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火山的一切:它们如何形成、喷发还有更多 – 译学馆
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火山的一切:它们如何形成、喷发还有更多

All About Volcanoes: How They Form, Eruptions & More!

嘿 Squeaks 你知道吗 昨晚你熟睡的时候
Hey Squeaks, did you know that while you were asleep last night, a volcano off the coast
意大利的一座沿海的火山大喷发了耶
of Italy was wide awake?
斯特隆博利岛火山已经持续喷发至少2000年了
The Stromboli volcano has been awake for at least the last 2,000 years!
也就是说 它和别的火山相比 喷发时间更长
That means it’s been erupting for longer than any other volcano.
斯特隆博利岛的火山喷发很频繁 基本上没停过
Stromboli’s eruptions happen really often, practically non-stop! At night, its glowing
夜晚 火山口发出火光 让人觉着那就是个巨型灯塔
light-shows have reminded some people of a giant lighthouse.
[松鼠语]
[Squeaks squeaks]
真是个好问题一个像斯特隆博利岛的火山起初是
That’s a really good question! How does a volcano like Stromboli form in the first
怎么形成的呢
place?
在地球深处 我是说比我们的地下室还要深还要深的地方
Deep inside the Earth — and I’m talking waaaaay deeper than our fort goes — it’s
那里相当热
really hot.
热到能把组成地球的那部分岩石都融化了
It’s so hot that the rock that makes up this layer of the earth is actually melted!
那部分融化的岩石叫岩浆
It’s called magma.
有时候 岩浆可被储存在地壳下
Now, sometimes magma can collect in a pocket just beneath Earth’s surface, and if the
但如果岩浆从地壳下喷溢出来 然后碰到空气 就形成了熔岩
magma breaks through all the way to the surface and reaches the air, it’s called lava.
观众朋友们 现在你的手上就有个火山
And now, my friends, you have a volcano on your hands.
当熔岩一开始从地下喷出来的时候 它是鲜红滚烫的
Lava is bright red and very hot when it first erupts out of the ground. But soon the lava
但很快 等熔岩冷却下来 就变成了一层岩石
cools down and creates a layer of rock.
随着时间推移 流出岩浆的地点周围就会形成多层岩石堆积而成的火山堆
Over time, many layers build up around the spot where the lava came out, to form the
也就是大多数人认为的火山
mountain that many of us think of as a volcano.
如果火山持续喷发 那火山堆就还会继续变高
And if the volcano keeps erupting, it keeps growing.
随着每个火山的喷发 更多的岩浆从中部形成的管道流出
With each eruption of a volcano, more magma flows up the tube that forms in the middle,
这就是火山通道 当从顶部流出时 就是火山口
called the vent, and it comes out at the top, called the crater.
等岩浆冷却下来变成坚硬的岩石后 火山就又变高了
Then, once more, the lava cools and hardens into solid rock, and the volcano has grown!
但其实每座火山的形状和喷发都是不一样的
But not all volcanoes look, or act, the same.
火山的形状决定了岩浆是怎么从火山口喷出来的
Lava can come out of craters in different ways. It depends on the type of volcano. For
对于很多火山来说 比如斯特隆博利岛火山 岩浆就像炙热的泉水一样喷涌而出
some volcanoes, like Stromboli, lava shoots out like a fiery fountain.
当斯特隆博利岛火山这样喷发时 大块的熔岩和石块
When Stromboli erupts like this, big blocks of lava and stone can be thrown hundreds of
可能被抛到数百米远
meters away.
至于别的火山 岩浆只是从火山口慢慢溢出 就像是粘稠的糖浆
But for other volcanoes, lava just oozes out of the crater, more like a lazy syrup.
随着时间推移 这种慢慢形成的熔岩也就形成了巨大的火山
Over time, this slow-moving lava can create massive volcanoes, too.
夏威夷岛的莫纳罗亚火山就是这样的 并且它是世界上最高的火山
One volcano like this, called Mauna Loa in Hawaii, is the tallest volcano in the world.
事实上 夏威夷群岛是由火山的水下喷发形成的
And in fact, all of the islands of Hawaii are made of volcanoes that began underwater.
这过程已经持续数百万年了 随着时间推移 所有的熔岩层越堆积越高
They’ve been growing for millions of years, and over time, all of the layers of lava that
直到浮出水面
have oozed out have built up, until they reached above the surface of the ocean.
意大利的斯特隆博利火山也是这样的
Our fiery old friend Stromboli, in Italy, formed this way, too. Its whole island is
整个岛基本上就是个大火山
basically one big volcano!
你不必非要有个地下城堡来了解
So, you don’t have to have an underground fort to know that there’s a lot of amazing
这里发生了什么有趣的东西
stuff going on beneath the surface of the Earth.
一直以来都有一股不可思议的力量在塑造着我们生活的这个世界
There are incredible forces at work all the time shaping the world that we live in.
感谢收看《SciShow Kids》嘿 Squeaks 在这个火山实验喷发前
Thanks for watching SciShow Kids! Hey Squeaks! Let’s get going before one of our experiments
我们快点离开吧
erupts!

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