Alexander the Great was born in 356BCE
he became king of Macedonia a mere twenty years later
reigning until his death in 323BCE
Once he was the king, he entered the territory of the Persian Empire
leading an army and taking control of an area of land
that became part of one of the largest empires of the ancient world
Alexander’s father, Philip II became king of Macedonia
after his brother died in battle against an invading army.
Macedonia was at the time an empire roughly the size of Yorkshire in England or New Jersey in the United States
but it was penned in by potential enemies on all sides.
在不到三年的时间里 使用外交 军队重建 等多重手段
In less than three years using a combination of diplomacy, military reorganisation and a lot of skill
king Philip transformed Macedonia’s fortunes and expanded his empire into Greece.
After increasing the number of troops in his empire
10,000 men crossed from Europe into Asia under his rule
with the aim of attacking the Persians.
Alexander’s mother was Olympias.
She gave birth to Alexander while his father was fighting against various Greek cities.
Alexander was educated under the guidance of the philosopher, Aristotle.
Alexander was at his sister’s wedding in Macedon
and during a festival to celebrate the wedding afterwards, his father king Philip was killed.
The assassin was one of Philip’s bodyguards.
He was arrested and then executed.
It meant Alexander became king of Macedon
and leader of the Greek expedition
to gain revenge against the Persians for previous destruction they had caused.
His time in power consisted of near constant military campaigning.
First, he dealt with uprisings in the west and northeast of Macedonia itself.
Then he attacked the Greek city, Thebes.
Later he moved into Asia and fought three large battles against the Persians
one against the Indians and other battles in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
在他所有的战役中 他总是成功 因此战无不胜
In all his battles, he was always triumphant and therefore, undefeated.
When beginning his campaign in Asia
he joined up with the force his father had sent over two years prior
The Persian army was thought to consist of just under 100,000 men
although estimates range greatly
Prior to the battle of the Granicus River
Alexander had marched from Troy where he’d visited Achilles’ tomb
Alexander claimed to be a descendant of Achilles
and he took from the tomb a shield used in the Trojan War
In late 332BCE, Alexander entered Egypt
without any resistance from the Persian governor who had too few soldiers at his disposal.
Legend has it that Alexander founded the city of Alexandria
which later became one of the most important cities in the world in Roman times.
然而 这座城市更可能是在他死后不久建立的 尽管以他的名字命名
However, it is more likely to have been formed shortly after his death, despite bearing his name.
Whilst in Egypt, Alexander visited the oracle at the temple of Amun.
He asked the oracle if he would rule the world.
The response from the oracle was positive.
Drawings that have been discovered in the temples in Egypt depict Alexander as a pharaoh
and described him as king of Egypt.
On 1st October 331BCE, Alexander defeated the king of Persia, Darius III for the second occasion.
This time it was at Gaugamela which is near to where the city of Mosul in Iraq stands in the present day.
In doing so, it gave Alexander rule over Asia.
When travelling through the world
Alexander adapted and took on the role as leader of a particular region
according to the traditions and protocols of that land
This included everything from how he behaved, to how he dressed.
Alexander had several wives, including the daughter of Darius III.
He used marriage as a way of maintaining relationships with his empire’s neighbours
and to connect him with families of previous kings and rulers.
In spring 330BCE, Alexander set off on a new campaign into the eastern parts of his empire
that would go on to last five years.
He travelled into Afghanistan, initially to stop Darius III from raising new forces.
He initially had difficulty bringing the area under control, but eventually did so.
He continued further east into what is now Pakistan
and got to a point where, according to frequently told stories, his soldiers refused to accompany him any further
相反 他向南行进 直到印度洋
Instead, he travelled south, all the way to the Indian Ocean
which marked an end to his successful campaign.
在返回的途中 在公元前323年的春天 亚历山大回到巴比伦
On his way back, Alexander returned to Babylon in spring 323BCE
where he would eventually die
He caught a fever and spent the last few days of his life lying down
同时 在最终失去说话能力前 他还在发号施令
whilst still giving orders before finally losing the ability to speak.
He is remembered as a creator of one of the largest empires of the ancient world
who was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history’s most successful military commanders.