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电影天皇黑泽明的动作艺术

Akira Kurosawa - Composing Movement

嗨 我是托尼 这里是帧影帧画节目
Hi my name is Tony and this is Every Frame a Painting.
这有个基本性的问题
So here’s a fundamental question:
当你评价一个镜头时 你首先会着眼于什么?
When you’re judging a shot, what’s the first thing you look for?
平衡?
Is it balance?
引导线?
Leading lines?
黄金比例?
Golden ratio?
颜色?光线?形状?
Color? Light? Shapes?
我认为它们都很必要 他们都是优美构图的一部分
I think these are all essential, and they’re all part of good images.
不过有一样我总是最先注意到
But there’s one thing I always notice first
运动
Movement
——对我来说 黑泽明是导演界的贝多芬
–For me, Kurosawa is the Beethoven of movie directors
——他有贝多芬一样极具辨识度的风格
–It’s that recognizable full sound that Beethoven had
——绝不会认错
–that is so unmistakable
黑泽明的电影不像其他人的
A Kurosawa film moves like no one else’s
每部电影都有大师级的不同动作
Each one is a masterclass in different types of motion
和动作衔接
and also ways to combine them.
纵览跨越半个世纪的制作生涯 他制作了三十部电影
Over a career spanning half a century he made 30 films
而且每一部的动作都惊为天人并富有戏剧性
and in all of them, the movement is surprising and cinematic
哇哦 如果想知道片名 点击下方的CC键
Wow. If you’d like to see the names of the films, press the CC button below.
那么他青睐什么类型的动作呢?
So what types of movement did he like?
首先是自然的运动
First, is the movement of nature.
他每一部电影的背景都突显了某种气象
In every one of his films, the background of the shot features some kind of weather.

Wind

Water

Fire

Smoke

Snow
这种设计的好处之一是使得场景拥有极大视觉吸引力
One advantage of this approach is that shots have a lot of visual interest.
即使人物静止不动 背景里的雨还能吸引你
Even when people are still, there’s rain in the background to draw your eye.
——雨是在任何电影里都适用的情感触发道具
–Rain is a real emotional trigger that works in any film.
——场景富有感染力是因为它提供了
–So anything that’s excessive because it gives you
——另外一个层面 可以带动观众的情感
–another layer that the audience can relate to sensually.
其次是众人的动作
Second, there’s the movement of groups
黑泽明的电影经常给一群聚在一起的人
Kurosawa films usually feature large groups of people who band together
或是一群分散的人特写
or split apart.
像这样的人群就非常戏剧化 当你将这么多人放在一个镜头里
Crowds like this are really cinematic. When you put this many people in a shot,
情绪会被放大
any emotion feels big.
如果你想拍关于人的反应的特写 试试拍4个人
If you want a good reaction shot, try using four people
或是25个人
Or twenty-five
如果你想让情绪极度放大……
And if you want something really big…
就得说到第三点了:个体的动作
Which brings us to #3: the movement of individuals.
我最爱黑泽明的一点是动作设计不切实际又夸张
One of my favorite things about Kurosawa is that his blocking is unrealistic and exaggerated.
如果人们紧张 他们会来回踱步
If someone is nervous, they pace left and right.
如果人们愤怒 他们会突然站起来
If they’re outraged, they stand straight up.
如果他们感到羞愧……
And if they’re ashamed…
他总是让演员为角色选一个典型动作
He would often tell his actors to pick one gesture for their character
并在整部电影中重复这个动作
and repeat it throughout the film.
这样观众就能立即分辨出他是谁 他是怎么想的
That way, the audience can quickly see who’s who and how they’re feeling.
第四点 镜头的移动
Number four: movement of the camera.
黑泽明的标志风格之一就是流畅的镜头移动
One of the hallmarks of Kurosawa’s style are his fluid camera moves
从近景到全景再到过肩镜头用一个完整长镜头拍摄
that go from close-up to full shot to OTS in a single unbroken take.
我之前有一期关于这种拍摄方法的视频叫《Spielberg Oner》
I did another essay about these shots, called the Spielberg Oner,
而重要的是这里的每一个镜头移动都有清楚的开始
but what’s important here is that every camera move has a clear beginning
过程
middle
和结束
and end.
镜头移动本身就足以讲述一个故事
Just by itself, this move tells a story.
最后 是镜头的切换
And last, there’s movement of the cut.
黑泽明是极少数自己做剪辑的导演
Kurosawa is one of the few directors who worked as his own editor.
他的电影如此流畅的原因之一是他基于动作的剪辑
One of the reasons his movies just flow is that he tends to cut on movement.
当你全神贯注于人物的动作时
Often, you’re paying so much attention to someone who’s moving
甚至感觉不到剪辑
that you don’t see the edit.
当他完成某一幕拍摄时 他会转变节奏
When he finishes the scene, he switches the rhythm
通常结束于某一静态物体
usually by ending on something static.
然后直接切入动态场景
and then cutting straight into movement.
通过节奏的转变让你时刻保持警惕
By switching up the rhythm, he keeps you on your toes,
因为你猜不到下一幕会出现什么
because you can’t guess the next cut.
基于此 我们来分解一个片断研究一下这些动作
So with all that, let’s break down one scene and study the motion.
这个片断来自《七武士》
This scene is from Seven Samurai.
我不会告诉你它讲了什么
I’m not going to tell you what it’s about
看看你需要多久弄明白 准备好了?
See how long it takes you to figure it out. Ready?
第一组镜头出现了所有村民 然后是重要角色们
The first shot shows the whole village, then just the important characters
然后是武士
then just the samurai.
到此时
Right about here…
大多数人都能明白发生了什么
most people get what’s happening.
当菊千代坐下来 他的情绪感染了所有的村民
As Kikuchiyo sits down his mood ripples outwards to affect the whole village.
注意此处是如何加入风这一元素的
Notice how much the wind adds to the scene.
即使人物静止不动也有微风使画面活跃起来
Even when people are still there’s that little bit of wind to spice up the frame.
因此相当简单明了
So that’s pretty straightforward.
现在我们来看看60年后的电影 这是《复仇者联盟》
Now let’s jump 60 years into the future. This is The Avengers.
这里 从相机移动开始拍摄定场镜头 只是这次
Here, we start with a camera move into an establishing shot. But this time…
——这些是从菲尔•科尔森的夹克里找到的
–These were in Phil Coulson’s jacket.
我们马上听到了对话
We get dialogue right away.
这一场景从始至终只有相机和尼克•弗瑞在移动
Throughout this scene, the only things that move are the camera and Nick Fury.
即使可以看到窗外的天气和背景处的演员
Even though we have weather outside and actors in the background
却没有一样有用
none of them are used.
注意这里镜头移动无始无终
Notice that the camera movement doesn’t have a beginning or an end.
也没有变化 每组镜头都是同一个角度
And there’s no variation. Each shot goes in the exact same direction
——也许是我自找的
–Maybe I had that coming.
但在《七武士》中……
But in Seven Samurai…
镜头移动有明确的开始 过程和结束
The camera moves have a distinct beginning middle and end.
每一个镜头的角度与前一个相比都有改变
And each shot changes direction from the previous one.
在攀爬中 黑泽明用飘动的旗帜
As he climbs up, Kurosawa uses the movement of the flag
自然的切入这一角度
to cut smoothly into this angle:
七武士们与他们的旗帜在同一画面中
all seven samurai and their banner, together.
这一片断包涵所有运动
This scene has every type of movement
巧妙的结合在一起又始终相对独立
carefully pieced together and spaced throughout
气象
The weather.
人群
The group.
个体
The individual.
镜头
The camera.
切换
The cut.
而这一幕基本靠对话推动剧情
But this scene tells its story mostly through dialogue
名为复仇者行动
–called the Avengers Initiative.
确实 相机在移动 只是没有意义的移动
Sure, the camera moves. But it’s pointless movement.
相较于投入的大量经费 这一幕太单调了
For all the money that was put into it, this scene feels flat
——这是个老调常谈的想法了
–It’s an old-fashioned notion.
那么怎么能拍出好的镜头呢?
But how could you improve this scene?
如果你知道镜头是在讲什么 试着用运动去表达
Well, if you know what the scene’s about, try to express it through movement.
从角色开始 他们是怎么想的
Start with the character. How are they feeling?
有没有可以让演员通过动作来表现想法的方法
Is there any way the actor can convey that by moving?
好吧 这好像有点过 我们来看看更直白的
Okay, maybe that’s too much. Let’s be more subtle.
将角色内心的情绪
Take the feeling that’s inside the character
通过背景表现出来
and bring it out through the background.
如果角色愤怒具威胁性 你可以这么做
If a character is angry and menacing, you can do this
如果她怨恨诅咒
Or if she’s simmering with resentment.
或是可以用一个人对比一群人
Another option is to contrast one person against the group.
当某人面对公众羞辱时 可以这样表现
so somebody suffers a very publichumiliation this works
当他们在大海捞针时
Or if they’re looking for a needle in a haystack
你可以用镜头的移动表达喜悦兴奋
You can use camera movement to convey excitement
你可以通过动态的转换来表现惊惧
You can cut on movement to show surprise
你可以将任何动作融入到一副震撼的画面中
And you can combine every type of motion into one amazing image
顺带一说 你不需要在每一组镜头中放进所有的动作
By the way, you don’t need to put every type of movement in every shot.
那会让人审美疲劳
That’s just tiring.
也有协调大量变化与微妙变动的方法
But there’s a nice middle ground with lots of variation and subtlety
你无法知道哪种方法效果最好 除非去试
and you won’t know what works best until you try it.
如果你将正确的动作与正确的情绪结合起来
If you combine the right motion and the right emotion
画面就很电影化了
you get something cinematic.
——只是对我来说 我每年看他的电影两三遍
–But just for me, I look at his movies two or three times a year
——就感觉 哇 这就是为什么我要当个电影制作人
–just to feel, oh wow, that’s why I wanted to be a filmmaker
——看看我现在都做了些什么
–and look what I’m doing now
——特效 第二部还是特效
–Special effects, and then another movie about special effects
第三部除了特效还是特效
–and then a third movie about special effects
现在选任何一部他的电影 看任何一个镜头
Now pick any of his films. Go to any scene.
观察所有的东西是如何巧妙融合在一起的
And watch how everything moves together
——你知道 震撼到观众的是视觉刺激
–You know, it’s the visual stimulation that hits the audience
——这才是电影存在的意义
–That’s the reason for film.
——否则 我们应该把灯关了称它为广播
–Otherwise, we should just turn the light out and call it radio.

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视频概述

深度分析黑泽明电影中的四种动作艺术,将《七武士》与《复仇者联盟》对比告诉你应该怎么拍才能让画面具有感染力

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Nullyl

审核员

译学馆审核团D

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=doaQC-S8de8

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