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亚历山大大帝简介 – 译学馆
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亚历山大大帝简介

ALEXANDER THE GREAT: A Very Short Introduction | Animated Book Summary

亚历山大大帝出生于公元前356年
Alexander the Great was born in 356BCE
仅仅二十年后 他成为了马其顿国王
he became king of Macedonia a mere twenty years later
一直统治到公元前323年他去世
reigning until his death in 323BCE
他一成为国王 就进入了波斯帝国境内
Once he was the king, he entered the territory of the Persian Empire
率领军队占领了一片领土
leading an army and taking control of an area of land
这片领土成为古代世界最大的一个帝国的一部分
that became part of one of the largest empires of the ancient world
亚历山大的父亲 菲利普二世
Alexander’s father, Philip II became king of Macedonia
在其兄在抵抗入侵军队的战斗中牺牲后 成为了马其顿国王
after his brother died in battle against an invading army.
那时马其顿的面积大概与英国约克郡或美国新泽西一样
Macedonia was at the time an empire roughly the size of Yorkshire in England or New Jersey in the United States
但它各个方向都被潜在的敌人包围了
but it was penned in by potential enemies on all sides.
在不到三年的时间里 使用外交 军队重建 等多重手段
In less than three years using a combination of diplomacy, military reorganisation and a lot of skill
菲利普国王改善了马其顿的经济状况 并将帝国疆域扩展到了希腊
king Philip transformed Macedonia’s fortunes and expanded his empire into Greece.
在扩充了帝国军队的人数后
After increasing the number of troops in his empire
他带领一万名士兵穿过欧洲到达亚洲
10,000 men crossed from Europe into Asia under his rule
企图攻击波斯人
with the aim of attacking the Persians.
亚历山大的母亲叫奥林匹亚丝
Alexander’s mother was Olympias.
在菲利普二世与多个希腊城市战斗时 她生下了亚历山大
She gave birth to Alexander while his father was fighting against various Greek cities.
亚历山大在哲学家亚里士多德的指导下接受教育
Alexander was educated under the guidance of the philosopher, Aristotle.
亚历山大在马其顿参加了他姐姐的婚礼
Alexander was at his sister’s wedding in Macedon
在随后的一场庆祝婚礼的贺宴上 他的父亲菲利普国王被杀害了
and during a festival to celebrate the wedding afterwards, his father king Philip was killed.
刺客是菲利普国王的一个保镖
The assassin was one of Philip’s bodyguards.
他被逮捕 随后被处死
He was arrested and then executed.
这意味着亚历山大成为了马其顿王国的国王
It meant Alexander became king of Macedon
也成为了希腊远征军的统领
and leader of the Greek expedition
远征是为了报复之前给他们带来毁灭性打击的波斯人
to gain revenge against the Persians for previous destruction they had caused.
他在位期间几乎不断地发动军事行动
His time in power consisted of near constant military campaigning.
首先 他解决了马其顿自身西部和东北部的起义
First, he dealt with uprisings in the west and northeast of Macedonia itself.
然后他进攻了希腊城市底比斯
Then he attacked the Greek city, Thebes.
之后他进军亚洲 同波斯进行了三次大战
Later he moved into Asia and fought three large battles against the Persians
同印度进行了一次战役 还同阿富汗和巴基斯坦进行了几次战役
one against the Indians and other battles in Afghanistan and Pakistan.
在他所有的战役中 他总是成功 因此战无不胜
In all his battles, he was always triumphant and therefore, undefeated.
在开始亚洲战役时
When beginning his campaign in Asia
他将两年前他父亲派去亚洲的兵力联合起来
he joined up with the force his father had sent over two years prior
据说波斯人的军队只有不到10万人
The Persian army was thought to consist of just under 100,000 men
尽管是大范围的估计
although estimates range greatly
在格拉尼卡斯河战役前
Prior to the battle of the Granicus River
亚历山大从特洛伊行军出发 他在那里瞻仰了阿基琉斯的坟墓
Alexander had marched from Troy where he’d visited Achilles’ tomb
亚历山大声称是阿基琉斯的后裔
Alexander claimed to be a descendant of Achilles
他从墓地里拿走了一块曾用于特洛伊战争的盾牌
and he took from the tomb a shield used in the Trojan War
公元前332年末期 亚历山大进入埃及
In late 332BCE, Alexander entered Egypt
没有遭到无兵可用的波斯统治者的任何反抗
without any resistance from the Persian governor who had too few soldiers at his disposal.
传说亚历山大建立了亚历山大港市
Legend has it that Alexander founded the city of Alexandria
这个城市后来成为罗马时代世界上最重要的城市之一
which later became one of the most important cities in the world in Roman times.
然而 这座城市更可能是在他死后不久建立的 尽管以他的名字命名
However, it is more likely to have been formed shortly after his death, despite bearing his name.
在埃及期间 亚历山大拜访了阿蒙神庙的祭司
Whilst in Egypt, Alexander visited the oracle at the temple of Amun.
他询问祭司 他是否会统治世界
He asked the oracle if he would rule the world.
祭司的回答是肯定的
The response from the oracle was positive.
埃及神庙中发现的绘画将亚历山大描绘为法老
Drawings that have been discovered in the temples in Egypt depict Alexander as a pharaoh
把他描述成埃及国王
and described him as king of Egypt.
公元前331年10月1日 亚历山大第二次打败了波斯国王大流士三世
On 1st October 331BCE, Alexander defeated the king of Persia, Darius III for the second occasion.
这次是在高加米拉 在现在伊拉克摩苏尔附近
This time it was at Gaugamela which is near to where the city of Mosul in Iraq stands in the present day.
通过这次战役 亚历山大得以统治亚洲
In doing so, it gave Alexander rule over Asia.
在环游世界时
When travelling through the world
亚历山大按照当地传统和礼仪
Alexander adapted and took on the role as leader of a particular region
逐渐适应并接受了作为当地统治者的角色
according to the traditions and protocols of that land
这包括从行为方式到穿衣打扮的一切
This included everything from how he behaved, to how he dressed.
亚历山大有好几个妻子 包括大流士三世的女儿
Alexander had several wives, including the daughter of Darius III.
他把婚姻作为保持与邻国关系的方式
He used marriage as a way of maintaining relationships with his empire’s neighbours
以及与先前国王和统治者家人沟通的方式
and to connect him with families of previous kings and rulers.
公元前330年春天 亚历山大发起了对帝国东部地区的新战役
In spring 330BCE, Alexander set off on a new campaign into the eastern parts of his empire
这场战役将持续五年的时间
that would go on to last five years.
他行进到阿富汗 最初想阻止大流士三世发展新的军事力量
He travelled into Afghanistan, initially to stop Darius III from raising new forces.
最初要控制这个地区是很困难的 但最终他做到了
He initially had difficulty bringing the area under control, but eventually did so.
他继续往东 进入现在的巴基斯坦地区
He continued further east into what is now Pakistan
根据耳熟能详的故事 他陷入了士兵拒绝跟他前进的境地
and got to a point where, according to frequently told stories, his soldiers refused to accompany him any further
相反 他向南行进 直到印度洋
Instead, he travelled south, all the way to the Indian Ocean
为他成功的战役画上了句号
which marked an end to his successful campaign.
在返回的途中 在公元前323年的春天 亚历山大回到巴比伦
On his way back, Alexander returned to Babylon in spring 323BCE
最终他死在了那里
where he would eventually die
他发烧了 躺着度过了生命的最后几天
He caught a fever and spent the last few days of his life lying down
同时 在最终失去说话能力前 他还在发号施令
whilst still giving orders before finally losing the ability to speak.
作为古代世界最伟大的帝国之一的创建者 他被世人铭记
He is remembered as a creator of one of the largest empires of the ancient world
在战场上他是不可战胜的 被广泛认为是历史上最成功的军事指挥之一
who was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history’s most successful military commanders.

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视频概述

亚历山大大帝是历史上伟大的军事指挥家之一,本视频简要介绍了亚历山大大帝的一生。

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翻译译者

Bù Shí

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BFGevZ0aCPo

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