A short distance south, the Eon Toad are a species
在向南不远的地方 伊恩蟾蜍是一种
with a very different method of enduring the long winter months.
以截然不同的方式熬过漫长冬季的物种
The Eon Toad is actually a descendant of the Foaming Squander
伊恩蛙实际上是泡泡蛙的后代
that has traded its foaming coat for something even stranger.
它将泡沫层变成了一种更奇怪的东西
Eon Toads enter a state of hibernation that can last multiple years,
伊恩蟾蜍能进入一种持续多年的冬眠状态
enduring periods of minor freezing and unfreezing
忍受轻微冻结和解冻的时期
as it waits for the perfect spring to become active again.
只待春回大地它们便可复苏
While this type of cold protection is rarely seen in an animal,
尽管这种御寒方式在动物身上极为罕见
some plants contain cryoprotectors
但有些植物拥有低温防护器
that stop their cells from lethal shrinkage
当它们长期处于冰冻状态时
while they allow themselves to be frozen solid for long periods.
阻止了细胞的致命收缩
And on the subject of plants,
说到植物
the Eon Toad will often wake to find many types of vegetation have grown over its body,
伊恩蟾蜍醒来时常常会发现全身长满了各种植物
which can be harmful if left unchecked.
如果不加以控制会有损身体
And in the same region,
在同一区域
the final species of this timeline can be found,
可以找到这条时间线上的最终物种
which serve as an example of
它能作为一个例子
just how alien the fauna of Amphiterra can be.
说明Amphiterra的动物群可以有多独一无二
The Foaming Trogglefolk are another descendant of the Foaming Squander,
泡泡雪地蛙是泡泡蛙的另一个后代
which are quite a bit smaller than their ancestors.
体型远远小于其先祖
Incredibly, Trogglefolk live in villages
令人难以置信的是 雪地蛙生活在
constructed from their characteristic foam,
用其特有的泡沫建造的村庄里
which freeze into solid structures due to the cold.
这些泡沫因为寒冷被冻成了坚固的结构
They’re also highly communal,
它们还有高度的集群性
sculpting the foam on the bodies of family members
会将家庭成员身上的泡沫雕刻出
into regionally distinct “styles”.
区域性鲜明的“风格”
This social grooming behavior
这种社交打扮行为
is not unlike that of certain primates in our timeline,
与我们时间线上的某些灵长类动物并无不同
and shows an emerging intelligence.
展现出一种新兴的智慧
Indeed, certain communities of Trogglefolk
事实上 某些雪地蛙社群
have begun cultivating edible fungus within their nests,
已经开始在巢穴内培育食用真菌
demonstrating the beginnings of agriculture.
显示了农业的萌芽
Like the Freeple before them,
就像之前的直立蛙
Trogglefolks may rise to incredible heights…
雪地蛙可能会达到令人难以置信的高度……
Over the course of this journey,
在这段旅程中
we’ve seen pseudo-frogs rise and fall,
我们看到了伪青蛙们的起起落落
evolve incredible adaptations
进化出不可思议的适应性
and fulfill unexpected niches.
占据了出人意料的生态位
But now, we must return to our own timeline,
但现在 我们必须回到自己的时间线上
where frogs, though not quite as abundant, are still quite wonderful.
在这儿青蛙虽然数量不多 但仍很奇妙
If you enjoyed learning about Amphiterra as much as I did,
如果你像我一样喜欢研究Amphiterra
you can support Roxy Valdez on Patreon and social media
点击视频简介中的链接
using the links in the description.
在Patreon和社交媒体上支持Roxy Valdez
And as always, thanks for watching.
一如既往 感谢观看
If you enjoyed this entry, please lend your support and like, subscribe,
若你喜欢这期视频 请支持 点赞 订阅
and hit the notification icon to stay up to date on all things Curious.
点击通知图标以便时刻了解最新情况
See you in the next video.
我们下期再见

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视频概述

假如世界由青蛙统治,那会变成什么样?让我们与Roxy Valdez一起,走进神奇的Amphiterra,去了解未知的世界。

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翻译译者

panda

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pJ41WRSrrOo

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