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谈论生理期不再是禁忌

A taboo-free way to talk about periods | Aditi Gupta

例假
Periods.
出血
Blood.
月经
Menstruation.
不雅
Gross.
秘密
Secret.
遮掩
Hidden.
为什么会这样呢?
Why?
作为一种自然的生理规律
A natural biological process
每个女孩和妇女在其一生中 有一半的时间
that every girl and woman goes through every month
每个月都会经历例假
for about half of her life.
这个现象如此重要
A phenomenon that is so significant
以至于全人类的生存 和繁衍都要依赖于它
that the survival and propagation of our species depends on it.
然而我们却视它为禁忌
Yet we consider it a taboo.
我们谈论它时感到尴尬和羞耻
We feel awkward and shameful talking about it.
我第一次来例假时
When I got my first periods,
别人告诉我 不要将这件事告诉任何人
I was told to keep it a secret from others —
哪怕是爸爸和哥哥
even from my father and brother.
后来在教科书上 出现了有关例假的章节
Later when this chapter appeared in our textbooks,
但是生物老师直接跳过了内容
our biology teacher skipped the subject.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
你知道我学到了什么吗?
You know what I learned from it?
我学到了谈论例假 是非常羞耻的事
I learned that it is really shameful to talk about it.
我学到了为自己的身体感到羞耻
I learned to be ashamed of my body.
我学到了为了保持体面就得
I learned to stay unaware of periods
假装不知道例假这件事
in order to stay decent.
印度各地的调查显示
Research in various parts of India
十分之三的女孩第一次来例假时
shows that three out of every 10 girls are not aware of menstruation
并不了解它
at the time of their first periods.
在拉贾斯坦邦的一些地区
And in some parts of Rajasthan
这一比例高达十分之九
this number is as high as nine out of 10 girls being unaware of it.
你可能会感到惊讶
You’d be surprised to know
大多数我接触过的女孩
that most of the girls that I have spoken to,
在第一次来例假时 不知道例假是什么
who did not know about periods at the time of their first menstruation
她们以为她们得了血癌
thought that they have got blood cancer
马上就要死了
and they’re going to die soon.
经期卫生是导致女性生殖道感染
Menstrual hygiene is a very important risk factor
的重要风险因素
for reproductive tract infections.
但在印度 只有12%的女孩和妇女
But in India, only 12 percent of girls and women
拥有卫生的例假处理方式
have access to hygienic ways of managing their periods.
换句话说
If you do the math,
88%的女孩和妇女 处理例假的方式都不卫生
88 percent of girls and women use unhygienic ways to manage their periods.
我就是其中之一
I was one of them.
我在拉贾斯坦邦的 一个叫做加瓦的小镇长大
I grew up in a small town called Garhwa, in Jharkhand,
在那里甚至买卫生棉都很丢脸
where even buying a sanitary napkin is considered shameful.
所以当我来例假的时候
So when I started getting my periods,
使用的都是布条
I began with using rags.
使用完我会清洗再利用
After every use I would wash and reuse them.
但是我得
But to store them,
找一个阴暗潮湿的地方把它藏起来
I would hide and keep it in a dark, damp place
这样就没人知道我在生理期了
so that nobody finds out that I’m menstruating.
因为反复清洗布条变得粗糙
Due to repeated washing the rags would become coarse,
我常常得皮疹和感染
and I would often get rashes and infections using them.
在离开了小镇之前 五年来我 一直用这样的方式处理例假
I wore these already for five years until I moved out of that town.
另外一个例假带来的不便
Another issue that periods brought in my life
是社会强加在
those of the social restrictions
月经期的女孩和妇女的一些限制
that are imposed upon our girls and women when they’re on their periods.
我想大家都有所耳闻
I think you all must be aware of it,
我将为那些不知道的人一一列举
but I’ll still list it for the few who don’t.
我不能碰也不能吃腌菜
I was not allowed to touch or eat pickles.
我不能坐在沙发上 也不能坐在其他家庭成员的床上
I was not allowed to sit on the sofa or some other family member’s bed.
每次例假结束我都要清洗床单
I had to wash my bed sheet after every period,
即使床单上没有污渍
even if it was not stained.
我被认定是不洁之人
I was considered impure
不允许参拜或触摸任何宗教物品
and forbidden from worshipping or touching any object of religious importance.
不允许经期女性进入庙宇
You’ll find signposts outside temples
的警示牌随处可见
denying the entry of menstruating girls and women.
讽刺的是
Ironically,
这些限制往往是家族中
most of the time it is the older woman
年纪较大的女性 强加到年轻女性身上的
who imposes such restrictions on younger girls in a family.
毕竟随她们长大她们接受这些限制 并且将其当成标准
After all, they have grown up accepting such restrictions as norms.
在没有任何干预的情况下
And in the absence of any intervention,
这样的传播和误解
it is the myth and misconception
一代一代的传播下来
that propagate from generation to generation.
在我研究这几年的研究中
During my years of work in this field,
我甚至听到过
I have even come across stories
女孩需要单独吃饭和洗碗 这样的故事
where girls have to eat and wash their dishes separately.
她们在经期不允许洗澡
They’re not allowed to take baths during periods,
有的家庭甚至把她们关起来 以防和其他家庭成员接触
and in some households they are even secluded from other family members.
在印度大约85%的女性
About 85 percent of girls and women in India
在例假期间都会至少遵循 一条这些限制性的习俗
would follow one or more restrictive customs on their periods every month.
你能想象这对一个年轻女孩
Can you imagine what this does
的自尊和自信产生什么样的影响吗?
to the self-esteem and self-confidence of a young girl?
这造成的心理创伤
The psychological trauma that this inflicts,
可以影响女孩的性格
affecting her personality,
学习成绩
her academic performance
和在早年性格形成过程中 每个方面的成长
and every single aspect of growing up during her early formative years?
我虔诚地遵循了13年的习俗
I religiously followed all these restrictive customs for 13 years,
直到我和一个叫图新的朋友聊天
until a discussion with my partner, Tuhin,
让我永久的改变了对生理期的看法
changed my perception about menstruation forever.
2009年图新和我 都在读设计专业研究生
In 2009, Tuhin and I were pursuing our postgraduation in design.
我们彼此相爱
We fell in love with each other
我和他谈论经期也比较自在
and I was at ease discussing periods with him.
图新不懂例假
Tuhin knew little about periods.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
当他知道女孩每个月有月经 甚至还要流血时
He was astonished to know that girls get painful cramps
震惊不已
and we bleed every month.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
是的
Yeah.
当他知道经期女性
He was completely shocked to know
受到的家庭和社会 强加的种种限制后
about the restrictions that are imposed upon menstruating girls and women
更加震惊不已
by their own families and their society.
为了帮助我更好的度过月经
In order to help me with my cramps,
他会去搜索网络 学习更多经期知识
he would go on the Internet and learn more about menstruation.
当他和我分享月经知识的时候
When he shared his findings with me,
我才意识到自己对月经知之甚少
I realized how little I knew about menstruation myself.
很多我之前所相信的都是假的
And many of my beliefs actually turned out to be myths.
我们怀疑:
That’s when we wondered:
如果我们作为受过高等教育的人
if we, being so well educated,
都对月经知之甚少
were so ill-informed about menstruation,
其它数百万的女孩知道的就更少了
there would be millions of girls out there who would be ill-informed, too.
为了研究
To study —
为了更好地研究这个问题
to understand the problem better,
我用了一年的时间来 研究为什么月经问题一直被忽视
I undertook a year-long research to study the lack of awareness about menstruation
和根植于背后的问题
and the root cause behind it.
为什么大家普遍认为
While it is generally believed
对于月经的忽视和误解 是一个农村问题
that menstrual unawareness and misconception is a rural phenomenon,
在我的研究过程中
during my research,
我发现它也是城市问题
I found that it is as much an urban phenomenon as well.
它在城市 受过良好教育的人群里也存在着
And it exists with the educated urban class, also.
通过和许多家长和老师的讨论
While talking to many parents and teachers,
我发现他们中很多人 实际上希望在女孩的月经来临前
I found that many of them actually wanted to educate girls about periods
告诉她月经的知识
before they have started getting their menstrual cycle.

And —
但是他们缺乏合适的方法
but they lacked the proper means themselves.
因为这是一个禁忌
And since it is a taboo,
他们在谈论 它的时候感觉压抑和羞耻
they feel inhibition and shameful in talking about it.
现在女孩子大多在 六年级七年级开始来月经
Girls nowadays get their periods in classes six and seven,
但是我们的教育课程
but our educational curriculum
在八 九年级的时候 才正式的讲月经的知识
teaches girls about periods only in standard eight and nine.
而且正因为它是禁忌
And since it is a taboo,
老师们一起仍然跳过这些内容
teachers still skip the subject altogether.
所以学校不告诉女孩经期知识
So school does not teach girls about periods,
家长们也不谈论这些
parents don’t talk about it.
那些女孩怎么办呢?
Where do the girls go?
20年来直到今天
Two decades ago and now —
一直都是这样
nothing has changed.
我和图新分享了 这些发现之后我们认为
I shared these finding with Tuhin and we wondered:
我们应该创造一些东西
What if we could create something
来帮助女孩了解他们自己的生理期
that would help girls understand about menstruation on their own —
创造一些能够帮助家长和老师
something that would help parents and teachers
更舒服地和孩子们谈论生理期的东西
talk about periods comfortably to young girls?
在我的研究中
During my research,
我收集了很多故事
I was collecting a lot of stories.
这些女孩们在她们经期时的经验故事
These were stories of experiences of girls during their periods.
让其他女孩在这个 属于她们自己的圈子里
These stories would make girls curious and interested
好奇并感兴趣地谈论这个问题
in talking about menstruation in their close circle.
这就是我们想要的
That’s what we wanted.
我们想让女孩通过好奇心的驱使
We wanted something that would make the girls curious
去学习月经知识
and drive them to learn about it.
我们希望用这些故事 来告诉女孩什么事例假
We wanted to use these stories to teach girls about periods.
所以我们决定写一本漫画书
So we decided to create a comic book,
里面的卡通角色演绎了这些故事
where the cartoon characters would enact these stories
并用风趣迷人的方式 告诉女孩子们生理期的知识
and educate girls about menstruation in a fun and engaging way.
为了给不同青春期阶段的女孩 更好地展示
To represent girls in their different phases of puberty,
我们有三个人物
we have three characters.
平吉 她还没有开始例假
Pinki, who has not gotten her period yet,
吉雅 她在这本书的叙述中 开始了例假
Jiya who gets her period during the narrative of the book
还有米娅 她已经开始了例假
and Mira who has already been getting her period.
还有第四个角色 皮里亚·迪迪
There is a fourth character, Priya Didi.
通过她女孩们知道 人体成长的方方面面
Through her, girls come to know about the various aspects of growing up
和经期卫生管理知识
and menstrual hygiene management.
在制作这本书的过程中
While making the book, we took great care
我们确保每一张插画都不会引起读者的反感
that none of the illustrations were objectionable in any way
和文化的敏感
and that it is culturally sensitive.
在我们第一版书的测试中 我们发现女孩很爱这本书
During our prototype testing, we found that the girls loved the book.
她们急不可待地读
They were keen on reading it
知道了越来越多 她们自己的经期的知识
and knowing more and more about periods on their own.
家长和老师使用这本书 给女孩们讲经期知识时
Parents and teachers were comfortable in talking about periods
也非常的舒服
to young girls using the book,
有的时候甚至男孩也对它感兴趣
and sometimes even boys were interested in reading it.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
[掌声]
(Applause)
这本漫画书改变了大众的氛围
The comic book helped in creating an environment
月经再也不是一个禁忌
where menstruation ceased to be a taboo.
在印度五个不同的地区 很多志愿者用这本书的初版
Many of the volunteers took this prototype themselves to educate girls
来教育女孩并且开展 提高月经认识的讲习班
and take menstrual awareness workshops in five different states in India.
甚至有一位志愿者 用这本书去教育年轻的僧人
And one of the volunteers took this prototype to educate young monks
把它带到了拉达克的寺庙中
and took it to this monastery in Ladakh.
我们这本书的最终版本 叫做“月经百科”漫画
We made the final version of the book, called “Menstrupedia Comic”
在去年九月正式出版
and launched in September last year.
到目前为止
And so far,
在印度和其他十余个不同的国家 超过4000个女孩
more than 4,000 girls have been educated by using the book in India and —
[掌声]
(Applause)
谢谢
Thank you.
[掌声]
(Applause)
受到了这本书的教育
And 10 different countries.
我们不断地把这本书翻译成不同的语言
We are constantly translating the book into different languages
不断地和当地的机构合作
and collaborating with local organizations
让这本书在不同的国家可以上市
to make this book available in different countries.
在印度15所来自不同地方的学校
15 schools in different parts of India
把这本书纳入了教学课程之中
have made this book a part of their school curriculum
来为女孩讲解经期知识
to teach girls about menstruation.
[掌声]
(Applause)
我惊讶于志愿者
I am amazed to see how volunteers,
个人 家长 老师 校长
individuals, parents, teachers, school principals,
共同努力
have come together
提升所在社区的女性生理意识
and taken this menstrual awareness drive to their own communities,
确保女孩在正确的时间学习生理知识
have made sure that the girls learn about periods at the right age
并帮助破除这个禁忌
and helped in breaking this taboo.
我希望将来有一天 月经不再是一个诅咒
I dream of a future where menstruation is not a curse,
不再是疾病
not a disease,
而是一个女孩生命中 受到欢迎的转折点
but a welcoming change in a girl’s life.
我希望
And I would —
[掌声]
(Applause)
我希望在结尾
And I would like to end this
对各位家长提出一个小小的要求
with a small request to all the parents here.
亲爱的家长们
Dear parents,
如果您对于例假感到羞耻
if you would be ashamed of periods,
您的女儿也会一样
your daughters would be, too.
所以做一个积极面对例假的人
So please be period positive.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
谢谢
Thank you.
[掌声]
(Applause)

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视频概述

确实,谈论经期会让很多人不舒服。这种禁忌有它的后果:在印度十分之三的女孩甚至在她们第一次月经时不知道月经是什么,各种有关月经的习俗限制造成了对年轻女孩的心理伤害。同这种禁忌一起长大的阿迪提·古普塔希望女孩,父母和老师谈论经期时可以更加舒服,不再需要怀着羞耻。她分享了她是如何做到的。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OaGEM-Rms48

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