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看完之后,你的大脑会不一样

After watching this, your brain will not be the same | Lara Boyd | TEDxVancouver

那么 我们是怎样学习的呢
So how do we learn?
又为什么我们中有些人学习知识比其他人更容易?
And why does some of us learn things more easily than others?
所以 正如刚才所提及的 我是拉亚·博伊德博士
So, as I just mentioned, I’m Dr. Lara Boyd.
我是英属哥伦比亚大学的一位脑科研究员
I am a brain researcher here at the University of British Columbia.
这些都是吸引我的问题
These are the questions that fascinate me.
[欢呼声][掌声]
(Cheers) (Applause)
大脑研究是理解人类生理机能的
So brain research is one of the great frontiers
尖端科学之一
in the understanding of human physiology,
同时也促使我们思考是什么让我们成为真正的我们
and also in the consideration of what makes us who we are.
这是个非常好的时代成为一名脑科研究员
It’s an amazing time to be a brain researcher,
同时我要告诉你们
and I would argue to you
我从事着全世界最有趣的工作
that I have the most interesting job in the world.
我们对于大脑的了解 在以一个令人惊讶的速度改变
What we know about the brain is changing at a breathtaking pace.
很多我们所知道和理解的关于大脑的观点
And much of what we thought we knew and understood about the brain
都被证实是不正确或不全面的
turns out to be not true or incomplete.
有些错误观念比其他的错的更明显
Some of these misconceptions are more obvious than others.
例如 我们过去认为
For example, we used to think
童年之后我们的大脑不会也不能再有任何改变了
that after childhood the brain did not, really could not change.
研究表明这个观点错的离谱
And it turns out that nothing could be farther from the truth.
另一个对于大脑的错误观念就是
Another misconception about the brain
在任何给定的时间 你只使用了部分大脑
is that you only use parts of it at any given time
而当你什么都不做时 大脑处于静默状态
and it’s silent when you do nothing.
当然 这也是不正确的
Well, this is also untrue.
研究表明即使你在休息
It turns out that even when you’re at a rest
没思考任何事 你的大脑仍是高度活跃的
and thinking of nothing, your brain is highly active.
我们利用先进的科技 例如核磁共振成像
So it’s been advances in technology, such as MRI,
来证明它们和其他的重要发现
that’s allowed us to make these and many other important discoveries.
在这些发现中可能最精彩
And perhaps the most exciting,
最有趣和最有变革意义的
the most interesting and transformative of these discoveries
就是 每次你学一个新的事实或技能时
is that, every time you learn a new fact or skill,
你就改变了你的大脑
you change your brain.
这就是我们所说的神经可塑性
It’s something we call neuroplasticity.
不过25年前 我们认为青春期过后
So as little as 25 years ago, we thought that after about puberty,
大脑中仅有的变化都是为负的:
the only changes that took place in the brain were negative:
脑细胞会随着年龄的增长而不断减少
the loss of brain cells with aging,
这种现象所导致的结果 比如 中风
the result of damage, like a stroke.
研究显示 在成年人的大脑中
And then, studies began to show remarkable amounts
存在数量可观的结构重组
of reorganization in the adult brain.
随后的研究告诉我们
And the ensuing research has shown us
我们所有的行为能改变我们的大脑
that all of our behaviors change our brain.
而这些改变不会被年龄所限制
That these changes are not limited by age,
这不正是个好消息吗
it’s a good news right?
可实际上 改变一直都在发生
And in fact, they are taking place all the time.
而且更重要的是
And very importantly,
大脑重组对大脑损伤后的恢复
brain reorganization helps to support recovery
是有益的
after you damage your brain.
这些变化的关键就在于神经可塑性
The key to each of these changes is neuroplasticity.
那么它长什么样呢
So what does it look like?
大脑可以通过三种基本的改变方式
So your brain can change in three very basic ways
来支持学习
to support learning.
第一个就是化学变化
And the first is chemical.
大脑实际上是靠改变大脑细胞之间化学反应信号来起工作的
So your brain actually functions by transferring chemicals signals
这些细胞我们称之为神经元
between brain cells, what we call neurons,
这些变化会引发了一系列的行为和反应
and this triggered a series of actions and reactions.
所以为了支持学习 大脑会增加这些发生在
So to support learning, your brain can increase the amount of the concentrations
神经元之间化学信号的
of these chemical signalling.
集中数量
that’s taking place between neurons.
因为这种改变能够迅速发生
Because this change can happen rapidly,
因而也就支持短期记忆
this supports short-term memory
或者说 是运动技能表现的短期进步
or the short-term improvement in the performance of a motor skill.
第二种方式 大脑可以通过改变它的结构
The second way that the brain can change to support learning
来支持学习
is by altering its structure.
所以在学习中 大脑可以改变神经元之间的连接
So during learning, the brain can change the connections between neurons.
在这一过程中 大脑的物理结构确实在改变
Here, the physical structure of the brain is actually changing
只是需要更多一点的时间
so this takes a bit more time.
这种类型的改变与长期记忆
These type of changes are related to long-term memory,
运动技能的长期提高有关
the long-term improvement in a motor skill.
这些过程中它们相互作用 我给你们展示一下它们是怎样运作的
These processes interact, and let me give you an example of how.
我们都尝试过学习一个新的运动技能
We’ve all tried to learn a new motor skill,
或是弹钢琴
maybe playing the piano,
或是学杂耍
maybe learning to juggle.
你有过越学越好的经验
You’ve had the experience of getting better and better
在一段时期的练习后
within a single session of practice,
你会想着“我已经学会了”
and thinking “I have got it.”
可是 或许第二天你就会回到起点
And then, maybe you return the next day,
所有之前的进步都消失了
and all those improvements from the day before are lost.
发生了什么呢?
What happened?
当然 在短期内 你的大脑能够增加
Well, in the short-term, your brain was able to increase
神经元间的化学信号
the chemical signaling between your neurons.
但是出于某种原因 这些变化没能引起结构变化
But for some reason, those changes did not induce the structural changes
而这些结构变化对于维持长期记忆尤其重要
that are necessary to support long-term memory.
形成长期记忆需要时间
Remember that long-term memories take time.
而在短期内所领会的东西并不会反映在学习上
And what you see in the short term does not reflect learning,
那只是物理变化
It’s these physical changes
是为了支持长期记忆
that are now going to support long-term memories,
同时化学变化支持着短期记忆
and chemical changes that support short-term memories.
结构变化也可以促使大脑区域网络成为整体
Structural changes also can lead to integrated networks of brain regions
共同起作用来支持学习
that function together to support learning.
它们也可以通向特定的大脑区域
And they can also lead to certain brain regions
这对于非常具体的行为很重要
that are important for very specific behaviors
以致改变你的结构或者去扩大它
to change your structure or to enlarge.
所以这就是一些例子
So here’s some examples of that.
读过盲人用点字法的书的人
People who read Braille
在他们的大脑中比那些没有读过的人有更广的用手感知的区域
have larger hand sensory areas in their brain than those of us who don’t.
你支配手的机体区域 在你大脑的左边
Your dominant hand motor region, which is on the left side of your brain,
如果你是右撇子 它就会比另一边更大
if you are right-handed, is larger than the other side.
而研究表示伦敦的出租车司机
And research shows the London taxi cab drivers
实际上不得不记忆伦敦的地图来获得他们都出租车执照
who actually have to memorize a map of London to get their taxi cab license,
他们就有更大的大脑区域用于空间或地图的记忆
they have larger brain regions devoted to spatial, or mapping memories.
最后一种你大脑会变化来支持学习的方法
The last way that your brain can change to support learning
就是通过变更它的功能
is by altering its function.
当你使用一个大脑区域
As you use a brain region,
它就变得更加兴奋和更容易重新使用
It becomes more and more excitable and easy to use again.
就正是因为你的大脑有这些增加兴奋性的区域
And as your brain has these areas that increase their excitability,
大脑改变了它们活化的方式和时间
the brain shifts how and when they are activated.
通过学习 我们可以理解
With learning, we see
大脑活动的整个网络是随时在进行转移和改变的
that whole networks of brain activity are shifting and changing.
所以神经可塑性是受支持的
So neuroplasticity is supported
通过化学变化 通过结构构建和功能变化
by chemical, by structural, and by functional changes,
它们又在整个大脑中一直发生着
and these are happening across the whole brain.
它们可以独立地一个一个发生
They can occur in isolation from one or another,
但是大多数情况下 它们是一起发生的
but most often, they take place in concert.
它们一起支持着学习
Together, they support learning.
它们一直都在发生
And they’re taking place all the time.
我只想告诉你大脑的神经可塑性是多么令人惊叹
I just told you really how awesomely neuroplastic your brain is.
为什么你不能选择容易的方法去学习呢?
Why can’t you learn anything you choose to with ease?
为什么孩子们有时会在学业上失利?
Why do our kids sometimes fail in school?
为什么随着我们变老我们往往会忘记东西?
Why as we age do we tend to forget things?
又为什么人们不能从大脑损伤中完全康复?
And why don’t people fully recover from brain damage?
那么 是什么在限制和促进神经可塑性?
That is: what is it that limits and facilitates neuroplasticity?
而这就是我所研究的内容
And so this is what I study.
我特别研究它与中风康复有怎样的联系
I study specifically how it relates to recovery from stroke.
最近 中风排名下降
Recently, stroke dropped
从成为美国导致死亡的第三个主要原因
from being the third leading cause of death in the United States
变成了第四个
to be the forth leading cause of death.
好消息 对吧?
Great news, right?
但是事实上 它表明了
But actually, it turns out
患有中风人群的数量并未减少
that the number of people having a stroke has not declined.
我们仅仅是善于在一场严重的中风后维持人们的生命
We are just better at keeping people alive after a severe stroke.
这就表明帮助大脑从中风中康复非常困难
It turns out to be very difficult to help the brain recover from stroke.
说实话
And frankly,
我们并没有成功地开发出有效的复原措施
we have failed to develop effective rehabilitation interventions.
它纯粹的结果就是 中风成为世界上导致
The net result of this is that stroke is the leading cause
成年人长期残疾的主要原因
of long-term disability in adults in the world;
患有中风的人越来越年轻
individuals with stroke are younger
而且往往是带着残疾活的更久
and tending to live longer with that disability,
我们团队的研究确实显示了
and research from my group actually shows
患有中风的加拿大人在健康方面的生活质量已经降低
that the health-related quality of life of Canadians with stroke has declined.
所以我们明显需要在帮助人们
So clearly we need to be better
从中风康复方面做得更好
at helping people recover from stroke.
这是一个巨大的社会问题
This is an enormous societal problem,
也是一个我们尚未解决的问题
and it’s one that we are not solving.
所以可以做些什么呢?
So what can be done?
有一件事是绝对清楚的
One thing is absolutely clear:
大脑中神经可塑性变化的最好驱动者就是你的行为
the best driver of neuroplastic change in your brain is your behavior.
问题是 有一种行为 就有一种练习
The problem is that the dose of behavior, the dose of practice
需要学习的新技能和重新学习的旧机体技能
that’s required to learn new and relearn old motor skills,
的数量是非常巨大的
is very large.
怎样有效传递这些大量的练习
And how to effectively deliver these large doses of practice
是一个非常困难的问题这也是一个非常昂贵的问题
is a very difficult problem; It’s also a very expensive problem.
所以我们研究所采取的方法
So the approach that my research has taken
就是为了发展治疗方式 使大脑做好学习的准备
is to develop therapies that prime or that prepare the brain to learn.
这又包括了大脑模拟 练习和机器人学
And these have included brain simulation, exercise, and robotics.
但是通过我的研究 我意识到一个对于能够
But through my research, I’ve realized that a major limitation
研发加速中风康复的治疗方案的主要限制
to the development of therapies that speed recovery from stroke
就是神经可塑性的模式在人群中是高度差异的
is that patterns of neuroplasticity are highly variable from person to person.
作为一名研究者 差异性过去常常让我抓狂
As a researcher, variability used to drive me crazy.
这使得利用统计来检测你的数据
It makes it very difficult to use the statistics
和想法变得非常困难
to test your data and your ideas.
正是因为这一点 医学干涉研究是
And because of this, medical intervention studies are
明确地被设计成减少差异性的
specifically designed to minimize variability.
但是在我的研究中 有一件事越来越明显
But in my research, it’s becoming really clear
最重要的一点 我们收集的最可靠的数据
that the most important, the most informative data we collect
正在表明这种差异性
is showing this variability.
所以在中风后研究大脑 我们学到了许多东西
So by studying the brain after stroke, we’ve learned a lot,
而我认为这些东西在其他领域是非常实用的
and I think these lessons are very valuable in other areas.
第一课就是
The first lesson is
你大脑中的改变最主要的驱动者就是你的行为
that the primary driver of change in your brain is your behavior,
所以不存在你可以服用的神经可塑性药物
so there is no neuroplasticity drug you can take.
没有什么东西比练习更能高效地帮助你学习
Nothing is more effective than practice at helping you learn,
并且 底线是你必须去工作
and the bottom line is you have to do the work.
事实上 我的研究显示
And in fact, my research has shown
在练习中 如果你越提高难度 提高你的努力程度
increased difficulty, increased struggle if you will, during practice,
实际上会导致更多的学习效果
actually leads to both more learning,
和更好的大脑结构改变
and greater structural change in the brain.
这里的问题是 神经可塑性可同时以两种方式工作
The problem here is that neuroplastcity can work both ways.
它是正面的 你学一些新东西
It can be positive, you learn something new,
你就重新定义一项运动技能
and you refine a motor skill.
尽管它也可以是负面的 让你忘记了你曾经学过的东西
And it also can be negative though, you forgot something you once knew,
你变得沉迷于药物
you become addicted to drugs,
或许你患过慢性疼痛
maybe you have chronic pain.
所以你的大脑及其具有可塑性
So your brain is tremendously plastic,
它在结构和功能上都已经被你所做过的和未做的
and it’s been shaped both structurally and functionally by everything you do,
每一件事所塑造成形
but also by everything that you don’t do.
第二课是 关于大脑 我们已经知道
The second lesson we’ve learned about the brain
没有一成不变的学习方法
is that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to learning.
所以并不存在学习处方
So there is no recipe for learning.
考虑到一种关于一万小时掌握一种
Consider the popular belief that it takes 10,000 hours of practice
新运动技能的流行观点
to learn and to master a new motor skill.
我可以向你们保证 它并非如此简单
I can assure you it’s not quite that simple.
对于我们中的一些人
For some of us,
它将会需要更多时间的练习 而其他人可能会少得多
it’s going to take a lot more practice, and for others it may take far less.
所以我们大脑的可塑性实在太独特
So the shaping of our plastic brains is far too unique
使得不存在一种单独的干预能够对我们所有人起作用
for there to be any single intervention that’s going to work for all of us.
这一事实迫使我们去考虑一些个人化的处方
This realization has forced us to consider something call personalized medicine.
这是用来优化结果的想法
This is the idea that to optimize outcomes
每一个个体需要它们自己的干预方式
each individual requires their own intervention.
这个想法来自于癌症治疗
And the idea actually comes from cancer treatments.
这里它证明了 基因在匹配特定的化疗类型
And here it turns out that genetics are very important in matching
和特定的癌症方面是非常重要的
certain types of chemotherapy with specific forms of cancer.
我的研究显示 这可以应用到中风康复之中
My research is showing that this also applies to recovery from stroke.
存在特定的大脑结构和功能特征
There’re certain characteristics of brain structure and function
我们称之为生物标记
we called biomarkers.
这些生物标记被证明是非常有用的
And these biomarkers are proving to be very helpful
它能帮助我们匹配
and helping us to match
具体的疗法和病人个体
specific therapies with individual patients.
我实验室的数据表明 结合生物标识能最好地
The data from my lab suggests it’s a combination of biomarkers
预测神经可塑性改变和中风后恢复的类型
that best predicts neuroplastic change and patterns of recovery after stroke.
考虑到我们的大脑的复杂程度 这并不值得惊讶
And that’s not surprising, given how complicated the human brain is.
但我也认为 我们可以把这个概念考虑得广泛一点
But I also think we can consider this concept much more broadly.
考虑到我们每一个大脑的独特结构和功能
Given the unique structure and function of each of our brains
我们已经了解了脑卒中后神经可塑性对每个人都适用
what we’ve learned about neuroplasticity after stroke applies to everyone.
你在日常生活中所采用的行为是很重要的
Behaviors that you employ in your everyday life are important.
它们中的每一个都在改变你的大脑
Each of them is changing your brain.
我相信我们必须要考虑的
And I believe we have to consider
不仅仅是个性化的医学 更是个性化的学习方式
not just personalized medicine but personalized learning.
你大脑的独特性会同时作为学习者
The uniqueness of your brain will affect you
和作为教师影响你
both as a learner and also as a teacher.
这一想法会帮助我们理解
This idea helps us to understand
为什么有些孩子能在传统教育环境中茁壮成长
why some children can thrive in tradition education settings
而其他的却不能
and others don’t;
为什么我们中有些人学语言很容易
why some of us can learn languages easily
然而,其他人却在任何体育运动中出类拔萃
and yet, others can pick up any sport and excel.
所以 当今天你离开这个房间
So when you leave this room today,
你的大脑将会和你早上进来时不一样
your brain will not be the same as when you entered this morning.
我想这是相当惊人的
And I think that’s pretty amazing.
但你们中的每个人大脑的改变都将是不同的
But each of you is going to have changed your brain differently.
理解这些不同点
Understanding these differences,
这些个体模式 这些差异性和改变
these individual patterns, this variability and change
将能引起神经科学的下一个重大进步
is going to enable the next great advance in neuroscience;
它将会允许我们研发新的和更高效的干预方式
it’s going to allow us to develop new and more effective interventions,
并且匹配学习者和教师
and allow for matches between learners and teachers,
以及病人和干预方案
and patients and interventions.
这不仅会应用到中风恢复
And this does not just apply the recovery from stroke,
它会应用到我们每个人身上 作为父母 作为教师 还是作为经理人
it applies to each of us, as a parent, as a teacher, as a manager,
同样的 因为今天你在TEDx 作为一个终生学习者
and also because you are at TEDx today, as a lifelong learner.
学习怎样和什么使你学得最好
Study how and what you learn best.
重复这些行为对你的大脑的健康有益
Repeat those behaviors that are healthy for your brain,
并打破那些无益的行为
and break those behaviors and habits that are not.
练习
Practice.
学习是关于那些你的大脑要求的工作
Learning is about doing the work that your brain requires.
所以最好的策略将会随着个体改变
So the best strategies are going to vary between individuals.
你知道它们甚至在个体内变化
You know what, they’re even going to vary within individuals.
所以对于你 学习音乐可能是非常容易的
So for you, learning music may come very easily,
但学习滑雪板可能就会难得多
but learning to snowboard, much harder.
我希望今天你离开之后
I hope that you leave today
带着对你如此壮观的大脑的感激
with a new appreciation of how magnificent your brain is.
你和你的可塑性的大脑时常被你周围的世界所塑造
You and your plastic brain are constantly being shaped by the world around you.
理解你所做的每一件事
Understand that everything you do,
你遇到的每一件事 你经历的每一件事都在改变你的大脑
everything you encounter, and everything you experience is changing your brain.
这些改变可能是好的 也可能是坏的
And that can be for better, but it can also be for worse.
所以 今天离开之后 建造一个你想要的大脑吧
So when you leave today, go out and build the brain you want.
非常感谢
Thank you very much.
[掌声]
(Applause)

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关于大脑可塑性和练习的知识,看完之后,你的大脑将会不一样!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

?

审核员

瞌睡虫儿

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LNHBMFCzznE

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