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让你惊奇的地球科学 – 译学馆
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让你惊奇的地球科学

Amazing Earth Facts To Blow Your Mind

我们的星球真令人惊奇
Our planet is amazing.
它以107218千米每时的速度绕太阳运动
Orbiting around the sun at a whopping speed of 107,218 km/h,
对外形这么大的东西来说
that’s pretty fast for
这已经相当快了
such a big body –
尽管地球无法放在天秤上 NASA还是测出它的质量为
and though Earth can’t step on a scale – NASA calculates its mass
5972190000000000000000000千克
at 5,972,190,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg (five septillion, nine hundred seventy two sextillion,
然而
one hundred ninety quintillion kilograms). However,
我们星球的质量还在持续变化
our planet is continually gaining and losing mass.
据估计地球承载着40000公吨的灰尘
We take on an estimated 40,000 tonnes of space dust
它像个巨大的吸尘器一样
that the earth’s gravity pulls in like
通过引力把它们吸入
a giant vacuum –
这些尘埃是太阳系的遗迹 破碎的小行星
this dust is vestiges of our solar system, broken up asteroids and
和还未变成行星的物质
the matter that never turned into planets.
由于气体的缘故 地球质量减轻许多
But we lose mass largely due to gases (farting earth drawing).
如像氢气这样的气体因为太轻以至于它们以
Gases like hydrogen are so light that they are escaping
每秒3千克的速度逃离大气层
through the atmosphere at a rate
一年下来就是95000公吨
of 3 kg per second – that’s 95,000 tonnes a year.
但我们呢
But what about us?
1987年世界人口为五十亿
The human population in 1987 was 5 billion
而现在预估有76亿
and it is now estimated at 7.6 billion!
那我们的身体以及所有
Do our bodies and all the structures we put
我们的地表建筑
on the surface of the earth affect the mass
影响了地球的质量吗 并没有
of the planet? Well no,
因为我们都有地球现有的物质构成
because we are actually made up of existing matter on the planet.
那个物质就是原子
That matter is atoms –
目前已经鉴定出118种不同的元素
and we’ve been able to identify 118 different kinds (elements)
但我们人类的90%是仅由三种元素构成
but what makes up 90% of us is just 3 elements:
氧占65% 碳占18.5% 氢占9.5%
oxygen (65%), carbon (18.5%) and hydrogen (9.5%).
它们中的两种构成了对生命至关重要的液体:水
Two of those elements make up the liquid vital for life: water.
地球的海洋覆盖面积占70%
Our oceans cover 70% of the planet.
最深的马里亚纳海沟据测量有10994米
At its deepest depth the Mariana Trench is measured at 10,994m –
如果把珠穆朗玛峰放进沟底
for context if you put the base of Mount Everest at the bottom of the Trench,
山顶距水面还有1.6千米的距离
the peak would still be 1.6km underwater.
海洋仍旧是大谜团
Our oceans are still largely a mystery –
毕竟目前只有5%被开发
with only 5 % of it explored.
有更多的知识有助于我们更好的了解
With more knowledge we could better understand
深海章鱼是怎样
how the Deep-Sea Octopus (Graneledone boreopacifica)
拥有有史以来最长的孵卵期
had the longest egg-brooding period ever recorded.
这位坚定的母亲在蒙特利湾
This committed mama located in Monterey Bay wrapped her arms
用她的臂弯围住她160个蛋
around her 160 plus eggs,
来保护它们53个月之久且从未进食
protecting them for 53 months without eating the entire time,
她是如何存活这么久的
how she survived so long
仍旧是未解之谜
is still a mystery.
同样令人吃惊 弓头鲸可以活150-200岁
Similarly inspiring – the bowhead whale can live to be 150-200 years old!
2007年 一只弓头鲸
In 2007, a Bowhead whale
被发现游泳时鲸脂中嵌入了一枚
was found swimming with an arrow-shaped harpoon fragment embedded
超过100年的箭形鱼叉碎片
in its blubber from hunters from over a centuryago.
但是最古老的动物是南极的玻璃海绵
But the oldest animal is the antarctic glass
估计有15000年历史
sponge and is estimated to be 15,000 years
比金字塔 轮子 还要古老
old – that’s older than the pyramids, olderthan the wheel.
与此同时 在陆地上
Meanwhile on land,
刚毛松是现存最古老的单株树,树龄为5067年
the Bristlecone pine is the oldest living individual tree at 5067 years.
但犹他州的潘多是一个克隆群体,有4万棵遗传相同的颤杨
But ‘The Pando’, a clonal colony of 40,000genetically identical quaking aspens in Utah
估计有8万年,被认为是一棵树
is estimated at 80,000 years old and is considered all one tree! Plants,
植物有无数种自卫策略
have a myriad of strategies to defendthemselves.
最近的一项研究显示,一些通过引发一系列事件
A recent study revealed that some cope with being eaten by setting
来应对被吃掉的问题 这些事件导致他们长得更大
off a molecular chain of events that causes them to grow back bigger,
从而产生更多的种子并增强化学防御
produce more seeds, and increase chemical defenses. Meanwhile,
卵石蟾蜍通过收紧身体来防御捕食者
the pebble toad defends itself from predators by tightening
它所有的肌肉基本上把它变成了一个橡皮球
all of its muscles turning it essentially into a rubber ball
可以反弹伤害
that can bounce down mountains out of harm’s way.
当手枪虾想吃零食时
When the pistol shrimp wants a snack they
它们只需咬住爪子
simply snap its claw to shoot out ‘
射出“空化气泡”来打晕/杀死猎物
cavitation bubbles ’ to stun/kill their prey.
这些气泡是由于压力快速变化
These bubbles are the formation of vapour cavities
而在水中形成的蒸汽腔
in water that happen due to the rapid pressure change.
当这些气泡破裂时 它们产生华氏8000度的温度
When these bubbles collapse, they generate temperatures of 8000 degrees fahrenheit –
与太阳表面的温度大致相同
roughly the same temperature as the sun’s surface.
说到热 嗜热细菌能在滚烫的环境中生存
Speaking of heat – the bacteria Thermophilusaquaticus can live in scalding hot environments
并能在80℃(176℉)的温度下生存
and can survive temps of 80 °C (176 °F).
对于大多数生物来说
For most organisms,
连接蛋白质的键在45℃左右开始变性
the bonds holding together the proteins we are made of begin to denature
导致蛋白质失去形状和功能
around 45°C, causing the proteins to losetheir shape and functionality.
嗜热链球菌通过产生耐热酶来绕过这一点
The Thermophilus aquaticus gets around this by producing heat tolerant enzymes
这些耐热酶增加了将蛋白质结合在一起的键的数量
that increase the number of bonds that hold the protein together.
在另一个极端 我们的星球可能是寒冷的- 89.2℃(-128℉)
At the other extreme, our planet can be frigid,−89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) being the lowest
是有记录以来最低的温度
recorded temperature.
动物以不同的方式应对冬天
Animals cope with winter in different ways.
熊选择睡眠 将心率降至每分钟10次
Where bears choose to sleep slowing their heart rate to 10 beats per minute.
而小红牙鼩鼱则会收缩自己的脑袋 将头骨和脑容量
While the tiny red-toothed shrew will shrinktheir own heads, reducing their skull and
减少20 % 以此来节省能量
brain mass by as much as 20 percent as a means to conserve energy.
我们如何生存是一回事
How we survive is one thing –
但我们对地球的贡献也很重要
but what we contribute to the planet is also significant.
虽然在你看来很明显
Though it may seem obvious to you that animals
像猫和狗这样的动物有独特的个性
like your cats and dogs have unique personalities,
但一些科学家长期以来一直拒绝这一想法
several scientists had long rejected the idea.
现在已经有证实的调查来测量黑猩猩的独特个性
Now there are confirmed surveys to measure the unique personalities
这是自然选择的产物
of chimps which are a product of natural selection.
所有这些作用都发生在地壳上
All of this action occurs on the earth ’ s crust which
按体积计算 地壳仅占地球的1 %
by volume only makes up 1 % of the earth.
我们惊人的浅蓝色圆点上有很多生命
There’s a lot of life on our amazing paleblue dot.

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地球上的生物千奇百怪

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