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爱因斯坦的宇宙

ALBERT EINSTEIN | Einstein's Cosmos | Animated Book Summary

爱因斯坦的宇宙:爱因斯坦是如何改变我们对宇宙的看法
Einstein’s Cosmos: How Albert Einstein’s Vision Transformed Our Understanding of Space
如果你让某人说出一个天才的名字
and Time by Michio Kaku If you ask somebody to name a genius, the
许多人脑子里第一个想到的就是爱因斯坦
first name that would come to many people’s mind is Albert Einstein. As well as being
他是目前为止最伟大的科学家 目前也是最有辨识度的
one of the greatest scientists of all time, he is now probably the most recognisable,
他的贡献值得人们记住他
but it is his contributions that he should be most remembered for. His profound theories
他的那些深奥理论和预言让他被时代周刊评为世纪伟人
and predictions led him to be named Time magazine’s Person of the Century and many Nobel Prizes
目前也因为科学家们证明了他100多年前的预言是正确的而获得了许多项诺贝尔奖
are being won in the present day by scientists proving the existence of things predicted
这本书重点关注了爱因斯坦的先锋工作
by Einstein nearly 100 years ago. This book focuses on the pioneering work of
和描述他伟大的成就的思考过程
Einstein and describes the thinking process behind some of his greatest achievements.
爱因斯坦一个显著的性格特征是许多人说的人性
A notable personality trait of Einstein that many people referred to was his humanity.
他有一个可爱的性格 无论你是谁 他说话的方式都一样 他对乞丐和皇室的态度相同
He was a lovable character who spoke in the same way to beggars as he did to royalty and
对待小孩同大人一样亲切 1879年3月14日爱因斯坦出生在德国乌尔姆市
was as gracious to children as he was to adults. Albert Einstein was born on the 14th March
但和他的妹妹在慕尼黑被抚养长大
1879 in the city of Ulm in Germany, but was brought up in Munich along with his younger
他的妈妈鼓励小时侯的爱因斯坦学习弹小提琴
sister. His mother was cultured and encouraged a young Albert to take up playing the violin,
他一辈子都享受弹小提琴 在他小时候 他就发现了磁性
something he enjoyed all his life. At a young age he discovered magnetism and
并迷上了这种能让物质移动却看不见的力量
became fascinated by invisible forces making objects move. His father gave him a compass
他的爸爸在他四五岁时给了他一个指南针 它在爱因斯坦的脑海里留下了长久的印象
when he was four or five years old and it left a lasting impression on him.
11岁时 爱因斯坦成了犹太信念坚定的宗教实践者很短的一段时间
From the age of eleven he became staunchly religious practising the Jewish faith for
但是当他发现宗教有悖于科学时就很快的转变了自己的态度
a short time but that soon changed when he realized that science and religion collided
然而,他与宗教的短暂联结
with many miracles defying the laws of science. However, his brief liaison with religion led
使他对科学与人类认知的有限性感到着迷
him to appreciate the limitations of science and human understanding.
他很快对几何学、数学与哲学产生了极大的热情
He soon developed a passion for Geometry, Mathematics and Philosophy, rarely playing
很少与同伴玩耍 除了少数时间因为音乐而分心
with friends his own age and but for the occasional distraction of music, always reading. The
哲学家康德对他影响很大 例如爱因斯坦相信
philosopher Kant influenced him greatly, for example Einstein believed throughout his life
终其一生 世界政府能够结束所有的战争
that world government was a way to end all wars.
年轻的的爱因斯坦来到瑞士苏黎世的学校 他很享受在那里的时光
As a teenager, Einstein went to school in Zurich, Switzerland. He enjoyed his time there
并在随后成为瑞士公民他在这里由内向、孤僻变得成熟、独立
and would eventually become a Swiss citizen. Here he changed from being introverted and
1895年 他写了第一篇科学论文
withdrawn to mature and independent. In 1895 he wrote his first scientific paper. Einstein’s
爱因斯坦的想法与其说是复杂的数学公式 倒不如说是简单的图片
thinking was often in terms of simple physical pictures rather than complex mathematics,
像是火车、时钟还有火箭 他认为除了数学化的表达
such as trains, clocks and rockets. He believed that aside from their mathematical expression,
“所有的物理理论理应进行简单概括
“All physical theories… ought to lend themselves to so simple a description that
让小孩也能够理解”1900年 爱因斯坦完成物理与数学的学位
even a child could understand”. In 1900 Einstein graduated with a degree in
他经历了经济上的困难 只找到低收入的临时老师工作
Physics and Mathematics. After struggling financially and only finding some temporary
最后在伯尔尼专利局找到了技术专家的公务员工作
low paid teaching jobs, Einstein eventually got a job as a civil servant, working as a
1903年1月 爱因斯坦与米列娃结婚
technical expert in the Bern Patent Office. In January 1903, Einstein married Mileva,
她是与爱因斯坦同班的塞尔维亚同学
a Serbian woman who was in the same class as him when he was studying for his degree.
第二年 他们生了一个儿子名叫汉斯爱因斯坦能很快完成他的工作
The following year they had a son called Hans. In his job Einstein could often finish his
找到发明中潜在的规律
work, which involved finding the principles underlying each invention, quickly. This left
这让他能在安静的办公室里有许多时间做白日梦 思考物理学知识
him lots of time to daydream and think about physics in the quiet confines of his office.
在那时他开始斟酌两个伟大的学说
He wrestled with the two great theories of physics at the time: Sir Isaac Newton’s
艾萨克·牛顿认为时间与空间是绝对的力学学说
theory of forces where he thought space and time were absolute and James Clerk Maxwell’s
以及詹姆斯·克拉克·麦克斯韦认为光速守恒的电光学理论
theory of fields and light where the speed of light was constant. Einstein thought they
爱因斯坦认为这两个学说产生了矛盾一天晚上他开车回家
were incompatible and contradicted each other. When he was travelling home one night, he
他看着伯尔尼的钟塔 试想自己的汽车是否能以光速赛跑
looked at the clock tower in Bern and imagined racing away in the car at the speed of light.
他发现灯光照不到汽车时 塔上的时钟停了
He realised that the clock in the tower would appear stopped as light cannot catch up to
而车内的时钟还在正常走动
the car but the clock in the car would tick normally. He then understood that time can
随后他明白时间在宇宙中产生的速度并不相同 取决于你移动的有多快
move at different rates throughout the universe, dependant on how quickly you’re moving.
由此他创造了相对论因此证明了麦克斯韦的理论正确
He had arrived at his theory of relativity and thus proving Maxwell’s theory correct
而牛顿的理论有些瑕疵关于这个课题 他写了一篇论文
and Newton’s flawed. He wrote a paper on the subject and those 31 handwritten pages
手写的这31页纸 改变了整个世界的历史之后在1905年 爱因斯坦又进了一步
changed the history of the world. Later in 1905, Einstein went one step further.
他证明如果时钟和尺子扭曲地比你移动的还快
He stated that if clocks and rulers became distorted the faster you moved, then everything
那么一切以时钟与尺子作为测量标准的东西都会改变 包括可互换的能量与物质
measured with clocks and rulers must also change. This included energy and matter, which
例如 物体移动得越快 质量增加得越多
are interchangeable. For example, the faster an object moves, the more it’s mass increases.
计算多少能量转化成了质量你可以使用E=mc2这个始终出名的方程式
By calculating how much energy was being converted into mass, you could show that E=mc2, the
在爱因斯坦后来在讨论光的量子理论的论文中有提到
most famous equation of all time. Further articles written that year by Einstein
并且证明了原子的存在 1905年也因此被称为“非凡的一年”
on a quantum theory of light and proving the existence of atoms led to 1905 being dubbed
这四篇论文为为现代物理学奠定了基础
an “extraordinary year”. All four papers substantially contributed to the foundation
而第二年爱因斯坦也在苏黎世大学中取得了博士学位
of modern physics and Einstein got his Ph.D. from the University of Zurich the following
他成了爱因斯坦博士后续的实验证明了他的想法
year, making him Dr. Einstein. Future experiments provided evidence to confirm his ideas and
他声名鹊起 后来重返苏黎世大学成为教授
his recognition grew. He returned to the University of Zurich later as a professor. Einstein had
第二个孩子后来出生了但他的工作令他与妻儿渐渐疏远
a second son but his work caused him to become estranged from his wife and children and she
在他成为柏林大学物理协会主任时 他的妻子离开了
left him while he was a director of the institute of physics at Berlin University, the finest
那是德国最棒的研究中心 在世界物理研究中效率领先地位
research centre in Germany which in turn was leading the world’s research in physics.
爱因斯坦创建了我们现在所知的相对论
Einstein wanted to build on what he now called his special theory of relativity as it did
不考虑物体的重力或加速度在他一番详尽的工作之后 他在1915年出版了相对论
not take into account gravity or the acceleration of items. He published his general theory
一战爆发使他产生了巨大的压力
of relativity in 1915 after years of exhaustive work. This coupled with the stresses of the
作为一个和平主义者 他对此极其反对
outbreak of the First World War (which he had strong objections to as a pacifist) led
1917年 战争击垮了他 他被诊断出胃溃疡
to him collapsing in 1917 and near a breakdown. He was diagnosed with a stomach ulcer and
在表姐艾尔莎的帮助下 他重新变得健康
advised to rest completely. He was nursed back to health by his cousin, Elsa whom he
并在1919年结婚 他与重力相关最新研究
married in 1919. Einstein’s latest work had moved him from
使他成为世界闻名的人物
a prominent professor to a world figure, with his gravitational-related discoveries viewed
是既牛顿之后最杰出的 他被称为天才
as the greatest since Newton’s. He was rightly viewed as a genius and nearly every newspaper
几乎世界上所有的报纸都想采访他然而 随着他的人气大涨 涌现了一大批人
in the world wanted to interview him. Unfortunately, as his popularity grew, so did the amount
想要推翻他的相对论
of people trying to disprove his theory of relativity. He decided to use his new found
他决定用他新树立起的名声来促进其他事业尤其是和平事业与锡安运动(犹太复兴主义)
fame to promote his other causes too, specifically peace and Zionism. He went on a tour of America
他前往美国去做这些事 又从那去了英国致敬牛顿先生
to do just that. From there he travelled to England and paid his respects to Sir Isaac
在他的墓地威斯敏斯特教堂 放上了花圈
Newton by laying a wreath on his grave in Westminster Abbey. From there he travelled
接着从那去往巴黎 那时整片欧洲大陆反闪族主义不断高涨
to Paris but with a growing rise in anti-Semitism on the continent, and after receiving multiple
在收发大量威胁的同时 他又踏上了另一段旅程这次他向东行走 去了日本和中国
death threats, went on another tour, this time heading East, to Japan and China.
这是他旅途的最后一站 他收到自己获得物理诺贝尔奖的消息
It was while travelling to his latest tour that Einstein received word he’d won the
他将诺贝尔奖金作为赡养费给了前妻
Nobel Prize in physics. He gave the prize money to his ex-wife as part of the divorce
他学会不忽视自己的妻子
settlement. Einstein had learnt his lesson not to neglect his wife and took his current
带着他现任的妻子艾尔莎去见一些著名人士 包括名人与皇室
wife, Elsa, with him to meet famous people including celebrities and royalty. However,
即使被媒体包围 他也从未停止自己对宇宙奥秘的探索
despite now fully surrounded by the media circus, he never lost focus and continued
他阐明自己的重力理论
his work analysing the laws of the universe. He formulated his theory of gravity but then
接着转移到了更加有野心的项目:统一场论
moved onto an altogether more ambitious project: the unified field theory, which would unify
将他的重力理论同梅克斯维尔的电磁学理论相融合
his theory of gravity with Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism.
1932年末 由于纳粹主义不断高涨 爱因斯坦离开德国 在他们上台的第二年
At the end of 1932, due to the rise of Nazism, Einstein left Germany. When they took power
将爱因斯坦的房子与银行账户充公 使他变得身无分文
early the following year, they confiscated his house and bank account, leaving Einstein
他的许多犹太同事逃走 由于没有房子 他前往英国的温斯顿·丘吉尔先生那里
penniless. Many of his Jewish colleagues also fled. Without a home, Einstein visited Sir
在那里他得到了一些一流大学的工作邀请
Winston Churchill in England. He received several job offers from leading universities
并决定前往美国 成为普林斯顿大学的教授
and decided to move to America, becoming a professor at Princeton University. While at
在那里 爱因斯坦开始研究原子弹的创造是否可行
Princeton, Einstein investigated whether the creation of an atomic bomb was possible. He
最后得出可行的结论 但当曼哈顿项目1941年开始建立
concluded it was, but when the Manhattan Engineering Project was set up in 1941 and many of the
以及许多顶尖科学家被联系参与这类子弹制作的同时
top scientists were contacted to work towards the creation of such a bomb, Einstein was
爱因斯坦却被遗漏在名单之外 FBI在解密战时文件后得出爱因斯坦不可信的结论
left out. Declassified war documents show that the FBI concluded that he could not be
由于他的背景 以及他在美国待过一小段时间
trusted, due to his background and his relative short stay in America.
这段时间 爱因斯坦苍老得十分明显 他由于1936年妻子艾尔莎的死
During this time, Einstein began to age significantly; he was affected deeply by the death of his
和统一场论没有得到最终结果而深受打击
wife Elsa in 1936 and continued to work on his unified field theory without ultimate
一直到他1949年70岁生日 他仍然没找到指导原则亦或是
success. Even after his 70th birthday in 1949 he still lacked a guiding principle or physical
做出引导到他理论的具体描述 而他已经在这个项目上奋斗了30多年
picture that would light the way to his theory and he struggled on the subject for over 30
1952年 在以色列总统去世之后
years. In 1952 after the president of Israel had
爱因斯坦被提议为总统 但由于他的身体状况不断恶化 他拒绝了
died, Einstein was offered the presidency but declined. With his health deteriorating,
1955年4月18日 爱因斯坦去世
on the 18th April 1955, Albert Einstein passed away.
他留下来了丰富的遗产 是他的预言 例如他的黑洞论说
Einstein’s legacy is a prophetic one as many of his predictions such as the black
在现代实验方法产生后得到了证实 在2002年
hole, have been proven to exist thanks to modern experimentation methods. In 2002 it
证明了黑洞确实存在在银河系中
was shown that a black hole exists in our very own milky way galaxy. Even his work on
如今 重读他的统一场论 人们提出了超弦理论
the unified field theory is being revisited to this day thanks to the superstring theory.
艾伯特·爱因斯坦彻底改变了我们对宇宙的认知 他的著作启发了后续许多物理学家、天文学家和哲学家的研究
Albert Einstein’s theories have revolutionised our understanding of the universe and his work has inspired many future generations of physicists, astronomers and philosophers.

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