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普希金的生平

Alexander Pushkin Biography

大家好 欢迎收看《每周俄语》
Hello and welcome to Weekly Russian.
我是Natalia
My name is Natalia.
今天我要说的是一年一度的“俄语日”
And today I will talk about the annual Russian Language Day,
也就是每年的6月6日
which is observed on June 6.
6月6号还是俄罗斯最伟大的诗人
June 6 also is the birthday of Russian
亚历山大·谢尔盖耶维奇·普希金的生日
greatest poet Alexander Sergeyevitch Pushkin.
他被誉为俄罗斯现代文学之父
He is considered the father of modern Russian literature.
他的生日也因此被定为俄语日
That’s why Russian Language Day is celebrated on his birthday.
亚历山大·谢尔盖耶维奇·普希金的一生虽短
Alexander Sergeyevitch Pushkin lived the short
但却充满了戏剧性
but very dramatic life.
甚至连他的祖先都很有趣
Even his ancestors were interesting.
他的外曾祖父是非裔俄罗斯贵族
Great grandfather was an African Russian aristocrat,
阿布拉姆·彼得罗维奇·甘尼巴尔
Abram Petrovich Gannibal,
阿布拉姆·彼得罗维奇是他的俄罗斯名字
Abram Petrovich which was his Russian name,
在18世纪早期 还是个小男孩的他就被带到了俄罗斯
was brought to Russia in early 18th century as a boy,
成了俄国沙皇彼得大帝的私人奴隶
to be a personal servant of Russian Tsar. Peter the Great.
彼得大帝是一个非常与众不同的君主
Peter the Great was an unusual monarch.
对于他的臣民 他最欣赏的就是
He mostly appreciated and in people,
他们的聪明才智
their intelligence and talent,
他会让他们人尽其才
and he promoted the people according to those qualities.
普希金的外曾祖父就是个很聪慧的男孩
And the boy was very intelligent.
所以他受到了当时最好的教育
So he received the best education of the time.
不仅如此
Not only that, but he became
他还成为了彼得大帝的“教子”
a godson of Peter the Great.
他成了俄罗斯贵族
He became a Russian aristocrat
和著名的俄罗斯将军
and famous Russian general.
他的孙女纳丁尔吉德·汉尼拔
His granddaughter Nadezhde Gannibal
是普希金的妈妈
became Alexander Sergeyevitch Pushkin’s mother.
亚历山大·谢尔盖耶维奇 生活在19世纪上半叶
Alexander Sergeyevitch lived in the first half of 19th century,
他悲惨的一生 在37岁的时候落下了帷幕
and died tragically at the age of 37.
普希金就读于圣彼得堡的皇村中学
Pushkin was educated at Tsarskoe Selo’s Lyceum
这是他那个时代最好的学校
the best school of his time.
这座贵族学校
It was very exclusive
只招收来自俄罗斯顶尖家庭的孩子
offer the children of the best families in Russia.
该校由俄国沙皇亚历山大一世亲自建立
It was established by Russian Tsar Alexander the First himself.
普希金是这所学校第一批毕业生
Pushkin was among the first ever graduates of that school.
在校期间
And during his school years,
他认识了很多志同道合的人
he was in a good company.
这些最早的毕业生 后来都成为了优秀的人才
All those first year graduates became brilliant people.
在校期间 他结识的很多朋友
At school Pushkin became friends
后来成为了俄罗斯军官
with future Russian officers
参与了俄国十二月党人的起义
who became involved in Decembrists movement.
十二月党人起义运动发生在1825年12月
Decembrist revolt happened in December of 1825.
一群军官带领着3000人的军队
Group of officers led troops of 3,000
集结在位于圣彼得堡的参议院广场
to Senate square in Saint Petersburg,
要求召开立宪会议 废除农奴制
diminish the constitution and abolition of serfdom.
迎接他们的是失败 审讯和叛国罪
They were defeated, trialed, convicted of state crimes,
然后很多人都被判流放到西伯利亚地区
and many were sentenced to exile in Siberia.
因为普希金跟他们的关系
And because Pushkin was associated with them,
以及他一直都在创作以自由为主题的诗歌
and himself he wrote poetry about freedom,
他的余生
for the rest of his life,
都在俄罗斯秘密警察的监视中度过
he was watched by Russian secret police.
他的全部作品都受到严格的审查
And all his works were closely censored,
有时甚至会受到
and sometimes they were censored even by
俄国沙皇尼古拉一世的亲自审查
Russian Tsar Nicholas the First himself.
但是所有这一切 都没能阻止普希金
But all that didn’t stop Pushkin from having
拥有精彩有趣的一生
very exciting and interesting life.
后来他与当时最美的女性之一
Later he married one of the most beautiful women of his time,
娜塔丽娅·尼古拉耶夫娜·冈察洛娃 结为夫妻
Natalya Nikolaevna Goncharova.
他们在莫斯科相遇时 她只有16岁
He met her in Moscow when she was only 16 years old,
2年之后 他们便结婚了
and in two years they got married.
婚后 他们一起移居到当时的首都圣彼得堡
She moved with him to Saint Petersburg which was the capital of Russia at the time.
她的美貌引起了俄罗斯宫廷的轰动
And she beauty made the sensation in Russian Court.
很多人都爱慕她
She had many admirers,
甚至沙皇尼古拉一世也深深地被她吸引
even the Emperor Nicholas the First was very taken by her.
他希望在所有的舞会
And he wanted to see her at all his balls
和社交场合中都能见到娜塔丽娅
and all his social gatherings.
普希金一次次陪同她参与宫廷活动
And Pushkin here to accompany her to court
这让娜塔丽娅很不开心
which she was not happy about it,
因为宴会而干扰他的工作 实在不值得
interfered this his work, it was very costly.
这种生活方式不仅让普希金厌恶
Not only he didn’t enjoy this lifestyle,
还让他妒火中烧
he also was very jealous.
他们的家庭生活还是很幸福的
Family life was happy.
他们诞下四个可爱的小天使
They had four beautiful children.
大女儿玛丽亚
Their elder daughter Maria
长大后也成了知名人士
became famous in her future life.
她继承了娜塔丽娅的美貌
She inherited Natalya’s beauty
和普希金的激情
and Pushkin’s passion.
很多人认为
And by many, she was regarded
她就是《安娜·卡列尼娜》中的人物原型
as a prototype of the story of Anna Karenina.
但是对普希金来说 社交生活并不容易
But social life was difficult for Pushkin.
在普希金看来 娜塔丽娅的爱慕者之一 丹斯特
One of Natalya’s admirers d’Anthès
对她的追求太明目张胆了
went too far in his attentions to her in Pushkin’s opinion.
因为他们往来的一些信件和谣言
There were some letters and rumors
传出了丑闻
which led to scandal.
普希金认为他必须维护妻子的名声
And Pushkin felt that he had to defend his wife’s honor,
因此决定与丹斯特决斗
and he challenged d’Anthès a duel.
决斗发生在1837年一个冬日的傍晚
The duel took place on the inter evening of 1837.
在这场决斗中 普希金受了很重的伤
And in this duel, Pushkin was seriously wounded,
2天后 他就与世长辞了
and in two days, he died.
普希金是一个天才 有着敏锐的直觉
Pushkin was a genius and a very intuitive person.
他也是一个迷信的人
He also was superstitious.
相信命运一说
He believed in fate.
在他的一本书中
In one of his books-
也是我最喜欢的书
this is my favorite book-
《叶普盖尼·奥涅金》
Eugene Onegin,
他预言了自己死亡的两个细节
he predicted his own death almost two small detail.
书中的主角叶普盖尼·奥涅金
His character Eugene Onegin fights a duel
与一位年轻的诗人林斯基进行决斗
with a young poet Linsky.
他们用手枪决斗的那天正值冬日
And it is a winter time as they fight with pistols.
诗人林斯基被杀
Linsky is killed and his body is taken away
尸体被一辆雪橇从现场拖走
from the scene in a sleigh.
这与普希金自己的决斗场景几乎如出一辙
And this is pretty much the picture of Pushkin’s own duel.
因为普希金的亡故
Natalya Nikolaevna
娜塔丽娅·尼古拉耶夫娜被很多人谴责
has been blamed by many as to Pushkin’s death.
直到今天
And up to this day,
人们也认为她对普希金太漫不经心
it’s been said that she was careless
认为她不够欣赏普希金
that she didn’t appreciate him enough
她根本不明白
that she didn’t understand
普希金是一个多么伟大的天才
what genius he was.
这其中的一些指责也许是真的
And some of these accusations could be true.
但是那个时候 她还太年轻
But she was very young at the time.
普希金的性格应该也占部分原因
Pushkin’s character should be considered here.
他脾气非常暴躁
He was very hot-tempered.
在他短暂的37年人生中
During his not such lone lifetime of 37 years,
他与人进行了29场决斗
he fought 29 duels.
对于俄罗斯的文学和民众而言
What Pushkin means to Russian literature
普希金意味着什么呢?
and to Russians?
他永远都是我们最伟大的诗人
He will always be our greatest poet.
每一个俄罗斯孩子都听过和看过他写的童话故事
Every Russian child listens to and reads his fairy tales.
这些故事 是我看过最精彩的故事
They are the best fairy tales that I ever read.
在俄罗斯 几乎每一个俄罗斯人
And it’s impossible to find Russian who cannot quote
都能引用几句普希金的诗
at least few of Pushkin’s verses.
愿上帝保佑
Blest he who’s left the hurly-burly of
他离开了人生喧嚣的宴席
life’s repast betimes,
还没来得及喝完杯中的酒
nor sought to drain its beaker down,
也没来得及完成作品
nor thought of finishing its book,
却早早地迎来了这声突然的告别
but early has wished it an abrupt goodbye —
我的尤金啊 愿你走好!
and, with my Eugene, so have I.

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视频概述

主要介绍了俄罗斯诗人普希金的生平,以及他在俄罗斯文化中的重要地位和影响。

听录译者

ABC

翻译译者

🔥云四

审核员

审核员BY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3YVgpbpnAKQ

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