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给孩子们讲讲野牛

All About American Bison (aka Buffalo) for Kids - Animal Videos for Children - FreeSchool

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你正在观看《基础校园》
The American bison, commonly called the buffalo,
北美野牛通称野牛
is the largest mammal in North America.
是北美最大的哺乳动物
You can tell they are mammals
你可以看出它们是哺乳动物
because they are covered in fur, breathe air,
因为它们身上覆盖着皮毛 呼吸着空气
and they feed their babies milk.
还用母乳喂食幼崽
Although not as tall as moose,
虽然没有驼鹿那么高
bison are both longer and heavier,
但野牛既长又重
with males reaching lengths up to eleven and a half feet
公牛身长可达11.5英尺
or 3.5 meters
合3.5米
and weights of up to 1600 pounds
重量可达1600磅
or 730 kilograms.
合730公斤
Bison are herbivores,
野牛是食草动物
which means they eat plants.
也就是说它们以植物为食
They live on plains and prairies
它们生活在平原草甸
because they mostly graze on grasses,
主要吃上面的牧草
but they will also eat weeds and leafy plants,
但也吃杂草和多叶植物
and browse on shrubs and twigs.
还吃些灌木和小树枝
To fuel their huge bodies,
为了给庞大的身躯提供燃料
bison need to forage for food for 9 to 11 hours every day.
野牛每天有9到11个小时在觅食
Just like cows, bison are ruminants,
和奶牛一样 野牛也是反刍动物
which means their stomachs have four compartments.
这意味着它们的胃有四个隔间
These special stomachs help them
这些特殊的胃帮它们
to break down the grass and plants they eat.
分解所吃的草和植物
They may look like cows grazing in a field,
它们可能看起来像在草地上吃草的奶牛
but don’t let them fool you –
但别被骗了——
bison are wild animals,
野牛是野生动物
powerful and dangerous.
既强壮又危险
Both male and female bison have short, curved horns,
公野牛和母野牛都有短而弯曲的角
large heads, and heavy shoulders.
大脑袋以及强有力的肩膀
They can swim rivers more than half a mile
它们可以游过半英里
or 1 kilometer wide,
合一公里宽的河
run at speeds of up to 40 miles
时速能达到40英里
or 64 kilometers per hour,
合64公里
and jump 6 feet
能跳6英尺
or 1.8 meters up in the air.
合1.8米高
In the spring and summer,
在春夏两季
the bison come together and form large herds
野牛们会聚集在一起
with hundreds or even thousands of members.
形成数百甚至数千只的大群
It is in these herds that the baby bison,
就在这些牛群中
known as calves, are born.
被称为牛犊的小野牛出生了
This little calf has just been born
这只小牛犊刚出生
and is wobbly on its legs,
走路摇摇晃晃的
but before long
但过不了多久
it will be running along with the rest of the herd.
它就能和其他野牛一起奔跑了
Newborn calves are a light reddish-tan color.
新生的小牛呈浅红褐色
They will not turn the darker brown of their parents
它们要变成父母那样的深棕色
for more than two months.
还需要两个多月
In the winter
在冬天
bison break up into small groups of about 20 animals
野牛群会分成20只左右的小群
because it is more difficult to find food in the snow.
因为在雪地觅食更加困难
Bison use their big heads and strong shoulders
野牛们会用大脑袋和强壮的肩膀
to push snow out of the way
把雪推开
like a shovel to reach the grass below.
就像用铲子铲下面的草一样
Their thick winter coats help them to survive freezing temperatures
它们厚厚的冬衣能帮它们
that other animals cannot stand.
在其他动物无法忍受的严寒中生存下来
Bison once roamed North America in herds
北美野牛曾成群在北美游荡
numbering in the millions.
多达数百万
It’s estimated that there were about 60 million bison before the year 1800.
据估计 在1800年之前约有6千万头
Just 100 years later, in the year 1900,
但就在100年前 1900年
there were only 300 bison left.
这里仅剩300只野牛了
What happened?
发生了什么?
As settlers moved west,
随着移民西迁
they hunted and killed millions of bison,
他们猎杀了数百万头野牛
as many as they could shoot.
到他们能射杀的极限
The settlers wanted to clear the huge herds off the plains
移民们想把大群的牛群赶出平原
so that they would have room for farms and cattle.
这样他们就有地方种田放牧了
Bison fur and leather could be sold for a lot of money,
野牛皮和皮革可以卖很多钱
and even their bones could be sold as fertilizer.
甚至它们的骨头都可以作为肥料出售
There was another reason to kill the bison, too:
还有另一个猎杀野牛的原因:
the United States government wanted
美国政府希望
Plains Indians living on the Great Plains to move to reservations
生活在大平原的大平原印第安人搬到居留地去
so there would be more room for the settlers.
从而给移民更多空间
The tribes that depended on bison to survive
如果牛群都消失了
would not be able to stay if the herds were gone.
那些依靠野牛生存的部落将无法继续生存
Sadly, this plan worked.
不幸的是 这个计划起效了
By the year 1905,
到了1905年
worried that bison would go completely extinct,
人们担心野牛彻底灭绝
conservationists including Theodore Roosevelt
包括西奥多·罗斯福在内的环保主义者
founded the American Bison Society to protect
创立了美国野牛协会来保护
and preserve these huge animals.
这些巨大的动物
Today, thanks to more than 100 years of conservation efforts,
今天 由于100多年的保护努力
American bison populations have increased
美洲野牛的数量
from 300 to more than 500,000 animals,
从300到现在超过500000只
and it has been named the national mammal of the United States.
它被命名为美国的国家哺乳动物
I hope you enjoyed learning about the American bison today.
希望你今天学到了北美野牛的知识
Goodbye till next time!
下次再见!

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视频概述

简单介绍下北美野牛

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

珏珲

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zGfn7UKSnB4

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