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人工智能自我繁衍,人类是否该焦虑了? – 译学馆
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人工智能自我繁衍,人类是否该焦虑了?

AI Can Now Self-Reproduce—Should Humans Be Worried? | Eric Weinstein

人工智能能否开始自我繁衍
在与通用人工智能相关的领域存在许多的问题
There are a bunch of questions next to or adjacent to general artificial intelligence
这些问题没有引起足够警惕 事实上是由于注意力占有率的“挤出效应”
that have not gotten enough alarm because, in fact, there’s a crowding out of mindshare
我认为我们并没有真正意识到
I think that we don’t really appreciate
选择的概念在我们创造的机器和发明中多么稀有
how rare the concept of selection is in the machines and creations that we make
所以通常情况下 如果我家里有两辆车
So in general, if I have two cars in the driveway
我不担心会不会月亮升到半空
I don’t worry that if the moon is in the right place in the sky
气氛变得神秘 然后就冒出了第三辆车
and the mood is just right that there’ll be a third car at a later point
因为通常我只有去车厂才能买到新车
because in general I have to go to a factory to get a new car
我的轿车里并没有生殖系统
I don’t have a reproductive system built into my sedan.
几乎所有的其他生理系统
Now almost all of the other physiological systems
有什么呢 可能是11个
what are there, perhaps 11
都有镜像(有能够替代的东西)
have a mirror
所以我的车有大脑 有了神经系统
So my car has a brain, so it’s got a neurological system
在它的钢架里有骨骼系统 但它缺少生殖系统
It’s got a skeletal system in its steel, but it lacks a reproductive system.
于是你会问
So you could ask the question
人类有能力制造出可以自我复制的机器吗
are humans capable of making any machines that are really self-replicative?
事实上 在原子层面这是非常困难的
And the fact of the matter is that it’s very tough to do at the atomic layer
但是在许多计算机语言中有一条指令叫Spawn
but there is a command in many computer languages called Spawn
Spawn命令能够从一个正在运行的程序中有效地创造子程序
and Spawn can effectively create daughter programs from a running program.
现在只要你有复制能力
Now as soon as you have the ability to reproduce
那么选择压力系统就有可能起作用
you have the possibility that systems of selective pressures can act
因为生命的抽象性变得很容易对付
because the abstraction of life will be just as easily handled
无论它是否是基于核苷酸 基于A C T G
whether it’s based in our nucleotides, in our A, C, Ts and Gs
也无论它是否基于比特和计算机程序
or whether it’s based in our bits and our computer programs
所以巨大危险之一就是我们最后会创造人工的生命
So one of the great dangers is that what we will end up doing is creating artificial life
使得选择压力系统发挥作用
allowing systems of selective pressures to act on it
并发现我们在一直改进那些我们也许没有能力轻松终结的电脑程序
and finding that we have been evolving computer programs that we may have no easy ability to terminate
即使这些程序
even if they’re not fully intelligent
进一步 如果我们关注生物世界中的自然选择和性选择
Further if we look to natural selection and sexual selection in the biological world
我们发现一些非常奇怪的系统
we find some very strange systems
没有成熟的大脑的动植物支配实际上更聪明的物种
plants or animals with no mature brain to speak of effectively outsmart species
没有大脑的物种劫持受害物种的大脑 使其为自己服务 这样它们确实就有了大脑
which do have a brain by hijacking the victim species’ brain to serve the non-thinking species
于是 比如说 我特别喜欢蜂兰
So, for example, I’m very partial to the mirror orchid
蜂兰底部的花瓣一般形似传粉物种的雌性
which is an orchid whose bottom petal typically resembles the female of a pollinator species
因为雄性传粉者会寻找交配的可能性
And because the male in that pollinator species detects a sexual possibility
所以蜂兰不需要牺牲珍贵的 有活力的花蜜来吸引传粉者
the flower does not need to give up costly and energetic nectar in order to attract the pollinator
所以如果植物能够用底部花瓣伪造雌性
And so if the plant can fool the pollinator
来愚弄雄性传粉者与其交配
to attempt to mate with this pseudo-female in the form of its bottom petal
那么它就能有效地繁殖
it can effectively reproduce
而不必为传粉者提供宴食或礼物 但实际上利用了传粉者的能量
without having to offer a treat or a gift to the pollinator but, in fact, parasitizes its energy
那么它是如何做到这样的呢
Now how is it able to do this?
因为如果传粉者上当了 那么植物就受益了
Because if a pollinator is fooled then that plant is rewarded.
所以植物实际上是利用了传粉者的大脑
So the plant is actually using the brain of the pollinator species
比如黄蜂或蜜蜂
let’s say a wasp or a bee
来改善“蜡像” 如果你愿意那样说的话 用它来引诱雄性传粉者
to improve the wax replica, if you will, which it uses to seduce the males
那些被愚弄的都是两个物种中神经更高级的
That which is being fooled is the more neurologically advanced of the two species.
虽然有些争议 我之前谈到的就是我所说的人工超越智能
And so what I’ve talked about, somewhat controversially, is what I call artificial out-telligence
人工超越智能不是事实上有了一个人工智能物种
where instead of actually having an artificially intelligent species
你可以想象一个“愚蠢的”计算机程序
you can imagine a dumb computer program that uses the reward
在计算机框架内通过遗传算法和选择
through let’s say genetic algorithms and selection within a computer framework
运用获益和越来越好的诱饵
to increasingly parasitize, using better and better lures,
在完全智能的人类身上不断寄生
fully intelligent humans
在人工智能的案例中 我认为我们还没走到那一步
And in the case of artificial intelligence, I don’t think we’re there yet.
但是在人工超越智能的情况中
But in the case of artificial out-telligence
我发现所有因素都包含在这个等式中
I can’t find anything that’s missing from the equation.
所以我们有自修改程序
So we have self-modifying code.
你有比特币 所以你能有一个奖赏机制和数据区块链记录机制
You have Bitcoin so you could have a reward structure and blockchains
我并未发现有阻碍我们创造的东西
And there’s nothing that I see that keeps us from creating
现在那是一个奇怪和不切实际的可能性
Now that’s such a strange and quixotic possibility.
在这个体系中 我没有看到存在的风险
In this framework I don’t see an existential risk
因此担心机器智能成为人类的终结发明的朋友们
so that my friends who worry about machine intelligence being a terminal invention for the human species
可能并不需要担心
probably don’t need to be worried
但是我认为许多人工智能周边的新奇事物还没有被发现
But I think there’s a lot of exotica around artificial intelligence which hasn’t been explored
我认为这是更可能实现的
and I think which is much closer to fruition.
也许这是很棒的
Perhaps that’s good.
也许这是一个警告 所以我们将会发现 正如我们意识到比特币可以用作数字黄金
Maybe it’s a warning shot so that we’re going to find that just as we woke up to Bitcoin as digital gold
我们也许会意识到人工智能的一个先兆
we may wake up to a precursor to artificial general intelligence
它警醒我们这样的事实——我们也许应该将更多的精力
which alerts us to the fact that we should probably be devoting more energy
投入到这个听起来绝对疯狂的 尚未有人遇到的未来问题上
into this absolutely crazy-sounding future problem which no humans have ever encountered

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视频概述

和自然界植物一样,人工智能也可能会通过诱饵达成自我繁殖的目的,这应引起人类注意。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Bù Shí

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wu8s0tp9yzY

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