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启动化学反应的活化能 – 译学馆
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启动化学反应的活化能

Activation energy: Kickstarting chemical reactions - Vance Kite

此刻,数以万亿计的化学反应
Right now, trillions of chemical reactions
在你身体的细胞里发生。
are humming away in the cells of your body.
你从来感觉不到,
You never feel them,
但如果没有这些反应,
but without these reactions,
你就不会还活着。
you wouldn’t be alive.
不幸地是,这些反应需要某些帮助。
Unfortunately, each of those reactions needs some help.
你看,大多数分子是稳定的,
You see, most molecules are stable,
他们很开心,对于自己的的状态
they are happy just the way they are.
其中的原子全都是彼此联系着和友好的
The atoms in them are all bound-up and friendly with one another
更喜欢维持这种状态
and would prefer to stay that way.
问题是,为了发生化学反应,
The problem is, for a chemical reaction to happen,
构成的稳定分子的原子
the atoms that make up those stable molecules
需要摆脱他们的朋友
need to break away from their friends
去和另一个原子结合。
and go buddy up with another atom.
这种分裂分子需要帮助
This break-up is where the molecules need a hand.
这个初始启动称为活化能。
This initial kick-start is known as activation energy.
通常用来破坏分子,
It’s used to destabilize the molecule,
把结合着的原子推动到
to push the bonds between the atoms
他们准备休息的地方。
to a place where they are ready to break.
这种不稳定的状态称为分子的过渡态。
This unstable state is known as the molecule’s transition state.
一旦过渡态实现,
Once a transition state has been achieved,
原子变得愿意离开当前的分子朋友
the atoms become willing to leave their current molecular friends
到其他地方结交新朋友
and go make new friends elsewhere.
一旦他们确认,这是一块蛋糕。
Once they are convinced, it’s a piece of cake.
结合破裂,
Bonds break,
原子重新排列
atoms rearrange,
剩下的反应自动发生
and the rest of the reaction happens automatically.
在施加第一个推力后,身体不再需要
After that first push, the body doesn’t need to put in
任何能量去帮助反应
any more energy to help the reaction along.
更不用说这些反应大多会非常缓慢
Left alone, most of these reactions would be very slow
因为它需要花费很长时间去建立
because it takes quite a while to build up
分子需要的活化能
the activation energy the molecules need to get started.
进入酶
Enter the enzyme.
酶是蛋白质,能加速
Enzymes are proteins that speed up,
或催化,反应
or catalyze, reactions
通过降低活化能
by lowering the activation energy.
使反应更容易,分子
They make it easier for the molecule,
也被称为酶底物
also known as a substrate,
去到达过渡状态
to get to the transition state.
你可以把反应当做比赛
You can think of a reaction like a race.
一些比赛者正在跑
Some racers are running along,
然而一些却有队友来帮助他们
while others have teammates to help them.
比如山姆底物
Meet Sam the Substrate.
他的团队是MODS小队
His team is the MODS Squad.
团结起来,他的团队能够更快完成比赛
Together, his team is able to get to the finish faster,
使用更少能源
using less energy.
有四类特殊酶在山姆的队伍中
There are four special enzymes in Sam’s team.
每一个都有不同的策略
Each has a different strategy
为了降低能量,它需要开始
for lowering the energy it takes to get going
并且加速步伐去变成小分子到达终点线
and speeding up the pace to get the MODS to the finish line.
“M”代表了微环境.
The “M” stands for “microenvironment”.
酶为底物创造了一个小的特殊的环境
This enzyme creates a tiny, special environment for the substrate,
加快反应时间
resulting in a faster reaction time.
他跑在人群前面
He runs ahead of the pack,
一路平缓没有阻碍
flattening out bumps in the road
为他的分子团队模糊冷水
and misting cool water on his team of molecules.
“O”是“定位”。
“O” is for “orientation”.
有时,两个分子必须被放在正确的位置上
Sometimes two molecules must be positioned
在反应开始前。
just right before they will react.
像一个在终点线的朋友,
Like a friend at the finish line,
O酶提供了
the O enzyme provides his molecules
带有特殊形状空间的分子
with specially shaped spaces
使底物在正确的方式下相互作用
that allow the substrates to interact in just the right way.
“D”代表了“直接参与”。
“D” stands for “direct participation”.
偶尔,需要一点肌肉。
Every now and again, a little muscle is needed.
当他的队友们都在努力完成比赛,
And when his teammates are struggling to finish the race,
队友D来接他们
Teammate D is there to pick them up
带他们到达终点。
and carry them over the line.
最后,“S”是“拉紧联系”。
Finally, “S” is for “straining bonds”.
这家伙推动团队
This guy pushes the team
通过一些高强度的柔韧性练习:
through some serious flexibility exercises:
分裂,
splits,
往前冲,
lunges,
弯身
backbends,
完成。
the works.
有时他的底物队友
Sometimes his substrate teammates
只需要压力和被弯曲就能
just need to be stressed and flexed
进入过渡态。
into their transition state.
就是这样。
So that’s it.
记住所有的反应都需要能量。
Remember that all reactions need energy to get going.
这种能量被称为活化能。
This energy is known as the activation energy.
酶降低活化能
Enzymes lower that activation energy
通过MODS团队来使反应加速:
and speed the reaction through team MODS:
微环境
microenvironment,
定位,
orientation,
直接参与,
direct participation,
拉紧联系。
and straining bonds.

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