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亚历山大大帝:后勤学 – 译学馆
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亚历山大大帝:后勤学

Alexander the Great: Logistics

一支军队能否取得胜利
An army’s logistics system has always
后勤系统至关重要
been crucial to its success
就连亚历山大的军队也不例外
and Alexander’s army was no different.
亚历山大能够取得胜利得益于
His great conquests would never have been possible
在整个战役中活跃着的成熟后勤组织
without the skilful organisation of his forces throughout his campaigns.
因此这期我们将会介绍
So, in this episode we shall cover
马其顿军队的后勤
the logistics of the Macedonian army.
我们先谈论一下古典时期希腊军队的后勤
Our story starts with the logistics of the Greek armies of the Classical period.
当国与国之间交战时
When fighting fellow city-states,
军队通常会遵循一个约定俗成的规定
the armies usually followed certain conventions.
军人们会离开家园
They would leave their home city
并行军到可以进行方阵战的场地
and travel to an agreed battleground suitable for phalanx warfare.
接着双方才会开始交战
They would then engage their enemy in battle,
一直交战到战争结束才能回家
before returning home.
军队并不想进行长时间的交战
The armies were not intended to stay out in the field for long durations.
数以千计的平民 侍从
Thousands of non-combatants, attendants,
女人和奴隶与军队一起行军
women and slaves travelled with them,
有时候陪行的人数甚至超过军人的人数
sometimes outnumberinog the soldiers.
这些人会极大地削减军队的速度和机动性
That dramatically reduced the speed and mobility,
并且每多一个人意味着要额外准备一个月的口粮
and every follower meant an extra month to feed.
而且 希腊军使用的牛车和推车
Furthermore, the Greek armies used oxcarts and wagons
无可避免地阻碍了军队长远行军的机动性和速度
and this inevitably impeded an army’s speed and mobility further.
给动物套上的用具还会给动物带来严重伤害
The throat and girth harnesses severely damaged the animals
再加上粗糙的路面阻碍运货车行动
and rough terrain easily hindered the carts.
于是这个系统后来只被用于短程慢速进程的战争
This system was therefore designed only for the short distances and slow movement.
菲利普意识到这个系统需要改变
Philip realised that things needed to change
并给马其顿后勤系统进行了一场彻底的改革
and made sweeping reforms to the Macedonian logistics system.
他旨在创建一个能够
He aimed to create a system that prioritised his army’s
以军队的持续性 机动性和速度优先的系统
sustainability, mobility and speed.
幸运如他
Fortunately for him,
菲利普有一个可效仿的前人 希腊指挥官色诺芬
Philip had a suitable precedent in the Greek commander Xenophon,
早在五十年前菲利普亚洲万人长征期间
who decided to burn his wagons to lighten the load of his army
色诺芬就决定烧毁他的运货车从而减轻军队负担
during the march of the 10,000 out of Asia some 50 years before.
这举动极大的提高了色诺芬的军队的
This greatly increased the speed and mobility
速度性和机动性 并且也是他取得胜利的关键因素
of his force and was critical to the success of his march.
或许是因为色诺芬的成功先例
Likely using Xenophon’s success as a precedent,
菲利普禁止他的军队使用牛车和推车
Philip forbade the use of ox-carts and wagons in his army.
而改用马作为优先驼物动物
Instead, he used horses as the prominent pack animal
这是西方军事指挥家首次这么做
the first time a western commander had done this.
好处也随之而来 因为军队机动性更高了
It soon provided dividends as it gave his army more mobility.
菲利普也在战役中增加了军人携带的物资
Philip also increased the amount of supplies carried by his men on campaign.
携带物资包括了武器 盔甲甚至可能还有
This included arms and armour possibly even the sarissa,
可以被分离成两部分 易于携带的萨里沙长矛
which could be detached into two sections to ease its portability.
每个军人的包里还必须自己拿着口粮 餐具 毛毯
Each soldier would also have to carry rations, utensils, blankets,
筑路工具 药品 供30天吃的面粉
road-building tools, medical supplies, a thirty-day supply of flour
及其他个人物品
and any personal possessions in a pack.
这些物资加起来大概共有八十磅重
All-together this would have weighed around eighty pounds.
为了进一步减轻后勤压力
To further lighten his baggage train,
这个马其顿国王彻底地减少了
the Macedonian king drastically reduced the number
非军人随行的人数
of non-combatants accompanying the army.
女人被禁止随行 同时侍从数量也被极大削减
Women were forbidden while the number of servants was drastically reduced.
每个骑兵只能有一个侍从 而步兵的仆人则是
Each cavalryman would have one servant, while for the infantry there
从原来的三个侍从削减为十个步兵共享一个侍从
would be one servant for every ten Macedonians.
侍从要拿着用于碾磨谷物的手磨机
These attendants would carry hand mills that were used for grinding grain
用于过桥或是攀岩的绳索 以及侍从自己用的床具和食物
gay ropes for both bridge building and rock climbing and their own bedding and rations.
这些改革使菲利普的军队不仅能够快速移动
Not only was Philip’s army now able to move quicker
还可以向对手发动闪电战
and inflict‘ lightning strikes’on opposing forces,
而且与对抗希腊军的敌军相比
but he could sustain his army in the field significantly longer
菲利普的军队更能够适应持久战
than his mainland Greek counterparts.
正如菲利普对步兵 骑兵和攻城工艺的改革一样
And so, just as with his infantry, cavalry and siege craft,
亚历山大充分利用并继承了
Alexander inherited and made use of a logistics system
已经他父亲彻底改革后的最具效率的后勤系统
that had been radically transformed into the most efficient of its time.
例如在公元前335年 为了粉碎底比斯叛乱
In 335 BC for instance, to crush a Theban revolt,
亚历山大的军队从塞凡湖行军至维奥蒂亚 全程500英里
his army marched from lake Lychnitis to Boeotia, some 500 miles
历时13天 给底比斯叛军打了个措手不及
in thirteen days catching the Theban rebels completely off-guard.
在新改革的后勤系统供应支持下
With this newly-reformed logistics system supporting and supplying his army,
亚历山大在公元前334年进攻亚洲
in 334 BC Alexander set forth for Asia.
然而攻打亚洲与攻打欧洲完全不同
Yet fighting in Asia would prove very different from fighting in Europe.
因此亚历山大很快改良了他所继承的后勤系统
Alexander therefore soon adapted the logistics system
从而适用于在战争中的遇到的新威胁
he had inherited to suit his new theatres of war.
其中逐渐成熟改善和变化的是物资运输
One such area that gradually experienced improvement and alteration was the baggage train.
穿越波斯帝国意味着
Traversing the Persian Empire meant that
亚历山大需要确保他的物资运输井然有序
Alexander needed to ensure his baggage train was well-organised.
因此就需要一个运输指挥官
Therefore a transport officer,
一个能够全权掌管物资运输过程的skoidos
a skoidos was placed in overall charge of the baggage train.
skoidos需要负责物资运输过程的防御
The skoidos would manage to the baggage train’s defences,
行军装备 运送物资动物的健康状况 并且分送物资
marching order, the welfare of the pack animals and distributing supplies.
Parmenion直到在公元前330年被执死刑前 可能都在充当这个角色
Parmenion likely filled this role until his execution in 330 BC.
物资战成功的一个关键在于驮物动物的健康状况
A critical factor for a successful baggage train was the welfare of the animals,
尽管亚历山大的军队和侍从自身携带了许多物品
and although troops or servants carried many items in Alexander’s army,
但并无法携带关键装备 例如帐篷 木柴 战利品
they could not carry critical equipment such as tents, firewood, loot,
或是当军人们不战斗时所不用的长矛
and perhaps each man’s sarissa when they did not expect to be fighting.
这些原因使得动物驮物的地位很重要
This made the beasts of burden essential.
在亚历山大军中马和驴成为了主要的驮物动物
Horses and mules remained the predominant pack animals within Alexander’s army.
尽管他也选择了其他动物 骆驼去运载物资
Yet he would also incorporate another animal to carry supplies: the camel.
在叙利亚还是埃及时骆驼被引入军队
Introduced into Alexander’s army in either Syria or Egypt,
骆驼在亚历山大的胜利中扮演着不容小觑的角色
the camel played a critical role in Alexander’s conquests.
虽然马和骡子能携带200磅的物资
While the horse or a mule carried 200 lb of supplies over a long distance,
骆驼却能运载300磅
camels were able to transport 300 lb.
骆驼对于穿越不毛之地也非常适用
They were also well-suited for traversing arid terrain,
除非真的需要 骆驼几乎不需要吃或喝
having barely any limitations on what they could eat and drink if necessary.
以上原因使骆驼成为帮助亚历山大
All that made them the ideal baggage animals
通过波斯腹地或更远地方的最佳驮物动物
for Alexander’s marches into the Persian heartlands and beyond
因为穿越险峻的荒原时速度至关重要
lands where the need for speed across harsh deserts was critical.
在东征期间
Throughout his campaigns,
马 骡子和骆驼仍是
horses, mules and camels remained the engine
亚历山大马其顿军物资运输中的引擎
of Alexander’s Macedonian baggage train.
这些动物的速度和耐力强于牛
Their speed and endurance were much greater than oxen
正好满足他对于轻便 快速行军穿越险峻荒原的要求
and this suited his desire for light, fast marches across harsh terrain.
在整个战役中 他都会雇养这些动物
He would recruit these animals throughout his campaign;
这些动物分散在全军里供应物资
they were then spread throughout his army to supply the men
动物以每dekas单位进行跟随
animals being attached to every dekas units.
但是亚历山大无法在整场战役中完全保持
Yet Alexander could not maintain this highly-mobile baggage train
物资运输的高机动性
during the entirety of his campaign.
有几回亚历山大大帝临时又使用了推车
At times, we hear of carts temporarily being reintroduced into Alexander’s army,
尤其是在伊朗
most notably in Iran.
然而 正如色诺芬以前所做的
However, just as Xenophon had before him,
亚历山大很快也烧掉了大部分推车
he soon had most of them burned
避免阻碍军队穿越恶劣地区
to avoid them hindering his army in harsh terrain.
只留下必要的一些运货车
A few carts inevitably remained and
用来运输一些极重的必要物品
were tasked with transporting certain heavier essential items
如攻城器械和伤员
most notably siege machinery and the wounded.
亚历山大想给马其顿军的物资运输做一个更关键的改变
Alexander would make one other critical change to the Macedonian baggage train.
当他的军队离地中海越来越远时
As he and his army marched further and further away from the Mediterranean,
亚历山大的军人们越来越清楚
it became clear to Alexander’s soldiers
下一次回到故乡再见到他们的妻子和孩子
that it would be many years before they could see their wives
将会是多年以后了
and children again in Macedonia.
因此亚历山大再次允许女人随行
Alexander therefore permitted women to travel with the baggage train again.
亚历山大甚至允许他的将士娶被俘虏的女性
Alexander even allowed his soldiers to marry captive women.
娶妻的军人很快有了孩子 物资运输车因此膨胀了一倍
They would have children, and the baggage train swelled in size.
尽管彻底改变了他父亲的后勤系统
Although a radical change from his father’s logistics system
并且毋庸置疑的导致行军缓慢 但这却很重要
and one that undoubtedly slowed down Alexander’s army, it was necessary.
菲利普的禁令可行是因为他的军人们
Philip’s ban had worked because his men had been able
每个战役结束后就能回到家里见他们的挚爱
to return home after each campaigning season to see their loved ones.
但是亚历山大的将士们不能
Alexander’s men could not.
尽管做了这一个改变
Nevertheless, even with this change,
整个战役中亚历山大仍旧优先考虑让军队轻装上阵
Alexander always prioritised having his army as light as possible throughout his campaigns.
对他来说 速度和机动性是关键
For him, speed and mobility were key.
对skoidos来说另一个同样重要的任务
Another equally-important task
就是给军队分配定给
of these skoidos was distributing rations to the troops
尤其是食物和水的配给
most notably food and water.
谷物是马其顿军人的主要粮食
Grain products were the major staples of a Macedonian soldier’s diet.
小麦 大麦和小米在亚洲和印度到处都有
Wheat, barley and millet, all were available throughout Asia and India.
不仅易于携带
Not only were they easily portable,
而且一旦脱水
but once these products were dried,
就能长久保存
they could be stored indefinitely.
从他们的配给里看
From their ration,
每个军人都会使用由侍从携带的石磨
each soldier would use the grinding mills carried by the servants
磨出面粉 接着做出面包
to create flour and, after that, make bread.
马其顿士兵也可能把谷物做成饼干或是做粥
It is also possible the Macedonians consumed grains in the form of biscuits and porridge.
不过马其顿士兵并没有单单只吃一种农作物
Yet the Macedonian soldiery did not live solely off grain products.
只要有可能
Whenever possible,
他们也会吃些肉干 咸鱼或一些贝类
they would also eat dried meat, salted fish and shellfish to supplement their diet.
不过肉太稀少 更常见的是各种干果
Meat, however was rare and more often the soldiers turned to various kinds of dried fruit
例如无花果和枣子
such as figs and dates,
这两样在亚洲遍地可见随时可拿
both readily available throughout much of Asia.
每个马其顿士兵都会自己拿着配给
Each Macedonian soldier would carry his food rations.
当士兵参与战役时
While he was on campaign,
配给通常会是十天的份量
these rations would usually be enough for ten days.
如果亚历山大想让军队快速行军
If Alexander wanted his troops to conduct a swift march,
那每个士兵通常携带通常已提前煮熟的食物
then the food each soldier would take with him was usually precooked,
大部分是饼干 水果如果可能的话还会有腌肉
mostly biscuits, fruit and if possible, salted meat.
由于不需要再带餐具 士兵的负重就能减轻
This lightened the soldier’s pack as cooking utensils were thus not required.
穿越亚洲对于马其顿士兵来说无疑是艰苦的
Marching through Asia was undoubtedly hard work for a Macedonian soldier.
亚洲的炎热天气 数不清的沙漠和无尽的荒原
Its consistently hot climate, countless deserts and extensive barren lands
对于带着武器盔甲和厚重行囊的
would have been extremely taxing for any Macedonian,
马其顿士兵来说无疑是雪上加霜
burdened with arms, armour and a heavy pack.
士兵们在行军亚洲过程 有时会丢弃了一些盔甲
Indeed, it appears armour was sometimes even discarded during these marches.
因此准备充足的卡路里和水至关重要
Consequently, the requirement for sufficient calories and water was critical.
有学者推测谷物的最少要有3磅的谷物
Scholars assume that a minimum of 3 lb of grain products,
这些几乎等同于1.5公斤面包的重量
the equivalent of nearly 1 ½ kilograms of bread
还有半加仑水
as well as half a gallon of water
这些是供应军队日常所需的量 大约3600卡路里
would be needed to supply the troops in these conditions daily, some 3,600 calories.
与此同时 如果想要动物保持良好状态
Meanwhile, horses and mules needed eight gallons of water
马和骡子一天需要8加仑水 10磅重的谷物和干草
and ten pounds of both grain and straw a day if they were to be kept in good condition.
至于骆驼
As for a camel,
尽管骆驼可以多天不需要喝水
although the animal could survive multiple days with barely any water,
但是如果骆驼在一天内能喝10加仑水 效率就最高
the animal was most efficient if the Macedonians gave it ten gallons of water a day.
同时也需要10磅的粮食和25磅的干草
It would also require ten pounds of grain and twenty-five pounds of straw.
但是获取物资并不简单
Yet acquiring supplies would prove anything but easy.
在亚历山大大部分的东征期间
For most of his campaigning life,
亚历山大和他的军队大多是穿梭于亚洲内陆
Alexander and his army traversed the various terrains of inland Asia,
四周危机四伏
lands on many occasions hostile to him
并且远离海和可以航行的河流
and far away from seas and navigable rivers.
这迫使亚历山大得在陆地上获取物资
This forced Alexander to acquire supplies via land.
在陆地上运输物资更难
Transporting supplies overland was fraught with difficulty.
在亚洲大陆上很难找到推车和驮物动物
there were few carts and pack-animals available in many of these regions
并且还得时刻受到土匪的威胁
and there was also the constant threat of banditry.
此外
Furthermore,
大部分东方的农耕社会并没有多余的食物
most agricultural societies in the East did not have a surplus of food
可以给予亚历山大供应他的军队
from which they could help supply Alexander’s passing army.
但是亚历山大显然找到了一个解决办法
But Alexander evidently found a solution.
最近唐纳德·恩格斯发表了一个开创性的研究
Recently, a ground-breaking study by Donald Engels
研究推断出马其顿国王是如何克服这一问题的
concluded how the Macedonian king most likely achieved this.
当他打赢高加米拉行军到美索不达米亚的时候
Upon his arrival in Mesopotamia after victory at Gaugamela,
亚历山大的能力和他军队的威名已经响彻东部
Alexander’s power and military prestige in the east became phenomenal
并且不久后残存的波斯官员提出投降
and soon many of the remaining Persian officials surrendered.
亚历山大意识到他可以依靠这个解决他的物资供应问题
Alexander realised he could use this to solve his supply problem.
他派出信使赶在军队前会见官员
He sent messengers ahead of his army to meet the officials
从而确保军队在他们地盘上的供应
to secure arrangements for the army’s supply through their territory
有时会抓取一些人质以防那些官员反悔
sometimes taking hostages to ensure the officials kept their word.
因此亚历山大才能提前确保物资运输线
Thus, Alexander secured his supply lines far in advance.
当这些官员并不投降亚历山大时
When the officials did not surrender to Alexander,
他会采取另一种办法
he took a different approach.
他会获得有关该地区的情报
He would acquire intelligence about the region
例如当地的地势 线路 气候和资源
information such as its topography, routes, climate and resources,
然后他就会选择一小队精英部队进攻这个地域进行闪电战
and he would then either launch a lightning campaign against the region with a small elite force,
让主要军力掩护在后方
keeping the main army back
或是选择将军力分散成一个一个小单位
or he would split his forces into smaller units
这些小军队会通过觅食或是抢夺当地人民来获取物资
that would gain supplies by either sacking settlements or foraging.
这种更具破坏性的做法通常用于行军波斯腹地时
These more destructive methods regularly occurred in the Persian heartlands.
在冬天的时候
During the winter months,
亚历山大会确保他的军队驻扎到土地肥沃的地区
Alexander ensured his forces remained in a heavily settled fertile area
通常靠近河流或是港口
usually adjacent to either navigable rivers or ports
这些地方容易获得物资
from where supplies could be more easily obtained.
得益于他充满远见的计划和非凡的领导力
Thanks to his forward planning and charisma,
亚历山大在他的征战生涯中
Alexander was able to find solutions to the lingering threat
总是有能力找出方法解决物资供应问题
of supply problems throughout his conquests.
他能够想出方案适用各种情况
He had a plan for every scenario.
然而百密一疏
There was however,
这个马其顿国王的准备物资计划也有过失败
one occasion when this forward planning of provisions failed the Macedonian king.
公元325年 亚历山大行军穿越Gedrosian荒原
In 325 BC Alexander marched his army across the Gedrosian desert.
这次行军牺牲了数以千计的生命
It proved the greatest logistical error of his life,
是他人生中在后勤学里犯的最大错误
costing thousands of lives.
一些人争辩这次灾难产生的原因在于亚历山大内心的渴望
Some argue this devastating crossing occurred because of the man’s pothos,
他渴望超越自己
his desire to outdo all before him,
或是为了报复他的军队早前在印度的暴乱
or out of revenge for his troops’earlier mutiny in India.
然而其他人却认为亚历山大只是单纯的
Yet others believe Alexander simply made a mistake
犯了后勤错误
in his logistical planning.
他曾希望军队由尼阿库斯指挥的海军补给
Alexander had expected his army to be supplied by the navy,
海军一直沿着海岸前进
commanded by Nearchus, as it made its way along the coast.
然而季风使得船舰无法离开印度海湾
Yet monsoon winds delayed the fleet from leaving the harbour in India for months.
这结果给亚历山大军带来了致命一击
The result proved devastating for Alexander’s men.
当亚历山大穿越沙漠时 他的军力渐渐减弱
Alexander and his army slowly withered as they crossed the desert.
到最后75%的军力 主要是补给队伍死亡
By the end, 75% of his force, mostly those in the baggage train, had perished.
这是他许多后勤辉煌事件为代表的
This was the exception in a campaign epitomised
战役中的例外
by many episodes of logistical brilliance.
亚历山大的战役不管在亚洲还是印度
Alexander’s campaign in both Asia and India
都要求精确且先进的 不同于古代的
required precise and advanced logistical planning
后勤计划
unlike any yet-seen in antiquity.
后勤的成功是亚历山大赢得战役的关键
Its success was crucial to the survival of his campaign
然而这一因素却一直被忽视
a factor that is so often overlooked.
我们会在下一集介绍亚历山大军队
We will cover other critical parts of Alexander’s army
战役成功的其他关键因素
in the next episode, so make sure that
所以确保你订阅了我们频道
you are subscribed to our channel and pressed
并打开了我们视频更新的提醒
the bell button to be notified of our videos.
我们非常感谢
We would like to express our
Patreon和YouTube的支持者
gratitude to our Patreon supporters and youtube sponsors,
因为你们的支持才能使这个系列继续
who make the creation of our videos possible.
这是《王侯将相》频道
This is the Kings and Generals channel, and
下个视频见
we will catch you on the next one.

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视频概述

介绍亚历山大征战时所使用的后勤学

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收集自网络

翻译译者

楼舜

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审核员YZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ahfyIxLlbGA

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