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承认和克服偏见

Acknowledging and Overcoming Bias

内隐偏见&歧视
Implicit Biases & Discrimination
你总是能在新闻上 社会媒体上
You hear it all the time in the news, on social media
甚至出门走在街上 都能听到它
even outside walking down the street.
你可能身在其中却并不知情
You may experience it yourself and not even realize it.
我们现在谈论的就是内隐偏见
We’re talking about Implicit Biases.
我们的社会建立在“人比人”的概念上
Our society is built in us-versus-them notion.
想一想
Think about it.
体育队伍们 冰激凌的粉丝们 党派们等等
sports teams, ice cream flavors, political parties, etc.
这种心态可以在像运动队之间角逐
This type of mentality can be found in certain situations
这一类特定的情况下出现
like when sports teams are versing one another.
但是 当出现一些团体因其身份而被针对
But it can be very dangerous in other situations
的情况时 这种心态就十分危险了
when certain groups are targeted because of their identity.
内隐偏见在
Implicit biases are especially common
性 宗教 种族背景 以及性取向
when it comes to sexes, religions, racial and ethnic backgrounds
这些方面尤为常见
and sexual orientations.
我们大多数都在无意之中偏向
Most of us have some kind of unconscious bias towards
或有时排斥一类特定的人群
and sometimes against a certain group of people.
如果你注意到了你有这些 不要责备自己
If you notice you do don’t blame yourself,
因为自我们呱呱坠地 它就在脑中扎根了
It has been embedded in our brains since birth.
这取决于你生活的环境
Depending on where you were raised,
成长过程中周围的人
who you grew up around
以及你的家人朋友有意让你相信的东西
and what your family or friends consciously made you believe.
每个人都有略微不同的偏见
Everyone has slightly different biases.
好消息是我们可以努力改变偏见
The good news is that we can work towards changing these biases.
而第一步就是意识到它们的存在
And the first step is recognizing that they exist.
言归正传 为了意识到自己的偏见
In order to get to the point of recognizing one’s own biases,
最开始 有一点必须理解:内隐偏见是什么
one must understand what implicit biases are to begin with.
为什么它很重要
why do implicit biases matter?
它何以致用
what’s their function?
内隐偏见是那些能影响我们的行为举止
Implicit biases are attitudes or stereotypes we have
的态度或刻板印象
that influence our behavior actions
并且在无意中 对理解保持着影响
and understanding on retaining affect in an unconscious manner.
这些偏见可好可坏
These biases can be both positive and negative
但我们就是察觉不到它们
but we are unaware of their existence.
因此也不可能去操控它们
and therefore were unable to control them.
自从我们的思维方式适应环境
Stereotypes have always existed
并且从环境中学习开始
since it’s our minds way of adapting to situations
刻版印象就已经存在了
and learning from them.
比如
For example,
看到一只狗 知道它可能会叫 这就是刻板印象
seeing a dog and knowing that it will probably bark is a stereotype.
又或者碰到火的话就会烫伤 这也是
or that touching a fire will burn and hurt you.
这些就是我们已经学到的
These are things that we have learned.
然而 我们目前知道的大部分刻板印象
However most stereotypes we know of today
都是:这个好 这个差
are this is good and this is bad.
这些负面的刻板印象在日常生活中
Those bad types of stereotypes are not necessary for survival
对于生存无足轻重
in our daily world.
那么在这一点上 就是纯粹的偏见
and in this point, it is purely prejudice.
这里倒是有方法去控制这些偏见
There is a way to control these biases though
其要点就是关注人各自的心理活动
and it begins by paying attention to one’s own mental thoughts
以及反应
and reactions.
以下是内隐偏见的一些特征
Here are some characteristics of implicit biases.
1.世人皆有
1. Everyone has them.
而一些人总想否认
Some people will try to deny
他们受到了各种形式的偏见
that they are biased in any way shape or form.
但是他们要么把它们藏得好好的
but they are either just good at hiding them
要么就觉得自己的方式
or live believing their way
才是理解这个世界的唯一方式
is the only way to see the world.
2.内隐联系贯穿于生活的方方面面
2. Implicit associations develop throughout life
虽然它们大多数在幼年时期就开始了
Although most of them start at an early age,
它们会受到年龄增长
they are influenced as we age
媒体报道 自己推演
through media, our own reasonings,
周围的人 以及环境的影响
the people who surround us and our environment.
3.我们的隐性信条不总是与口头上的
3. Our implicit beliefs don’t always align with our spoken beliefs
或是社会上的信条一致
or the beliefs of our society.
4.我们会偏爱那些
4. We tend to have a favorable bias
与我们相似的人
towards those similar to us,
但我们多少也会对他们有一些消极的偏见
but we also possess a somewhat negative bias towards them as well
现在 你可能还在问你自己
Now you might still be asking yourself
为什么隐性偏见这么重要?
why do implicit biases matter?
潜意识指挥着我们大部分的行动
The unconscious mind controls a majority of our actions.
通俗的说
In layman’s terms,
我们不需要考虑那些一直在做的事
we don’t need to think about the things we constantly do.
你不会考虑每一步
You don’t think about each step you take
或是每次的眨眼
or each time you blink
你自然而然地就做了
but you do it automatically.
我们所有的行动都基于内隐偏见
All of our actions are based off of our implicit biases
而非下意识的观念
rather than our conscious values.
举个简单的例子
For a simple example,
你在和朋友比赛互瞪
you could be having a staring contest with your friend
你下意识不想
and your conscious mind does not want you
率先眨眼
to be the first one to blink.
但是你的内隐偏见知道
but your implicit biases know the dangers
太久不眨眼的危害
of going too long without blinking.
然后 你就以眨眼告败
Usually you’ll end up blinking
无论你想 或是不想
whether you want to or not.
这在种族歧视中也有迹可循
This can also be seen in racial examples,
研究表明
studies have shown that
对非裔美国人有很大内隐偏见的人
people who have a higher implicit bias towards African Americans
会将非敌对误当成敌对
will mistake none weapon for a weapon
无论他们是否想这么做
whether they want to or not.
医生面对黑人病患时不会全神贯注
Doctors may not pay full attention to a black patient
因为他们不像是会配合的样子
because they are more likely to be uncooperative.
医生可能不会意识到他们正在这么做
The doctor probably doesn’t even notice that they’re doing this
但他们就是这么做了
but it happens
除非有人给他们指出来
unless it’s pointed out to them.
根据开放社会基金会的调查
According to Open Society Foundations,
85%的美国人坚信自己没有任何偏见
85 percent of Americans believe that they do not have any prejudices.
然而 研究者们得出结论是
However, researchers conclude that
每个人都带着一些形式的内隐偏见
everyone holds some form of unconscious biases.
在无意识中
Unconsciously,
我们中的每一个人都遵从着“敌对”的心态
each and everyone of us follows the us-versus-them mentality.
当人们或是无意识到这些偏见
When people are either unaware of these biases
或是不在乎有可能是带着有色眼镜看待事物
or do not care to potentially view things differently.
我们的社会会变得消极
Our society can be morphed negatively,
立法者和政治家们有着执行其偏见的权力
lawmakers and politicians have the power to take their biased opinions
并且将之立法
and make them law
那样做会伤害到那些信仰不同的人
which can hurt others who do not believe in the same things.
在如今的新闻报道中 一些典型的例子被普遍提及
Some notable examples of this are commonly spoken about in the news today.
禁用避孕药 拒绝同性婚姻合法化
Banning contraceptives, refusing to legalize gay marriage,
禁止穆斯林 等等
banning Muslims, etc.
在了解了内隐偏见的细节后
After learning the details about implicit biases,
有没有方法能改变你潜意识中的偏见?
is there a way to change these biases in your subconscious?
我们能否在个人和社会的层面上
Can we prevent these negative side effects
避免这些不利的刻板印象
from unfavorable stereotyping on a personal level
带来的消极影响吗?
and on a societal level?
答案是肯定的 我们可以
The answer is yes, we can.
科学家正朝技术创新的方向努力 为了消除思维偏见
Scientists are working towards creating techniques for debiasing our minds
以及抛却内隐联系的弊习
to unlearn our implicit associations.
我们的大脑如此复杂 内隐偏见轻易就能产生影响
Since our brains are so complex and implicit biases are easily influenced,
长期 逐步的训练是
long and gradual training is a big part
如何克服偏见的重头戏
of what it takes to overcome them.
媒体和文化环境在其中扮演了重要的角色
Media and culture play huge role in this.
如果你注意到你看的新闻报道
If you notice the news outlets you watch
将某一特定的文化或是民族置于危险的 贬损的
to pick certain cultures or ethnic groups in a dangerous unflattering
或其他负面的境地并公之于众 那么你可能需要找一个新的立场
or otherwise negative light, you might want to find a new station.
一定要记得警惕这些内隐偏见
Always remember to stay mindful of these implicit biases.
每天的与人交往中都要留意这些偏见
Be aware of them through day-to-day interactions with people.
在浏览网页中
Reading about things online
甚至听旁人谈论他们的经历时都要注意
and even hearing about others talking about their experiences.
承认你的第一反应或是想法
Recognize your initial reaction or thought,
然后退回一步
then take a step back
考虑一下这是否是内隐偏见
and think if this was an implicit bias or not.
发明详细的做决定的方法 并且识别出
By creating detailed methods of decision making and identifying
在哪里 内隐偏见影响了判断和举止
where implicit biases affect judgement and behavior,
我们能将潜意识的行为规整到有意识的
we can align our unconscious actions to our conscious values.
有希望战胜这些偏见
There is hope to overcoming these biases.
通过奋斗和坚持不懈 我们可以创造
Through hard work and determination we can strive for a world
一个人人平等的世界
where everyone is seen as equal.
而偏见 是过去式
And prejudice is a thing of the past.
任重而道远
It will take a lot of time,
但终有事竟成
but we can eventually get there.
谢谢观看
Thank you for watching
记得要订阅哟
and remember to subscribe.

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视频概述

没有偏见的应该只有Al了吧…………

听录译者

洛洛

翻译译者

HOUKI

审核员

审核团HL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jQeA2DKlN5w

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