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提供给无信用记录人群的智能商业贷款 – 译学馆
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提供给无信用记录人群的智能商业贷款

A smart new business loan for people with no credit | Shivani Siroya

你需要多了解一个人
How much do you need to know about a person
才能放心地借钱给他?
before you’d feel comfortable making a loan?
假设你想借出1000美金
Suppose you wanted to lend 1,000 dollars
给那个和你坐着隔着两行的人
to the person sitting two rows behind you.
你需要知道这个人的哪些信息
What would you need to know about that person
你才能感到放心呢?
before you’d feel comfortable?
我妈妈在她三十多岁 的时候从印度来到美国
My mom came to the US from India in her late thirties.
她是布鲁克林的一名医生
She’s a doctor in Brooklyn,
她也经常为她的朋友 和邻居提供健康服务
and she often lets friends and neighbors come to see her for health services,
不管他们能不能立刻付款
whether they can pay right away or not.
我记得有一次 和她在食品杂货店或者是在人行道上
I remember running into her patients with her at the grocery store
遇到她的病人
or on the sidewalk,
有时他们会立刻向她付款
and sometimes they would come and pay her right on the spot
而且预约
for previous appointments.
她会向他们表示感谢
She would thank them,
还问他们家庭和健康的情况
and ask them about their families and their health.
她借钱给他们是因为她相信他们
She gave them credit because she trusted them.
我们中的大多数就像我的妈妈
Most of us are like my mom.
我们会借钱给我们认识的人
We would give credit to someone we know
或是住在我们附近的人
or that we live next to.
但是我们中的多数人 不会借钱给陌生人
But most of us are probably not going to lend to a stranger
除非我们对他们有一定的了解
unless we know a little something about them.
银行、信用卡公司和其它金融机构
Banks, credit card companies and other financial institutions
不是在个人的层面了解我们
don’t know us on a personal level,
但他们有信任我们的一套方法
but they do have a way of trusting us,
就是通过我们的信用评分
and that’s through our credit scores.
我们的信用评分
Our credit scores have been created
从对我们的消费者信贷资料 的整合和分析中产生
through an aggregation and analysis of our public consumer credit data.
而且因为它,我们能更容易
And because of them, we have pretty much easy access
获得我们需要的商品和服务
to all of the goods and services that we need,
从用电到买房
from getting electricity to buying a home,
到承担风险去开办公司
or taking a risk and starting a business.
但是
But …
世界上有25亿的人
there are 2.5 billion people around the world
没有信用评分
that don’t have a credit score.
这就相当于世界人口的1/3
That’s a third of the world’s population.
他们没有评分
They don’t have a score
是因为他们没有正式的公共记录
because there are no formal public records on them —
——没有银行账号
no bank accounts,
没有信用记录
no credit histories
没有社保账号
and no social security numbers.
而且因为他们没有信用评分
And because they don’t have a score,
他们不能获得
they don’t have access to the credit or financial products
可以提高他们生活品质 的贷款和金融产品
that can improve their lives.
他们不被信任
They are not trusted.
所以我们想要探索方法去建立信用
So we wanted to find a way to build trust
让这25亿人获得各种金融产品
and to open up financial access for these 2.5 billion.
所以我们创造了一个手机应用
So we created a mobile application
可以帮他们通过移动数据 建立信用评分
that builds credit scores for them using mobile data.
目前在新兴市场上有 超过10亿的智能手机
There are currently over one billion smartphones in emerging markets.
人们和我们一样在使用他们
And people are using them the same way that we do.
他们也给朋友发短信 也看地图查方向
They’re texting their friends, they’re looking up directions,
他们也浏览互联网
they’re browsing the Internet
他们甚至进行金融转账
and they’re even making financial transactions.
长久以来, 这些数据都存在我们的手机里
Over time, this data is getting captured on our phones,
它能提供关于一个人生活的全面的图景
and it provides a really rich picture of a person’s life.
我们的顾客允许我们获得这些信息
Our customers give us access to this data
我们通过手机应用获得它
and we capture it through our mobile application.
它帮助我们了解
It helps us understand the creditworthiness
像肯尼亚内罗毕的小生意人— 詹妮弗的信誉度
of people like Jenipher, a small-business owner in Nairobi, Kenya.
詹妮弗现在65岁
Jenipher is 65 years old, and for decades has been running a food stall
经营一个 在中心商业区的食品摊位数十年
in the central business district.
她把她的三个儿子都送到了职业学校
She has three sons who she put through vocational school,
她也是当地协会和节能团队
and she’s also the leader of her local chama,
的负责人
or savings group.
詹妮弗的食品摊位生意红火
Jenipher’s food stall does well.
她每天能赚足够一天开销的钱
She makes just enough every day to cover her expenses.
但是她没有经济的保障
But she’s not financially secure.
任何紧急情况的发生 都会让她陷入债务
Any emergency could force her into debt.
而且她没有可以自由支配的收入
And she has no discretionary income
去提高她的家庭的生活水平
to improve her family’s way of living,
应对紧急状况
for emergencies,
或者投资去扩展她的生意
or for investing into growing her business.
假如詹妮弗想要贷款 她的选择也很有限
If Jenipher wants credit, her options are limited.
她可以申请微贷款
She could get a microloan,
但是她一定要组织一个团队 来帮助保证她的可信度
but she’d have to form a group that could help vouch for her credibility.
而且即使如此, 她能贷款的额度也非常小
And even then, the loan sizes would be way too small
以至于不能真正改善她的生意
to really have an impact on her business,
——只有平均150美元
averaging around 150 dollars.
高利贷总是一个选择
Loan sharks are always an option,
但是他们的利息率在300%以上
but with interest rates that are well above 300 percent,
这是经济上的冒险
they’re financially risky.
而且因为詹妮弗 没有抵押或者信用记录
And because Jenipher doesn’t have collateral or a credit history,
她不能到银行去申请商业贷款
she can’t walk into a bank and ask for a business loan.
但是一天
But one day,
詹妮弗的儿子说服她 下载了我们的应用
Jenipher’s son convinced her to download our application
并申请了一笔贷款
and apply for a loan.
詹妮弗用她的手机回答了几个问题
Jenipher answered a few questions on her phone
并给了我们使用她手机上 几个关键数据的权限
and she gave us access to a few key data points on her device.
这就是我们看到的
And here’s what we saw.
那么,先说坏消息
So, bad news first.
詹妮弗储蓄余额低 之前也没有贷款历史
Jenipher had a low savings balance and no previous loan history.
他们是
These are factors
传统银行拒绝贷款的原因
that would have thrown up a red flag to a traditional bank.
但是她的历史中有几点
But there were other points in her history that showed us
向我们更全面地展示了她的潜能
a much richer picture of her potential.
第一点
So for one,
我们看到她定期 给乌干达的家人打电话
we saw that she made regular phone calls to her family in Uganda.
数据显示
Well, it turns out that the data shows
那些经常和亲密的联系人联系的人
a four percent increase in repayment
偿还贷款的可能性要高4%
among people who consistently communicate with a few close contacts.
我们同时也能看到
We could also see
虽然她一天会去到很多地方
that though she traveled around a lot throughout the day,
她实际上有相对固定的路线
she actually had pretty regular travel patterns,
不是在家里就是在食品摊位
and she was either at home or at her food stall.
数据显示
And the data shows a six percent increase in repayment
生活路线规律的人
among customers who are consistent
偿还贷款的可能性要高6%
with where they spend most of their time.
我们也能看到
We could also see that she communicated a lot
她一天和很多不同的人交流
with many different people throughout the day
也就是她有很强的支持网络
and that she had a strong support network.
我们的数据显示
Our data shows
和超过58个不同的人联系的人
that people who communicate with more than 58 different contacts
更容易是及时还款的贷款者
tend to be more likely to be good borrowers.
在詹妮弗的情况中
In Jenipher’s case,
她和89个不同的联系人交流
she communicated with 89 different individuals,
她的偿还可能性又提高了9%
which showed a nine percent increase in her repayment.
这只是上千个我们用来
These are just some of the thousands of different data points
了解一个人的信誉度的 不同数据中的一部分
that we look at to understand a person’s creditworthiness.
在分析所有的数据之后
And after analyzing all of these different data points,
我们走出了第一步
we took the first risk
向詹妮弗提供了贷款
and gave Jenipher a loan.
这些数据不会体现在书面记录
This is data that would not be found on a paper trail
或者其他形式的经济记录中
or in any formal financial record.
但它证明了信任
But it proves trust.
通过看收入以外的方面
By looking beyond income,
我们发现在新兴市场中的人们
we can see that people in emerging markets
表面上看来有风险、不可预测
that may seem risky and unpredictable on the surface
但实际上愿意而且有能力去偿还贷款
are actually willing and have the capacity to repay.
我们的信用评分帮助我们 仅仅在去年一年
Our credit scores have helped us deliver over 200,000 loans in Kenya
在肯尼亚借出超过二十万笔贷款
in just the past year.
我们的偿还贷款的比率在90%以上
And our repayment rates are above 90 percent —
——也就是传统银行的偿还率
which, by the way, is in line with traditional bank repayment rates.
通过一些像信用评分一样简单的东西
With something as simple as a credit score,
我们给人们建设自己未来的能力
we’re giving people the power to build their own futures.
我们的顾客用贷款支付家庭开支、
Our customers have used their loans for family expenses,
紧急情况、旅游、
emergencies, travel
投资扩展自己的生意
and for investing back into growing their businesses.
他们正在建设更加繁荣的经济和社会
They’re now building better economies and communities
在这个社会中更多的人能取得成功
where more people can succeed.
通过过去两年使用我们的产品
Over the past two years of using our product,
詹妮弗的存款增加了60%
Jenipher has increased her savings by 60 percent.
她也开始了两个额外的食品摊位
She’s also started two additional food stalls
而且正在计划开自己的餐馆
and is now making plans for her own restaurant.
她正在从商业银行申请小企业贷款
She’s applying for a small-business loan from a commercial bank,
因为她现在有了 能够证明自己的资格的信用历史
because she now has the credit history to prove she deserves it.
我上星期在内罗毕见到了詹妮弗
I saw Jenipher in Nairobi just last week,
她告诉我她能着手准备有多激动
and she told me how excited she was to get started.
她说:
She said,
“只有我儿子相信我能做到这些, 我都不相信这些都是为我准备的。”
“Only my son believed I could do this. I didn’t think this was for me.”
她曾经以为一部分世界的大门
She’s lived her whole life
已经向她关闭了
believing that there was a part of the world that was closed off to her.
我们的工作就是 向詹妮弗以及像她一样的
Our job now is to open the world to Jenipher
值得被信任的几十亿人口 打开世界的大门
and the billions like her that deserve to be trusted.
谢谢
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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